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Ci^ix^iu, «o 


y « ' .-V 













'* And, Mdnt Cfvy Mtloa affords not esperknee and Ifadilloa enoagb fot all kind of Itarulitg ; 
liMralDra w« an chiefly tancin the langaafti of ihoie people who ha?e at a»y time been most 
I ndmlriom after ifMom.**— • JfilTen. 






010, aAY 2i<4ll 

yC-^ 4 . ^^^^^ '-'^^* y / « '^^ 

Si. Mvy** 8U«t«. 


. >. 

The Editor begs to return his thanks to those 
Tutors and other Gentlemen of the different Col- 
leges who have obliged him by their assistance in 
the compilation of this Work. A second volume is 
in progress, which will contain papers on the New 
Testament, Hebrew Scholarship Papers, specimens 
of examinations for Fellowships and College Scho- 
larships, and an Appendix of Miscellaneous Papers, 
which are omitted in the present volume lest its bulk 
should be inconveniently increased. 





• • • • 

Pitt Scholarship 

Craven Scholarships 

Davies Scholarship 

Batti£» Browne, and Bell Scholarships 

Classical Tripos 

Chancellor's Medal 




Book i. • • . • • • 

.. 105 

Book iv. 

.. 118 

Book vi. • • • • 

.. 120 

Book viii. 

.. U2 

Book ix« • • . . . . 

.. 126 


Book ii. • • . • 

.. ISO 

Book iii. 

.. 138 

Book iv. . • - . • . • 

.. 142 

Book v. 

.. 147 

Book vi. • • . • 

.. 153 

Book vii. 

.. 158 


Anabasis, Book i. • • 

.. 165 

Books i. & ii. 

.. 180 

Books iii. & iv. 

.. 184 

Book vii. 

•• 186 





Memorabilia- Book i. . . 

. 195 

Books i. & ii. 

. 197 


. Olynih, ^ PhiUpp. 

. 205 

De Corond 

. 219 


• 229 



. 234 

Gorgias . . . . ~ • • 

. 236 

Menexenus • . 

. 245 


Ethics. Book ii. . . 

. 260 


Prom. FincL 

. 257 

SepL c. Thebas 

• 267 


. 278 

jigamenuwn • • 

. 282 


. 286 



. 292 


. 305 

(Edipus Colon. 

. 319 


. 325 


. 329 


. 334 


Hecuba ... 

. 342 

Orestes .. 

. 347 


. 352 


. 355 


. 366 

Ipkig. Taur, 

. 373 


. 379 

HOMER. Iliad. Book i. 

. 385 

Books i. & ii. 

. 386 

Books iii. & iv. 

. 391 

Book vi. . . 

. 393 

Books vi. vii, & yiii. , . 

. 395 



HOMER. Iliad. 


Books xi. & xii. . . 
Books xxii. — ^xadv. 
Books i. & ii. 
Books i. — iii. 
Books v. vL & r'n. 
Books v. — viii. 
Books ix. & x. . • 


. 401 

. 404 

. 407 

. 416 

. 419 

. 423 

. 426 

SALLUST. Belktm Cat. 

Bellum Jugwrih. 


Book iii. 
Book xxi. 
Book xxx. 
Book xl. . . 

. 435 

. 440 

. 443 

. 447 

. 460 

. 462 

TACITUS. The Annals. 

The History. 
The Germany 
The Agricola 

Book i. 

Books iv. & v. 
Book xiv. 
Book ▼. 

CICERO. Oratio pro Milone 
PhiL II. 

De Oratore, Book iii. 
Tusc, Disp» Book i. 
De Amicitia 
De Senectute 

De Senectuie et de Amicitia 
De Officiis 


LUCRETIUS. Book vi. 




VIRGIL. Georgics. Book i. 

Books i. & iv. 
Books ii. & iv. 

• • 

• • 






Georgics. Books iiL & iv. 

.. 569 

ASmeid, Book yi. 

.. 571 


Efisilet- Book i. 

.. 575 

Book iL 

.. 580 

Epigi. to Auguttms aad An Poelka 

.. 587 

At9- PocncQ . • 

.. 589 


jSIsI. ill. & X. 

.. 592 

Sai. iii. X. & xiii. 

.. 605 




TuERB are in Cambridge three objects of public competition 
in classical literature, by examination ; the University Scho- 
larships, namely, the Classical Tripos, and the Chancellor's 
Medal. Of these, the examination for University Scholar- 
ships is considered to hold the highest place. The candidates 
are looked upon as men who have given their undivided at- 
tention to classical reading, and composition ; and, therefore, 
the subjects proposed are extended beyond the ordinary 
range of reading throughout the University, and the variety 
of composition introduced is proportionably greater. We 
subjoin a general scheme of the subjects of these examinations. 

I. Translation of Greek prose into English prose, llie 
standard Greek prose books to virhich it is thought expedient 
that Undergraduates should limit their reading, are Herodo- 
tus, Xenophon, Thucydides, Demosthenes, ^schines, Lysias, 
Isocrates ; the Ethics, Rhetoric, and Poetics of Aristotle ; 
the Dialogues of Plato contained in the editions of Stall- 
baum, Bnttmann, Heindorf, and some others. But in order, 
as it is said, to prove the fundamental knowledge of the lan- 
guage, it is sometimes thought proper to set for translation 
passages out of authors not usually read, and seldom or 
never used in the College lecture-rooms. Such are PoIy« 



biasy Longinus, Lacian, DionysiusHal., Athenseus, Plutarch, 
iEIiaiiy Theophrastus, the minor orators, and the less noted 
works of Aristotle and Plato. It is not intended that the 
young men should extend their studies to these books ; and 
the practice itself of introducing them into the public examin- 
ations has been much censured, as tending to produce a 
wandering unsettled mode of reading. For it gives rise to 
the idea, that it is necessary to be in some degree conversant 
with the style of every one of the writers who have at dif- 
ferent times been made subjects of examination. 

II. Translation of Greek verse into Bnglisb prose. The 
usual subjects are Homer, Iliad and Odyssey ; Hesiod ; 
Pindar ; the three tragedians ; Aristophanes ; Theocritus, and 
the minor pastoral poets. Sometimes the Homeric hymns ; 
Callimachus ; ApoUonius Rhodius ; and of late years it has 
been the fashion to introduce fragments of the comic poets 
from Athenaeus. 

III. A piece of English prose is given to be translated 
into Greek. It is sometimes required to adopt the Ionic 
dialect. Accentuation is generally insisted upon. 

IV. A passage, usually from Shakspeare or Milton, into 
Greek verse. The metre is generally Tragic Iambic ; some- 
times Tragic Trochaic ; sometimes Anapaestic ; rarely Heroic ; 
and still more seldom Comic Iambic. The Sapphic metre 
has not been used of late years. 

V. The Latin prose authors commonly admitted are 
Cicero, Livy, Tacitus, Ccesar, Sallust, Nepos; sometimes 
we see Quintilian, either Pliny, Seneca, Q. Curtias, Val. 
Maximus, and other less approved writers. 

VI. The Latin poets considered admissible are Virgil, 
Horace, Ovid, Lucretius, Terence, Plautus, Catullus, Tibul- 
lus, Propertius, Juvenal, Persius and Lucan. 


VII. A subject is given for an original copy of Latin Heroic 
or Elegiac verse, generally the former. A piece of English 
verse is also set to be translated into either of these metres. 
And a chorus from one of the Greeic tragedians, or a passage 
from Pindar, is required to be rendered into Latin lyrics. 

VII I. A Latin theme is to be virritten on a given subject. 
And a piece of English prose is set to be translated into Latin 

IX. A general paper, containing questions in history, ar- 
chaeology, and criticism ; difficult passages from different 
authors to be explained and illustrated; corrupt places to be 
corrected according to acknowledged canons of criticisms, 
&c. This highly useful part of the examinations is gradually 
falling into disuse, and instead of it, questions arising out of 
the passages set, are attached to each paper. 





The examination for all the University Scholarships, pro- 
perly so called, is much the same ; bat a greater distinction 
is attached to the attainment of the Pitt than of any of the 
others, both on account of its less frequent recurrence than 
some, and of its pecuniary value greater than any. It is tena- 
ble until its possessor is of M.A. standing, and its annual 
value is about £75. Any Undergraduate may beacandi- 
datej whose standing does not exceed three years since his 
first residence. 

I. Translate into Latin Prose. 

We may generally observe a pretty nice proportion between the 
strength of reason and passion ; the greatest geniuses have com- 
monly the strongest affections, as, on the other hand, the weaker 
understandings have generally the weaker passions ; and it is fit the 
fury of the Coursers should not be too great for the strength of the 
Charioteer. Young men whose passions are not a little unruly, give 
small hopes of their ever being considerable ; the fire of youth will 
of course abate, and is a fault, if it be a fault, that mends every day ; 
but surely, unless a man has fire in his youth, he can hardly have 
warmth in old age. We must therefore be very cautious, lest while 
we think to regulate the passions, we should quite extinguish them, 
which is putting out the light of the soul ; for to be without passion, 
or to be hurried away with it, makes a man equally blind* The 
extraordinary severity used in most of our schools has this fatal 
effect, it breaks the spring of the mind, and most certainly destrop 
more good geniuses than it can possibly improve. And surely it 
is a mighty mistake that the passions should be so entirely subdued : 
for little irregularities are sometimes not only to be borne with, but 
to be cultivated too, since they are frequently attended with the 
greatest perfections. All great geniuses have faults mixed with 
their virtues, and resemble the flaming bush which has thorns 
amongst lights. 



II. Into English Prose. 
Tacit. Anna], xv. 62—63. 

" Ille interritus poscit testamend invertere supersedeo." 

III. Sabject for Latin Theme. 

" Nam neque illud ipsum quod est optimum desperandum* et in 
pTssentibus rebus magna sunt ea qus sunt optimis proxinuu" 

IV. Into English Prose. 

Thucyd. V. c. 7. *0 ^e KXewv rihfc—^Bid ro ifnifwy. 
lb. c. 89 — 90. 'H/icIc Tolrw xapdieiyfia yivoiade. 

Demostb. de Chersonesa §. 72 — 77. Eira ^rialy oc ay rvxrf 

drsrl^Ooyoy elreiy. 

V. Into Greek Iambics. 

He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he 
that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth. 

The whole earth is at rest and is quiet, they break forth into 
singing. Yea, the fir-trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Leba- 
non, saying. Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against 

Hell from beneath is moved for thee, to meet thee at thy coming : 
it stirreth up for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth : it 
hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations. 

All they shall speak and say unto thee. Art thou also become 
weak as we ? Art thou become like unto us ? 

Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy 
viols : the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. 

How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning ! 
How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the 
nations I 

For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will 
exalt my throne above the stars of God. 

Yet shalt thou be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. 

They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider 
thee, saying. Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that 
did shake kingdoms ; 

That made the World as a wilderness, an4 destroyed the cities 
thereof, that opened not the house of his prisoners ? 



VI . Into Latin Elegiacs. 

Go, lovely Rose, 
Tell her that wastes her time and ma» 

That now she knows. 
When I resemble her to thee, 
How sweet and fair she seems to be. 

Tell her that's young, 
And shuns to have her graces spied» 

That hadst thou sprung 
In deserts, where no men abide, 
Thou must have uncommended died. 

Small is the worth 
Of beauty from the light retired ; 

Bid her come forth, 
Sufier herself to be desired. 
And not bluah so to be admired. 

Then die, that she , 
The common fate of all things rare 

May read in thee : 
How small a part of time they share. 
That are so wondrous sweet and Mr, 

VII. General Paper. 

1. Give an account of the foundation of the principal citiei of 
Greecci and of the colonies, which at different periods proceeded 
from Lacedflemon. 

2. Determine from internal evidence the tiipes, in which Homer 
and Hesiod probably lived. To what age do you assign the 
Homeric hymns? To whom do you attribute the division of the 
Iliad into books? Give an account of the religion and government 
of the Grecians, as portrayed by Homer. 

9. What means remain to us for arranging the chronology of the 
early nges of Greece ? What dates do you assign to the following 
events :—The Argonautie Expedition, the Trojan Warf the Ionic 
Migration, the Return of the Heracleids, the Legislation of Lycurgus? 


How do Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon describe the 
time of events? 

4. YihsLt was the population of Athens in citizens and slaves in 
the time of Pericles, and of Demetrius Phalereus ? What were the 
pecuniary, military, and naval resources of the Athenians at the 
commencement of the Peloponnesian war^ and in the time of De- 
mosthenes ? Give an account, from Herodotus, of the invasion of 
Scythia by Darius ; from Thucydides, of the Sicilian expedition* 

5. State in their order the subjects of education, which were 
pursued at Athens in the time of Aristophanes, and the efiects pro- 
duced in the opinion of that poety and of Plato. 

Explain, as to their construction or allusions, the following passa- 
ges of diat Poet: 

ele TO Qritnlov irXcov^aic ijirl twv tufivQv BiQv, £q. 1 900. 
aye iij trv ^pdoov ifwk 9a^c» ^pOQ rovrovl^ 
iya fill tre fiw^na ^fifia 2ap^mvucDv. AcHAR. 111. 
rov filov 0* e{E|3aXe ^iy/ia, rdSt rd irrepa irpd r(Sy Bvpav, 

AcHAR. 977. 

*Avrlfiaxov roy ^aiccUoc 

apXicEuy 6 Zevi, Achar. 1150. 
dXX* ot^^ (Soy re rov Da^Xoydv* ovBiy XaOelv, 
rw Xei^ iy Alr&iXocc, o Bi yovg iy KKiawi^y» Eq. 74. 
\lnf\(uy (To^y rovr tWl ^poire^n/pcov. NvB. 94. 
dff)(aid ye Kal ^iroKui^rf, xai TETTiytay dydfutna, 
Kol Ki|ice/&w, Kol "Bov^lwy* NuB. 983. 

6. Lycias, Andocides, Hyperides, Antiphon. Give a brief 
acooont of these orators, and an analysis of the speech of Lycurgus 
against Leocrates. 

7* What dialects were spoken at Thebes, Corinth, Argos, 
Lesbos, Samos, Crete, Sicily? Do you know any passage, whicK 
illuitrates the difierence between the Old and New Attic? Trace 
the Snrmation of the Latin language, and give instances of its gra- 
dnal improvement £rom works which remain to us. 

8. What changes did the Roman consdtution undergo from the 
expulsion of the Kings to the time of the first Pumc war? 

9. Give the circumstances and dates of the following events, as 


(1) By Livy,— destruction of Alba, l>att]e of Allia, battle of 

Thraaimene, reduction of Macedonia. 

(2) By Sallust,—- defeat and death of Catiline. 

(3) By Tacitus,~mutiny of legions in Pannonia, reign ot 

Galba, battle of Bebriacum. 
IVbat is your opinion of the style of these historians? What is 
known of their private history ? 

1 0. Give an account of the dramatic representations of the Ro- 
mans. Explain the difference between the Greek and Roman mimi. 

11. (1 ) Point out tlie metrical errors of the following lines, and 
give Porson*s corrections of them: 

Kol KOT avro tovto 2i| fwvoy av^fxc ye fiaxtfjuaram* 

Vesp. 1062. 
vij nv 'AvoXXw, rovro yi roi rf wyl Xoyy cJ irpo<rifwmQ, 

Nub. 372. 
vvv avFC Xi^t irponxtre rov kovv, timp tadapov rt ^cXccre. 

Vesp. 1015. 
(2) State the substance of the remarks made on the following 
lines by the editor whose name is annexed : 
icajpBivov^ ifij re fifirpl irapeBwKtv rpi^iv* On. 64. Port, 
ov /iijv eXi{ac y dfupii trov XfCipaq yorv. Phcen. 1638. Port. 
rd fiiy XeKektcu, rtSy ^ cyiJ fitnia^irofjuu, MsD. 929. Port, 
oiroea Kitraog ^pvoc, Swiac liitr^ OofJuu, Hec. 398. Pari. 
oorecy irpcv dy^poc inr\dy\yov ixfiddii ffo^Ct 
oTvytl ci^opKbit. Med. 215. Ehn*, 
KarioxtT iKXivovrtg £v/3f>2' dxrav. Heracl. 84. ElfM, 

rd iroXXa hi 
iraXac irpoKO}pair\ ov iroycv iroXXov fu del. Hip. 23. Monk* 
€1 ^ ev (rifiovtn rovs irokLiraovxpvg 6eovc* AoAH. 329. Biom, 

12. Support by quotations or references the answers you give to 
the following questions : — Is the particle ay admissible with a 
present or perfect indicative, or with a future optative ? — With what 
moods is '* ay duplicata** most frequently joined; is there any mood 
with which it is never joined ? With what tenses of the infinitive 
mood is fiiXXM admitted, in its senses of "futurus sum'* and 
" cunctor ?" Can od fiii be joined with a first aorist of the sub- 
junctive active ? Ezplam the difference of meaning between ov fiif 
with an interrogative future of the indicative, and an aorist of the 


subjunctive. State your opinion as to the accuracy of the following 

observations : 

<*iSv non omitti potest post rvyxdvw** 
** 1 in dativo neque singulari neque plurali eliditur." 
**pK et y\ syllabam praecedentem semper producunt." 
*^6ir(a^ ay atafrpcUy solsBCum est*** 

VIII. Into Greek Prose. 

If twenty thousand naked Indians were not able to resist the 
assaults of but twenty well-arm'd Spaniards, I see but little possi- 
bility for one honest man to defend himself against twenty thousand 
knaves, who are all furnished cap-a-pce, with the defensive arms of 
worldly prudence, and thei.ofiensive^oo qjf^ craft and malice. »He 
will find no less odds than this against him, if he have much to do 
in human affairs. The only advice therefore which I can give him, 
iS| to be sure not to venture his person any longer in the open fields 
to retreat and entrench himself, to stop up all avenues, and break 
down all bridges against so numerous an enemy. The truth of it 
18, that a man in much business must either make himself a knave, 
or else the world will make him a fool ; and if the injury went no 
fiurther than the being laugh'd at, a wise man would content himself 
with the revenge of retaliation ; but the case is much worse, for 
these civil cannibals too, as well as the wild ones, not only dance 
about such a taken stranger, but at last devour him. 


I. Translate into Greek Iambics. 

CoMus. What chance, good Lady, hath bereft you thus ? 

Lady. Dim darkness, and this leafy Labyrinth. 

CoMus. Could that divide you from near ushering guides f 

Ladt. They left me weary on a grassy turf. 

Coitus. By falsehood, or discourtesie, or why? 

Ladt. To seek i* th* Valley some cool friendly Spring. 

CoMus. And left your fair side all unguarded, Lady? 

Ladt. They were but twain, and purposed quick return. 

CoMvs. Perhaps fora-stalling night prevented them. 

Lady. How easie my misfortune is to hit! ' 


C0MV6. Imports their Iom, beside the present need ? 

Lady. No less then if I should my brothers lose. 

CoMus. Were they of manly prime, or yoathfiil bloom ! 

Lady. As smooth as Hebe's their mirasor'd lips. 

CoMus. Two such I saw, what time the labour*d Oxe 
In his loose traces from the furrow came, 
And the swink't hedger at his supper sat ; 
I saw them under a green mantling Vine 
That crawls along the side of yon small hill, 
Pluddng ripe dusters from the tender shoots. 

Into Greek AnapsBsts. 

Nymphs and shepherds dance no more 
, By sandy Ladon's lillied banks. 

On old Lycseus or CyUcne hoar. 

Trip no more in twilight ranks, 
Though Erjrmanth your loss deplore, 

A better soil shall give ye thanks. 
From the stony Maenalus, 
Bring your Flocks, and live with us, 
Here ye shall have greater grace, 
To serve the Lady of this place. 

1 1 . Translate into English Prose. 

Eurip. Androm. 1098.— 1039. 
Kavravff *Opiarou 

•^arydyf nnrcic. 

Into English Prose and Latin Lyrics. 
iEsch. Agamem. 6S5 — 713. 
'IXiw, r^&c— 

■iaiT wciXawro^ erevjav. 

III. Translate into English Prose. 
Cic Tusc Disp. iii. 18. 

"Habes formam Epicuri cum osperfricuisti solesdicere." 

. Tacit. Ann. xiii. S3. 

'^Deferuntur consensisse nomina retrahebat." 


Cic. ad Att. v. 2L 

^'Familiares habet Brutus tuna jus ex ilia Byngrapha 


IV. Translate into English Prose. 
Lucret. iii. 883—906. 

" Proinde ubi se videas 

obtritum pondere terra." 

Into Latin Elegiacs. 

Fond soother of my infant tear ! 

Fond sharer of my infant joy ! 
Is not thy shade still lingering here ? 

Am I not still thy soul's employ ? 

And oh ; as oft, at close of day, 

When, meeting on a sacred mount, 
Our nymphs awak'd the choral lay. 

And danc*d around Gassotis' foimt ; 

As then 'twas all thy wish and care, 

That mine should he the simplest mien, 

My lyre and voice the sweetest there, 
My foot the lightest o'er the green : 

So still, each little grace to mould. 

Around my form thine eyes are shed, 
Arranging every snowy fold, 
And guiding every mazy tread ! 

And, when I lead the hymning choir, 
Thy spirit still, unseen and free, 
Hovers between my lip and lyre, 
And weds them into harmony ! 
(SuppoHd to he sung by a Virgin of Delphi at her Mother's tomb.) 

V. Subject for Latin Theme. 

" Ille potens sui 

Laetusque deget, cui licet in diem 
Dixisse Vixi— •" 


VI. Translate into English Prose. 

Horn. II. xi. 54S— 570. 
Zcvc ^ iranyp 'Atay^' 

•t ' 


Arlstoph. Pax. 4S4 — 449. 561 — 580. 
it/Bioi xpiBdi fiovoQ 

Nvv fiiy oiy Jv^c- 

■n|V Ocov irpo9€lirar£. 

VII. Translate into Latin Prose. 

If, in the first formation of a civil society, the only care to be 
taken was tliat of establishing, once for all, the several duties which 
every individual owes to others and to the state ; — ^if those who are 
intrusted with the care of procuring the performance of these duties, 
had neither any ambition, nor any other private passions, which such 
employment might put in motion, and furnish the means of gratify- 
ing ; — ^in a word, if, looking upon their function as a mere task of 
duty, they were never tempted to deviate from the intentions of 
those who had appointed them : — I confess, that, in such a case, 
there might be no inconvenience in allowing every individual to 
have a share in the government of the community of which he is a 
member ; or rather, I ought to say, in such a society, and among 
such beings, there would be no occasion for any government. 

But experience teaches us, that many more precautions, indeed, 
are necessary to oblige men to be just towards each other ; nay, the 
very first expedients that may be expected to conduce to such an 
end, supply the most fruitful source of the evils which are proposed 
to be prevented. Those laws which were intended to be equal for 
all, are soon warped to the private convenience of those who have 
been made the administrators of them: instituted at first for the 
protection of all, they soon are made only to defend the usurpa- 
tions of a few ; and, as the people continue to respect them, while 
those to whose guardianship they were intrusted make little account 
of them, they at length have no other effect than that of supplying 
the want of real strength in those few who have contrived to place 
themselves at the head of the community, and of rendering regular 
and firee from danger the tyranny of the smaller number over the 


To remedy, therefore* the evils which thus have a tendency to 
result from the very nature of things — to oblige those who are in a 
manner masters of the law to conform themselves to it — to render 
ine£fectual the silent, powerful, and ever-active conspiracy of those 
who govern, requires a degree of knowledge, and a spirit of per- 
severance, which are not to be expected from the multitude. 

VIII. Subject for Latin Verse. " Hibernia. 


IX Translate into English Prose. 

Aristotel. Tiepl 'Arairv. 9. 

Dionys. Halicarn. de Idiomat. Thucyd. §. 2. 

X. Translate into English Prose. 

1 . Herod, vii. S6. *Ei^£vyyvaay ie J& rwy Pvpklytty. 

Id. vi. 67. Ile/Liipac roy Oepawoyra to /SaviXivny. 

Id. iii. 155, E2 fiiy toI virepenOca alpeofuv Ba/3tiXi5va. 

2. Thucyd. vii. 71. "O re ek r^c y^c 9 dwi/iXXvyro. 

Id. V* 30. Jkowelrw SertQ irokifi^ r^he yeytyrffuyo^- 

9. Xenoph. Hellen. ii. 3, 14. OS Si eiret rriy ^povpciv— - 

r o v e {vvcXOovrac \afi0dyeiy, 

4. Translate and explain iropiooyuau, yap iylvo, 

5. Translate, x^'P* ^ M^T* axf»eu>ycXwc, o/4cXe race itriP^£, Ex- 
plain and derive Mfiiaig. Explain the metre of the line, giving 
its name, inventor, restrictions and variations. 

6. Translate, Ilorrdy kot/^ oltatrofAcu iv *AfivKKalov, Topayyik' 
Xuin (idpoucec iroXKol K&proi koL crdw/ioc fidXa dive, 

7. In the Herodotus 

a. Explain and derive vro^viriy. 

h. Investigate the formation of vreperWea, 

8. In the Thucydides. 

c. Investigate the use of eV roec, and say in what writers it 

is found. 

d. Explain the rpw-ff. 

9. '* Either Demosthenes* or ^schines, or both, lie very prettily 
about the debates in the Ecdesia. A glaring instance, in their ac- 


counts of the speeches about the Peace,'* ^-Doh. What Peace was 
this ? and what was, substantially, the difference between the ac- 
counts of the two Orators ? 

10. Point out some of the most remarkable examines in Mit- 
ford*s History of Greece, either (1.) of misrepresentation, or (2.) of 

1 1 . Give a brief account of the Lamian War, its date (in 01. and 
B. C.) origin, events, and consequences. 

Translate into Greek Prose ((be accentuation to be carefully 
attended to). 

It has lately been a fashion to pay a compliment to tlie bravery and 
generosity of the Commander-in-chief at theexpence of his under- 
standing. They who love him least make no question of his cour- 
rage ; while his friends dwell chiefly on the facility of his disposi- 
tion. Admitting him to be as brave as a total absence of feeling 
and reflection can make him, let us see what sort of merit he de- 
rives from the remainder of his character. Nature has been sparing 
of her g^fb to this noble Lord ; but where birth and fortune are 
united, we expect the noble pride and independence of a msn of 
spirit, not the servile humiliating complaisance of a courtier. 


The annual value of these Scholarships is £50. and tliey 
are tenable for seven years.* The qualification for candi- 
dates is the same in this, and the two following scholarships, 
as in the Pitt. 


I. Translate into English Prose. 

Cic. de Off. iii. 12 — 1.1. " Si vir bonus Alexandria Rhodum 

vitiorum nomina subire ?*' 

* Sec in the Cambridge Calendar, the regulations respecting the Uni- 
venity Scliolartbips, confirmed by a Grace of the Senate 181 7« 


Into English Prose or Verse. 

Per». V. 73 — 128. " Libertate opus est 

Sfttyri moveare Bathylli." 

II. Sobject for Latin Theme. 4 

"Dicimus aatem 


Ho8 quoque feKces, qui fenre inoommoda Tite 
Necjactare jugum vitAdidicere magiatrft." 

III. The following into Latin Prose. 

L. Caesar, the uncle of Antony, and Paulus, the brother of Lepi- 
doB, were included in the proscription. The flatterers of Augustus 
endeavoured to palliate, as an act of hard necessity, his abandon- 
ing Cicero to the revenge of Antony ; as if there could remain any 
feeling towards Cicero, but that of shame and aversion in one who 
had made himself the accomplice of Antony and Lepidus for the 
subversion of the Republic. 

Neither L. Ceesar nor P. Lepidus were deprived of life. But 
Antony's anger neither cooled nor slumbered: his illustrious victim 
was overtaken near to his Formian villa, in the sixty-fourth year of 
his age, as he was preparing to take ship. 

The rarest natural endowments cultivated by study^ and sharpen- 
ed by the business of an active life, gave to Cicero a distinguished 
rank in this age of extraordinary men : with powers of speaking 
beyond what had been heard in his own country, and perhaps not 
inferior to those which ever adorned any other, he possessed in a 
degree superior to all other orators, of whatever age or nation^ a 
general and extensive knowledge of all subjects of science, philoso- 
phy and literature, together with an admirable felicity of com- 
municating and recording the fruits of his researches, in the most 
perspicuous, the most copious, and the most attractive manner. 
To those who delight in levelling whatever is eminent, and in 
exposing the weaknesses of exalted characters it must be con- 
ceded, that in adversity he did not preserve that constancy which 
has given dignity to the misfortunes of some stronger ^ minds 
struggling against a sea of troubles ; and that his exalted talents» 
although not overrated even by his own partiality, would have 
commanded greater admiration, and deserved higher respect, 


bad he himself appeared less conscious of them: but it must 
be remembered that he showed no timidity when the discharge of 
public duties placed him in situations of great personal danger ; that 
no degenerate expression escaped him when the assasin*s dagger 
was at his throat ; and that his love of praise never led him to 
court popularity by unworthy arts, nor diverted him from pur- 
suing that course which he judged to be the best for his country. !V. 

The following into Latin Heroic Verse. 

Oh thou dread night ! what new and awful signs 
Crowd thy portentous hours^ so calm in heav'n, 


With all thy stars and full-orb*d moon serene 
Sleeping on crystal and pellucid clouds ! 
How terrible on earth I as I rush'd down 
The vacant stair, nor heard a living sound, 
Save mine own bounding footstep, all at once 
Methought Euphrates' rolling waters sank 
Into the earth ; the gilded galleys rock'd, 

And plunged and settled in the sandy depths ; ^ 

And the tall bridge upon its lengthening pier 
Seem*d to bestride a dark unfathom*d gulf. 
Then, where blue waters and the ivory decks 
Of royal vessels, and their silver prows. 
Reflected the bright lights of heav'n, they shone 
Upon the glancing armour, helms, and spears 
Of a vast army : then the stone-pav'd walls 
Bang with the weight of chariots, and the gates 
Of brass fell down with ponderous clang: then sank 
0*er the vast city one sepulchral silence, 
As though the wondering conqueror scarce believed 
His easy triumph. But ye revellers 
That lay at rest upon your festal garments. 
The pleasant weariness of wine and joy, 
' And the sweet dreams of your scarce-ended pleasures. 
Still hanging o*er your silken couches ! ye 
Woke only, if ye woke indeed, to see 
The Median scimitar that, red with blood, 
Flash'd o*er you, or the blaae of fir? that wrapt 


In sulphurous folds the chambers of your rest. 
Oh Lord of Hosts ! in thine avenging hour 
How dreadful art thou ! Pardon if I weep 
When all my grateful heart should beat with joy 
For my deliverance* 

IV. Translate into English Prose. 

Homer. Odyss. xiv. 418 — 434. 
'Qe apa t^vfjaac txaat 

Aristoph. £q. 746 — 768. 

Kal fifjv TToiijaa^ 

'hoTfLrfieifiy re XcVa^va. 
Soph. Trachin. 810—859. 

li aiy a^fwr«c— — 

t . / 

— — — e<pavri irpaterutp. 
And the chorus into Latin Lyrics also. 

V. Subject for Latin Verse, Heroic or Elegiac. 
'*Syris urbes terrae motibus prostrats." 

VI. Translate into English Prose. 

^schin. De Falsd. Leg. sub fin. 

KdfjuH fuv ovvBtriaofuyoi irdpeitriy vfjuSy^——'Ka\ iyia, rai o 


Herod, vii. 129 — 130. 

VII. Translate into Greek Hexameters. 

Milton's Paradise Lost. vi. 296. 

They ended parle, and both address'd for fight 

Unspeakable ; for who, though with the tongue 

Of angels, can relate, or to what things 

Liken on earth conspicuous, that may lift 

Human imagination to such height 

Of godlike power ? for likest gods they seem'd, 

Stood they or mov*dy in stature, motion, arms, 

Fit to decide the empire of great Heav'n. 



Now wav'd tbfeir fiery swords, and in the air 
Made horrid circles : two broad suns their shields 
Blaz'd opposite, while expectation stood 
In horror : frcm each hand with speed rethr'd, 
Where erst was thickest fight, th' angelic throng, 
And left large field, unsafe within the wind 
Of such commotion ; such as, to set forth 
Great things by small, iQ Nature's concord broke. 
Among the constellations war were sprung. 
Two planets rushing from aspect malign 
Of fiercest opposition in mid sky 
Should combat, and their jarring spheres confound. 
Together'both with next to almighty arm 
Uplifted imminent, one stroke they aim'd 
That might determine, and not need repeat. 
As not of power at once ; nor odds appear'd 
' In might or swift prevention : but the sword 
Of Michael, from the armoury of God, 
Was given him tempered so, that neither keen 
Nor solid might resist that edge: it met 
The sword of Satan with steep force to smite 
Descending, and in half cut sheer ; nor stay'd, 
But with swift wheel reverse deep entVing shar*d 
All his right side : than Satan first knew pain. 
And writh'd him to and fro convolv'd ; so sore 
The griding sword with discontinuous wound 
Pass'd through him : but the ethereal substance clos'd. 
Not long divisible ; and from the gash 
A stream of nectarous humour issuing fiow'd 
Sanguine, such as celestial spirits may bleed, 
And all his armour stain'd ere while so bright. 

Into Greek Anapaests. 

Milton's Arcades. 

Look, Nymphs and Shepherds, look, 
What sudden blaze of majesty 
Is that which we from hence descry, 
Too divine to be miatook ! 


This, this is she 

To whom oar tows and wishes hend ; 

Here our solemn search hath end. 

Fame, that, her high worth to raisei 

Seem'd erst so lavish and profuse* 

We may justly now accuse 

Of detraction from her praise ; 

Less than half we find ezprest, 

Envy hid conceal the rest. 

Mark what radiant state she spteadst 

In circle round her shining thronci 

Shooting her beams like silver threada; 

This, this is 3he alone, 

Sitting like a goddess bright, 

In the centre of her light. 

Might she the wise Latona be. 

Or the towered Cybele* 

Mother of a hundred gods ; 

Juno dares not give her odds. 

Who had thought this clime had held 

A deity so onparallel'd ? 

Vin. Translate into Greek Prose. 

It may not be improper to say a word of the excellencies and 
defects of Aristophanes; especially as some modem critics have 
diought proper not only to greet him with the title of a scurrilous 
and indecent buffoon, but to wonder how such monstrous farces 
could be endured by the chaste ears of an Attic audience. That 
many should have been greatly exasperated with Aristophanes, 
for publicly exhibiting Socrates on the stage, and making him 
speak and act in a manner most inconsistent with his known cha- 
nteter, is not surprising; but as the accusation urged by some 
againat the poet, of being instrumental to Socrates*s deatli, has 
hoan substantially refuted by many critics ; so one of them has 
very judiciously observed, with regard to the other part of the 
charge, that Socrates is not so much the object of ridicule in the 
Comedy of the Clouds, as the philosophers in general, who, of 

whatever benefit the lessons and example of Socrates himself might 



be to the state, were, from their idle lives, their minute, ridiculoQs, 
and sometimes impious disquisitions, highly prejudicial to their 
disciples, and, by consequence, to the public. — Of the indecency 
which abounds in Aristophanes, unjustifiable as it certainly is, it 
may however be observed, that different ages differ extremely in 
their ideas of this offence. Among the antients, plain-speaking 
was the fashion; nor was that ceremonious delicacy introduced, 
which has taught men to abuse each other with the utmost polite- 
ness, and express the most indecent ideas in the most modest 
language. In all Aristophanes*s indecency there is nothing that 
can allure, but much that must deter. He never dresses up the 
most detestable irices in an amiable light ; but generally, by des- 
cribing them in their native colours, makes the reader disgusted 
with them. His abuse of the most eminent citizens may be 
accounted for upon similar principles. Besides, in a Republic, 
freedom of speech was deemed an essential privilege of a citizen. 
Demosthenes treats his adversaries with such language as would, 
in our days, be reckoned scurrilous enough ; but it passed, in those 
days, without any notice or reprehension. The world is since 
greatly altered for the better. We have, indeed, retained the 
matter, but judiciously rejected what was offensive in the manner. 
In his plots too, it must be owned, Aristophanes is sometimes 
faulty. It ought however to be observed, that his contempoibry 
comic poets did not pique themselves upon the artful management 
of the plot. Aristophanes has therefore the usual failing of dra- 
matic writers, to introduce speeches, and even scenes, not much 
conducing to the business of the drama. — To sum up Aristo- 
phanes's character, if we consider his just and severe ridicule of 
the Athenian foibles, his detestation of the expensive and ruinous 
war in which Greece was engaged ; his pointed invectives against 
the factious and interested demagogues, by whom the populace was 
deluded, *' who hauled for freedom in their senseless mood ;" his 
contempt of the useless and frivolous enquiries of the Sophists ; 
his wit, and versatility of style; the astonishing playfulness, 
originality, and fertility of his imagination ; the great harmony of 
his versification, whenever the subject required it, and his most 
refined elegance of language ; we shall look over his blemishes, 
and allow that, with all his faults, he might be a very good Citizen, 
and was certainly an excellent Poet. — R. Porson. 


IX. General Paper. 

I. Give an account of the sera of the Olympiads, the Julian 
^ra, and the Chronicle of the Arundel Marbles : and explain the 
principles of Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology. 

^. Give a short History of the Dorians. What parts of Greece, 
of Asia, of Sicily, and of Italy were possessed by Dorians ? 
S. Give a short History of the Council of Amphictyons. 

4. Give an account of the Origin, Learning, Religion, and Au- 
thority of the Druids. 

5. Give an account of the institution of the Census, and of the 
division and subdivision of the Roman people ascribed to Servius 
TuUius. What are the computed qualifications (Roman and Eng- 
lish money) of the several classes ? 

6. Give an account of Fable : of ^sop the Fabulist, and of the 
book called ^sop's Fables. 

7. State concisely what is known of the age and lives of the 
following poets: Lycophron, Callimachus, Oppianus, Sappho, 
Alcseus, Simonides, Bion and Moschus. What is the character of 
their poetry ? Which of their works, or parts of their works are 

8* Define Tragedy, and describe the parts, which in the opinion 
of Aristotle are necessary to constitute Tragedy. 

9. State the distinction between Accent and Quantity. Explain 
the Nature and Use of Accents in the Greek Language. 

10. Make a brief statement of the rules in the Iambic, Trochaic, 
and Anapaestic Metres of the Tragedians. 

I I. Explain briefly the principal uses of the Greek Article. 

12. Give a short account of the< Corruptions and Disuse of the 
Latin Language. 

13. Make a brief statement of the administration of Pisistratus. 

14. Give a short sketch of the characters of Mecaenas and 

15. Give an account of the origin and Use of Hieroglyphics. 

16. Explain the Athenian and Roman method of computing 


' I. Into English Prose. 

Thucyd. vii. 77. '£ri «u eic rwv irtipoyruy — dylpwv ttvai* 

II. Into Latin Elegiac Verse. 

Farewell, too little and too lately known, 

Whom I began to think and call my own ; 

For sure our souls were near allied, and thine 

Cast in the same poetic mould with mine. 

One common note on either lyre did strike. 

And knaves and fools we both abhorred alike ; 

To the same goal did both our studies drive — 

The last set out the soonest did arrive : 

Thus Nisus fell upon the slippery place, 

Whilst hi^ young friend performed, and won the race. 

— O early ripe ! to thy abundant store 

What could advancing age have added more ? 

It might (what nature never gives the young) 

Have taught the smoothness of thy native tongue ; 

But satire needs not that, and wit will shine 

Through the harsh cadence of a rugged line : — 

A noble error, and but seldom made, 

When poets are by too much force betrayed. 

Thy generous fruits, though gathered fere their prime. 

Still shewed a quickness ; and maturing time 

But mellows what we write, to the dull sweets of rhyme. 

— Once more, hail and farewell ; farewell, thou young. 

And ah too short, Marcel! us of our tongue ! 

Thy brows with ivy, and with laurels bound ; 

But fate and gloomy night encompass thee around. 

Into English Prose. 

Hor. ii. Sat. vi.' 20 — 58. 
Matutiue pater 

-altique silenti. 


III. Into Latin Prose. 

But i«'hen the night covered them, the King found means to 
withdraw himself with ^ one or two of his own servants; whom he 
likewise discharged, when it hegan to be h'ght ; and after he had 
made them cut off his hair, he betook himself alone into an adjacent 
wood, and relied only upon him for his preservation who alone 

could, and did miraculously deliver him « It is great 

pity that there was never a journal made of that miraculous de- 
liverance, in which there might be seen so many visible impressions 
of the immediate hand of God. When the darkness of the night 
was over, after the King had cast himself into that wood, he dis- 
cerned another man, who had gotten upon an oak in the same wood, 
near the place where the King had rested himself, and had slept 
soundly. The man upon the tree had first seen the King, and 
knew him, and came down to him, and was known to the King, 
being a gentleman of the neighbour country of Staffordshire, who 
had served his late Majesty during the war, and had now been one 
of the few who resorted to the King after his coming to Worcester. 

He persuaded the King, since it could not be safe 

for him to go out of the wood, and that, as soon as it should be 
fuUy light, the wood itself would probably be visited by those of 
the country, who would be searching to, find those whom they 
might make prisoners, that he would get up into that tree, where 
he had been ; where the boughs were ao thick with leaves, that a 
man would not be discovered there without a narrower enquiry 
than people usually make in places which they do not suspect. 
The King thought it good counsel; and, with the other's help, 
climbed into the tree ; and then helped his companion to ascend 
after him ; where they sate all that day, and securely saw many 
who came purposely into the wood to look after them, and ^heard 
all their discourse,' how they would use the King himself if they 

could take him The day being spent in the tree, it 

was not in the King's power to forget that he had lived two days 
with eating very little, and two nights with as little sleep ; so that^ 
when the night came, he was willing to make some provision for 
both : and )ie resolved, with the advice and assistance of his com- 
panion, to leave his blessed tree ; and, when the night was dark, 
they walked through the wood into those indosures which were 


farthest from any highway, and making a shift to get over hedges 
and ditches, after walking at least eight or nine miles, which were 
the more grievous to the King hy the weight of his boots, (for he 
could not put them off, when he cut off his hair, for want of shoes,) 

before morning they came to a poor cottage The 

poor man (the owner of the cottage) had nothing for him to eat, 
but promised him good buttermilk ; and so he was once more lefb 
alone, his companion, how weary soever, departing from him be- 
fore day, the poor man of the house knowing no more, than that he 
was a friend of the captain's, and one of those who had escaped 
from Worcester. 


IV. Subject for Latin Verse " Navarino." 

V. Into English Prose. 

Polybius. V. 84. "Eiret hi xcLplfay ij« , eWicXivc. 

Id. viii. 9. oicrta yap /if vac Svporoc ^y Apyifui^fic 

VI. Into English Prose. 

Theocr. xvi. 65—93. 

Qdtrai, Upa^ivBa 

•role ^iOpUtaain 

Horn. II. xxiii, 326—345. 
"^rilia hi roi ipiw 

-ov^£ TopiXBoi. 

Pind. Nem. ii. 11.— usque ad fin. 

VII. Into English Prose. 
Tacit. Hist. v. 6. 

** Terra finesque aut saxa, discindi." 

Plin. Hist. Nat. xxi. 5. 

'*Lilium rosae nobilitate r-r^mittente bulbos." 

Cic. De Repub. ii. 34. 

*'Fuerat fortasse aliqu^afratio,— ^— consilio,re tuebantur." 

VIII. Into English Prose. 
Plat. Ci^atyl. 

*AXX' ovce yvwffiy ilvai '"xpiifJLara i^toBai, 


Aristot. £th. i. 6. * 

Demosth. de Coron. p« 260. Ed. Reiske. 

Ka/ roi iroffa ')(piifmra Kara rov ifi6v» 

1. What philosophical opinion is referred to in the expression 
paj ov^ fpopf ? By whom originated and adopted ? 

2. What was Demosthenes's Law, referred to in this passage ? 
Explain accurately, but briefly, rove riytftovaq nSv (rvfjLfwpiwVf rcwc 
hvripov£, rplTovc — rara/3aXovra, virbtfweia^ 

S, ImtlMyiitrcu Navfrii^a rov M tQv owXiuy — dyoyopsvaai Toy 
cri^yoy ^itoyvaloic rpayf^Xg KcuyoiQ. Explain roy eirl rwy SirKiay, 
and the meaning and construction of rpay^^olc racyoic. 

4. Explain the state of the question relative to the forms Tvin-ei, 
rvxT]!* KX^BpoVj KkEiSpoy WXcuffc, irvXp^e, in Attic Greek ; and shew 
to what conclusion it would lead respecting the usage of the 

5. By what Historians are the events of Alexander's age re- 
corded? and to what degree of credit are they respectively 
entitled ? 

6. From whom were the Family o£ the Bacchidae descended ? 
Give a brief sketch of their history, with chronological dates. 

?• When did Eustathius, Hesychius, and Suidas flourish ? What 
is the value of their works as illustrating ancient writers ? Trans- 
late and explain: *E£i}yi}n7c' 6 ^iirfyovfuyoi ri Upd' tort dc koX a 
T/Doc iWc KaroixofUyovi yofuiofuya ibiyovrro role ^eofUyotg. HoT' 
poeration. "**^ 

IX. Into Greek Iambics. 

To me, whom in their lays the shepherds call 
Actsea, daughter o^the neighbouring stream, 
This cave belongs. The fig-tree and the vine, 
Which o*er the rocky entrance downward shoot, 

Were placed by Glycon. He with cowslips pale, 
Primrose, and purple lychnis, decked the green 
Before my threshold, and my shelving walls 
With honeysuckle covered. Here at noon, 
Lulled by the murmur of my rising fount, 
I slumber ; here my clustering fruits I tend ; 


Or from the humid flowers, at break of day. 
Fresh garlands weave* and chaae from all my booodf 
Each thing impure or noxioas. Enter in* 
' . O stranger, undismayed : nor bat nor toad 

Here lurks : and if thy breast of blameless thoughts 
Approve thee» not unwelcome shalt thou tread 
My quiet mansion : chiefly if thy name 
Wise Pallas and the immortal Muses owru 

Into English Prose. 
Lucret. iii. 944 — 984. 

Denique si vocem rerum- 
omnibus usu. 

X. Into English Prose. 

£schyl. Fragm. Incert. xxiii. 

Tv^a fUpOTiay dp\d icat ripfta- 


■Trpo^EpeWara deofv. 

Ejusd. Fragm. Incert. xxxii. 
TwTOv i* iiroimiy — • 

Soph. Antig. 966 — 987. 
Ilapd ^ Kvayebty- 

-irdyovc ajroiiclini. 

'itrypy i irac. 

Aristoph. Vesp. 1136 — 1169. 
Tovri TO KaKoy ri itn-i 



I. Into Latin Prose. 

It must, indeed, be confessed, that nature is so liberal to mankind, 
that, were all her presents equally divided among the species, and 
improved by art and industry, every individual would enjoy all the 
necessaries, and even roost of the comforts of life ; nor would ever 
be liable to any ills, but such as might accidentally arise from the 


aickly frame and ccmititntion of hia body. It must ako be oan- 
fesaed» that wherever we depart from this equality, we rob the poor 
of more satisfaction than we add to the rich ; and that the slight 
gratification of a frivolous vanity, in one individual, frequently costs 
more than bread to many families, and even provinces. It may ap- 
pear withal, that the rule of equality, as it would be highly useful,. is 
not altogether impracticable ; but has taken place, at least in an im- 
perfect degree, in some republics \ particularly that of Sparta; where 
it was attended, it is said, with the most beneficial consequences. 
Not to mention, that the Agrarian laws, so frequently claimed in 
Rome, and carried into execution in many Greek cities, proceeded, 
all of them, from a general idea of the utility of this principle. 

But historians, and even common sense, may inform us« that how- 
ever specious these ideas of perfect equality may seem, they are really 
at bottom impracticable; and were they not so, would be extremely 
pernicious to human society. Render po9sessions ever so equal, 
mens different degrees of art, care, and industry, will immediately 
break that equalityt Or, if you check tliese virtues, you reduce 
society to the most extreme indigence ; and, instead of preventing 
want and beggary in a few, render it unavoidable to the whole com- 
munity. The most rigorous inquisition, too, is requisite to watch 
every inequality on its first appearance ; and the most severe juris- 
diction, to punish and redress it. But besides, that so much autho- 
rity must soon degenerate into tyranny, and be exerted with great 
partialities ; who can possibly be possessed of it, in such a situation 
as is here supposed ? Perfect equality of possessions* destroying all 
subordination, weakens extremely the authority of magistracy, and 
must reduce all power nearly to a level, as well as property. 

We may conclude, therefore, that in order to establish laws for 
the regulation of property, we must be acquainted with the nature 
and situation of man ; must reject appearances, which may be false, 
though specious ; and must search for those rules, which are, on 
the whole, most useful and beneficial : Vulgar sense and slight ex- 
perience are sufficient for this purpose ; where men give not way to 
too selfish avidity, or too extensive enthusiasm. 

Who sees not, for instance, that whatever is produced or improved 
by a man's art or industry, ought for ever to he secured to him, in 
order to give encouragement to such useful habits and accomplish- 


ments ? That the property ought also to descend to children and 
relations, for the same useful purpose ? That it may be alienated 
by consent, in order to beget that commerce and intercourse which 
is so beneficial to human society ? And that all contracts and pro- 
mises ought carefully to be fulfilled, in order to secure mutual trust 
and confidence, by which the general interest of mankind is so much, 
promoted ? 

IL Into English Prose. 

Lysias. Mantith. §. 3 — 8. Ed Bekker. 

Hpuhvy ^ diro&c£cii— ^-avroZc Zfifitovtrdtu, 
Polybius. V. 106. 

''A')(aioi fiiv oSv— — etc XlroXc/xalov. 
Ludan. Quomodo historia scribenda sit. 43 — 45. 

Kai Trjy fuv yvwfirjy inrcp rov Katpov iydowrltaffa, 

III. Into English Prose. 

Juv. Sat. xvi. IS — 54. 

'* Bardiacus judex datur 

•Omne tenet cujus regimen pater." 

IV. Subject for Latin Theme. 

£x Graecis et Latinis Historicis, quern potius debet imitari qui 
historiara scripturus sit ? 

V. Into English Prose ; and the first strophe andantistrophe 

into Latin Lyrics. 
Eurip.Iph. Taur. 1090—1153. 
Upvi£ a xapa^—' 


VI. Into Latin Hexameters. 

Hence flourished Greece, and hence a race of men, 
As gods by conscious future times ador'd : 
In whom each virtue wore a smiling air. 
Each science shed o'er life a friendly light, 
Each art was nature. Spartan valour hence, 
At the fam'd pass, firm as an isthmus stood ; 



And the whole eastern ocean, waving far 
As eye could dart its vision, nobly check'd. 
While in extended battle, at the field 
Of Marathon, my keen Athenians drove 
Before their ardent band an host of slaves. 

Hence through the continent ten thousand Greeks 
Urg'd a retreat, whose glory not the prime 
Of victories can reach. Deserts, in vain, 
Opposed their course ; and hostile lands, unknown ; 
And deep rapacious floods, dire-bank'd with death ; 
And mountains, in whose jaws destruction grinn'd ; 
Hunger, and toil ; Armenian snows, and storms ; 
And circling myriads still of barbarous foes. 
Greece in their view, and glory yet untouch'd, 
Their steady column pierc*d the scattering herds. 
Which a whole empire pour*d ; and held its way 
Triumphant, by the Sage-exalted Chief 
Fir'd and sustain*d. , Oh light and force of mind. 
Almost almighty in severe extremes ! 
The sea at last from Colchian mountains seen. 
Kind-hearted transport round their captains threw 
The soldiers fond* embrace ; o*erflow*d their eyes 
With tender floods, and loos'd the general voice 
To cries resounding loud — The sea ! The sea ! 
In Attic bounds hence heroes, sages, wits, 
Shone thick as stars, the milky- way of Greece ! 
And though gay mt, and pleasing grace was theirs. 
All the soft modes of elegance, and ease ; 
Yet was not courage less, the patient touch 
Of toiling art, and disquisition deep. 

VIL Into English Prose. 

Liv. X. 38. 

** Tum exercitus omnis ne abnuerent.'* 

Tacit. Ann. iii. 27. 

** Pulso Tarquinio ^plurimse leges." 

Cic. Epist. Att. ii. 5. 

** Cupio equidem capi possum." 


VIII. Subject for Latin Verse, 

^Libet ire et ponere greisus 

Chrystallo super, instabiles- 

A scene in winter — Skating* 

IX. Tnto Englisb Prose. 
Soph. Antig. 998. 

— — — xij/xeX^C- 

Eurip. Here. Fur. 107. 
vtrwpoi^a fiiXaBpa- 

•irarpl^ ovk ovc/^17. 

In the Sophocles. 

1. QdKoy. What other forms of this word occur either in the 
Tragedians or Homer ? 

2. PtfiapfSapwfjttvf. Is this word used by any other Tragedian ? 

3. iyevofxriy. Illustrate by examples the use of iytvofviv. 
In the Euripides. 

4« dfKfii (idicrpoic OifuvtK. Explam and justify the construc- 
tion of this sentence. 

5. ETTea fwroy oyelpwy. Explain the construction. 

X. Into Greek Prose. 

But to speak my mind freely on the subject of consequences. I 
am not so scrupulous perhaps with regard to them as many are apt 
to be. My nature is frank and open, and warmly disposed not only 
to seek, but to speak what I take to be true. I persuade myself, 
that the life and faculties of man, at the best but short and limited, 
cannot be employed more rationally or laudably than in the search 
of knowledge ; and especially of that sort which relates to our 
^uty, and conduces to our happiness. In my enquiries, therefore, 
wherever I perceive any glimmerings of truth before me, I steadily^ 
pursue, and endeavour to trace it to its source. I look upon the 
discovery of any thing which is true, as a valuable acquisition to 
society — which cannot possibly hurt or obstruct the good effect of 
any other truth whatsoever : for they all partake of one common 
essence, and necessarily coincide with each other : and like the 


drops of ruin which fail separately into the river, mix themselves 
at once with the stream, and strengthen the general currenL 

Into English Prose. 

Herod, ix. 120. 

Koc T€w rwv ^vXadTffoi/rwK— *— rov *Af>ravrr<w imrtXcvffay. 
Thucyd. vi. 60. 

iv €v&vfiovfJi€vof:—^—diroicnlrayn. 
Plat. Repuh. vi. 9. 

OJrot fiiv ^ ovTia^ £Kiriimytec'''^-^fiavav9l€tc rvyxdvoimp* 

XI. Into English Prose. 

1 . Mo Ac* ovyl wiptirtirKafffuyou }f/ifivOloitt 

W3*'<tfinr£p vfiuc avKafUy^ rdg yyaBovQ 

xt)QHfUv€u' Kay iifffre rov BipoyQ 

'dird rdy fuy ofdaKfiuv vipoj^poai ivo 

fiemfvi fiikavoc' Ik H tC^v yydd^y I^fu^c 

ItI rov rpd\fi\oy &\e\a /luXriJ^ii ircui, 

iwl rf TpofftaTrf ^ ac Tpi\tic t^opovfuvcu 

Cleave iroXiaic dydirXita yf^fivOif. — EuBULUS. 
«. Aristoph. Eccles. 1154—1177. 

9fUKp6y ^ WFoOit/dai 

'XtKiBov lip* intiufnfJQ. 

3. Theocritus. IdyU. xxi. 
lyOi^OQ dypEvrqfpcc— 

•irpOiriya\jE OdXofftrc^^ 

4. Explain the allusion in the fiflh line of the second piece frX^por 
-w-poccXi^*. W!io are the persons addressed ? 

5. Pors. praef. Hec p. 53. " Nuh. 400. c2XXd roy avroS yt 
viuy (idK\£i, &c. Omittit ye Demetrius, unde si quis prseferret 
*AXXd yiwy toy iavrov fidWti** What conclusion does Porson come 
to, and on what ground ? 

6. OvK ay iif vfuripijjy oyitay TrXriyiy rt Kepavy^ 
d\l/ ig^OXufjiTroy iKtaOeyj ty dOaydrufv SioQ itnriy. 

What law of grammar does this reading violate ? Is there any 
satisfactory way of correcting it ? 

7. Aristoph. Av. 917—921. 

/icXi| wtmniiK*-^ — 

rijy ^eirari|v ravriic iyw. 


Transkte this passage, and explain the argument, giving a parti- 
cular explanation of the circumstance referred to in the la^t line. 

8. Translate Plat. Cratyl. §.75. 'Svy ^t yi rerpay«^rifuyoy ov^ 
dv KaravotjtrcuQ o, ri (iovkerai ij ijfiepa. Explain the allusion in rerpa' 

XII. Translate into Greek Tragic Trochaics. 

Ladt Macb. Out damned spot ! out I say ! One, — two : why 
then 'tis time to do*t. — Hell is murky. Fye, my lord, fye! A 
soldier, and afeard ! AVhat need we fear who knows it when none 
can call our powers to account? — Yet who would have thought the 
old man to have had so much hlood in htm ? 

DocT. Do you mark that ? 

Ladt Macb. The Thane of Fife had a wife ; where is she now ? 
— What will these hands ne'er be clean ? No more o' that, my 
lord, no more o' that : you mar all with this starting. 

DocT. Go to, go to! You have known what you should not 

Gent. She has spoke what she should not, I am sure of that : 
Heaven knows what she has known. 

Ladt Macr. Here's the smell of the blood still : all the per- 
fumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh ! Oh ! Oh ! 

DocT. What a sigh was there ! The heart is sorely charged. — 
This disease is beyond my practice. Yet I have known those which 
have walked in their sleep, who have died holily in their beds. 

Ladt Macb. Wash your hands, put on your nightgown ; look 
not so pale : I tell you yet again, Banquo's buried ; he cannot 
come out of his grave. — To bed, to bed ; there's knocking at 
the gate! Come, come, come, come, give me your hand. What's 
done cannot be undone. — To bed, to bed, to bed. 



The annual income of the Davies is £25. In other re- 
spects it is on a par with the Craven, and subject to the same 

I. Translate into English Prose. 

Tacit. Hist. iv. 7—8. 

'• Sed Marcelli studium 

-si ipsi eh'gerentur. 


Ovid. Fast. ii. 639—684. 
** Nox ubi transierit- 

•urbis et orbis idem. 


II. Subject for Latin Theme. 

III. Into Greek Prose. 

Cato's merit on the whole was superior to that of any of the 
great men who stood against him for that magistracy. He was tem- 
perate, brave, indefatigable, frugal of the public money, and not to 
be corrupted. There is scarce any talent for public or private life 
which he had not received from nature or acquired by industry. 
He was a great soldier, an able orator, a learned historian, and very 
knowing in rural affairs. But he had great faults. His ambition 
being poisoned with envy, disturbed his own peace^ and that of the 
state, as long as he lived ; and though he took no bribes, he was un- 
merciful and unconscionable in amassing wealth, by all such methods 
as the law did not punish. 

IV. Into English Prose. 

Lucan. i. 125 — 157. 

** Nee quenquam jam ferre potest 

recoUigit ignes.'* 

'* Per nubila fulmen." Explain this notion of thunder. Qive 
an account of thunder and lightning according to modem disco- 


V. Into English Prose. 

Plat. Axioch. §. 4—5. £d. Bekker. 

'AXrfitj roCfm, iS 2*MqfW7T|C efc ^yMp furafiohi* 

Demosth. Lept. sub fin. 

*Av fup roiyvy Konvpn^WfioB e ■ 'dyvOEiy rHv tlfnifitii^kfr. 

VI. Into Latin Hexameters. 

Full in the centre of these wondrous works, 
The pride of earth I Rome in her glory see ! 
Behold her demigods, in senate met; 
All head to oounsel. and all heart to act ; 
The commonweal inspiring every tongue 
With fervent eloquence, unbrib'd, and bold ; 
Ere tame Corruption taught the servile herd 
To rank obedient to a master's voice. 
Her forum see, warm, popular, and loud, 
In trembling wonder hush'd, when the two SIRES, 
As they the private father greatly quell'd. 
Stood up the public fathers of the state. 
See Justice judging there, in human shape. 
Haik ! how with freedom's voice it thunders high. 
Or in sofl murmurs sinks to Tully's toi^e. 
* Her tribes, her census, see ; her generous troops. 
Whose pay was glory, and their best reward. 
Free for their country and for ME to die: 
Ere mercenary murder grew a tnule. 
Mark, as the purple triumph waves along. 
The highest pomp and fewest fall of life. 

Her festive games, the school of heroes, see ; 
Her circus, ardent with contending youth ; 
Her streets, her temples, palaces, and baths, 
Full of fair forms, of Beauty's eldest borih 
And of a people cast in virtue's mould. 
While sculpture lives around, and Asian hills 
Lend their best stores to heave the pillar'd dome : 
All that to Roman strength the softer touch 
Of Grecian art can join. But knguage fails 
To paint this sun, this centre of mankind ; 


Wherfe every virtue, glory, treasure, art, 
Attracted strong, in heightened lustre met. 

VII. Into Latin Ljrrics. 

Eurip. Hippol. 1112—1156. 
Eidt fim cv{ttficyiy 

'XiKrpvv dfuXXa Kovpeuc' 

VIII» Into Latin Prose. 

It is not likely that Caesar entertained any serious thoughts of 
restoring the commonwealth ; hut it is very probable that he con- 
sulted his friends about it, and desired them to give him their 
opinions without reserve, which are set fordi in great detail, and ex- 
cellently argned by Dion. • . . But if Cesar had entertained dis- 
positions really favourable to this object, his own experience and re- 
flection must have taught him that the materials out of which alone 
a free state can be cooBtrvcted and aiiipported were wanting ; and 
he therefore perhaps conferred the greatest benefit upon his country, 
which it was at that time capable of receiving, by using dat power 
which he had obtained by the most questionable means, with mode- 
ration and justice. 

At the end of a long series of sanguinary struggles the people 
naturally felt desirous of repose, and well indined to submit to a 
temperate but firm government, whidi wo«dd protect without op- 
pressing them. The repubKctm puty, if diey argued rationBlly, must 
have been convinced that the death of Julius, instead of regenerating 
the commonwealth, plunged it into endless distresses and calamities : 
three tyrants started up in the place of one, wUle the iasi and best 
of the true Romans feB in die inefibctoal combat for freedom. It 
was not for ordinary men to revive and reanimate a cause in which 
Brutus and Cassiushad failed; in ihft, the vital principle of liberty 
seeyned utterly spent in the field of Philippi, and the republic was 
led without a party, while Ceesar and Aatony divided or contested 
the dominion of the world. The hmg 1Mb of Ceesar, and the almost 
uninterrupted tranquillity of his reign during nearly half a century, 
gave consistency and the stamp of us^ lo the fbw changes which 
he introduced : the affected .desire of retiring from the cares of 

government, which he renewed at stated intervals, conftrredupon 



his power the character of a charge pressed ngon him by the senate 
and people rather than of an authority usurped from them. If 
he were inferior to his great uncle in extent of talent and gran- 
deur of character, he yielded neither to him nor to any other in 
solidity of parts, and maturity of judgment $ conforming his govern- 
ment with admirable dexterity to the temper of the times, and lead- 
ing the opinions of nnankind with no less adroitness to conform to 
his government. 

IX. Into Greek Tragic Iambics, 

This must he feel, the true-born son of Greeoey 
If Greece one true-born patriot still can boast: 
Not such as prate of war, but skulk in peace, 
The bondsman's peace, who sighs for all he lost, 
Yet with smooth smile his tyrant can accost, 
And wield the slavish sickle, not the sword : 
Ah ! . Greece ! they love thee least who owe thee most ; 
Their birth, their blood, and that sublime record 
Of hero sires, who shame thy now degenerate horde ! 

When riseth Lacedemon's hardihood. 
When Thebes Epaminondas rears again, 
When Athens* children are with hearts endued. 
When Grecian mothers shall give birth to men. 
Then may*st thou be restored; but not till then. 
A thousand years scarce serve to form a state ; 
An hour may lay it in the dust : and when 
Can man its shatter'd splendour renovate, 
Kecal its virtues back, and vanquish Time and Fate ? 

And yet how lovely in thine age of woe. 
Land of lost gods and godlike men ! art thou ! 
Thy vales of ever green, thy hills of snow 
Proclaim thee Nature's varied favourite now ; 
Thy fanes, thy temples to thy surface bow, 
Commingling slowly with heroic earth, 
Broke by the share of every rustic plough ; 
So perish monuments of mortal birth. 
So perish all in turn, save well-recorded Worth. 



X. Into English Prose. 
Aristoph. Av. 959 — 1009. 

Soph. Electr. 4dl— 454. 

BATTiE Scholarship. 

Tab value of this Scholarship is £18. per annum. In other 
respects it is similar to the two preceding, and the examina-^ 
tion precisely the same. ^ 


This can scarcely be considered as an University Scholar^ 
ship ; for the person who obtains it must, if of another col- 
lege, remove to St Peter's, and this restriction makes it little 
more than a mere college scholarship. The last time it fell 
vacant there was no competition; and the solitary candidate 
was presented to it after a pro formd examination. When 
it 18 contended for^ the examination is of the same nature as 
those already given. Its yearly income is £21. 


Two of these are necessarily vacant every year ; their 
value is about £55. per annum, and they are tenable for four 
years. The competition is very confined ; being restricted 
to the sons of clergymen of the Church of England, in their 
freshman^B year. From the latter circumstance, the examina- 
tion is rather d criterion of previous education, than of Uni- 
versity reading. The subjects are much easier than in any 
of the other public contests ; no Greek verse is required ; 
seldom any original Latin verse. The authors selected, are 
those which are commonly read at schools. A general paper 


is given, containing simple questions in divinity, history, and 
classical antiquities ; and the passage set to be translated into 
Greek, is usually from the New Testament. There is also a 
Mathematical paper, composed of such questions in the ele- 
ments of science aa young beginners may reasonably be ex- 
pected to answer. No object of public competition has 
proved more truly beneficial than this scholarship, so far as its 
influence reaches. It has acted as an inducement to many, 
both to take additional pains in preparing themselves for the 
University, and to enter at once upon a steady systematic 
course of reading upon first coming into residence. 

I. Into English Prose 

Soph. Trach. 935—374. 
avrov ye iffmrov 

£sch. Pers. 5^5 — 570. 
w Zcv jSocriXfv 

IL Into Latin Prose. 

There are many who have passed the age of^ youth and beauty, 
who have resigned the pleasures of that smiling season, who begin to 
decline into the vale of years, impaired in their health, depressed in 
their fortunes, stript of their friends, their cliildren, and perhaps 
stQl more tender connections. What resource can this world afford 
them ? It presents a dark and dreary waste through which there 
does not issue a single ray of coipfbrt. Every delusive pro^ipept of 
ambition is now at an ead ; Im^ experience of mankind^ an ?»* 
perience very different from what the open and generous soul of 
youth had fondly dreamt o^ has rendered the heart almost inacces- 
sible to new friendships. The principal sources of activity are taken 
away, when those for whom we labour are cut off from us, those 
who animated, and those who sweetened all the toils of hfe. Where 
then can the soul find refuge, but in the bosom of religion ? There 
she is admitted to those prospects of Providence and futurity, which 
alone can warm and fill the heart. I speak here of such as retain 
the feelings '" ' ''^, whom misfortunes have softened, and 


pexhaps rendered more d^Uditdy sensible; not of such as possess 
that stupid insensibQitys which some i^re pleased to dignif^^with the 
name of philosophy. 

It should therefore be expected that those philosophers, who 
stand in no need themselves of the assistance of religion to support 
their virtue, and who never feel the want of its consolations, would 
yet have the humanity to consider the very difierent situation of the 
rest of mankind, and not endeavour to deprive them of what habits 
at least, if they will not allow it to be nature, has made necessary to 
their morals, and to their happiness. — It might be expected, that 
humanity would prevent them from breaking into the last retreat of 
the unfortunate, who can no longer be objects of their envy or 
resentment, and tearing from them their only remaining comfort. The 
attempt to ridicule religion may be agreeable to some, by relieving 
them from restraint upon their pleasures, and may render others 
very miserable, by making them doubt those truths, in which they 
were most deeply interested; but it can convey real good and 
happiness to no one individual. 

II. Into Latin Elegiacs. 

I weigh not fortune's frown or smile, 

I joy not much in earthly joys ; 
I seek not state, I reck not stile, 

I am not fond of fimcy's toys ; 
I rest so pleas'd with what I have, 
I wish no more, no more I crave. 

I quake not at the thunder's crack, 

I tremble not at noise of war, 
I swoon not at the noise of rack, 

I shrink not at a blazing star ; 
I fear not loss, I hope not gain; 

I envy none, I none disdain. 

I see ambition never pleas'd, 

I see some Tantals starv'd in store : 

I see gold's dropsy seldom eased, 
I see e'en Midas gape for more. 


I neither want, nor yet abound : 
Enough's a feast; content is crown'd. 

I feign pot friendship where I hate, 

I &wn not on the great in show, 
I prize, I praise a mean estate, 

Neither too lofty nor too low ; 
This, this is all my choice, my cheer, 
A mind content, a conscience clear. 

III. Subject for Latin Theme. 

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
Rectique cultus pectora roborant ; 
Utcunque defecere mores 

Dedecorent bene nata culpse. 

IV. Into English Prose. 

Liv. xxxix 50. "Jam invesperascebat — abstineretur." 

Give a short account of the character of Philopoemen, and of the 

AchsBan league. 

Cic. pro Mursen. 23. " Legem ambitus — erumperent." 

1. What was tlie "ambitus"? What were the regulations of 
the principal laws against it? 

2. What was the ordinary method of appointing the " Judiccs " ? 
What was " editio Judicum " ? 

V. Into English Prose. 

Herod, iv. 120—121. 

Tovra Jc dweyeiyBivra trpoacofUiero. 

Thucyd. iii. 98. 

Mexpl fiiv oJk oi roj^nu oi irepiyeyofuyoi Kori^yoy. 

Xenoph. Anab. vi. 4. 

EiTcvOcK 01 fuy TToXefjUoi avroTc dwoSovyai, 

VI. Into English Prose. 
Tibull. Eleg. ii. 1. ST—Se 


"Rura cano rurisque Deos 

tela sonat Litere." 

1. "Suffiisus Bacche, &c." To what customs is allusion here 


2. " HircuB." Give a short account of the origin of tragedy. 

3. What were Lares? 

VII, General Paper. 

1. Make a summary statement of the principal reasons for the 
Authenticity of die Pentateuch. 

S. Give an account of the Institution and Celebration of the 
Jewish Feasts of the Passover and Pentecost. 

3. Give a short history of the Jews fronMhe commencement of 
the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes to the time when Judaea was 
reduced to the form of a Roman Province. 

4. Illustrate the internal evidences for the truth of the Christian 

5. Describe the " Asia " of the New Testament. 

6. What was the Roman — what the Jewish division of the Day ? 

7. Explain the Athenian and the Roman method of computing 

8. Explain briefly the principal uses of the Greek Article. 

9. Explain generally the difference between the particles fiif 
and ovV. Explain the properties of ai^. 

10. Give an account of the ^ra of the Olympiads, the Julian 
JEra, and the Chronicle of the Arundel Marbles : and explain the 
principles of Sir Isaac Newton*s Chronology. 

Vni. Mathematical Paper. 


I. Subject for Latin Theme. 

''Sacer intra nos spiritus sedet, malorum bonorumque nostrorum 
observator et custos ; hie prout a nobis tractatus est ita nos ipse 
tractat." — Senec* 

II. Into English Prose. 

Horn. Odyss. xxii. 457 — 473. 
avrap imtitf irdv* 

-ovrt fjtdka ^y. 

Soph* Fragm. Tyr. xv. 

'xXalovffa ri}V irdpoi fpojirjy. 


Into Jgnglish Prose and Latin Lyrics. 

Soph. Fragm. Inc. xxiii. 

i ira«2ec ^ toi Kvxpcc— — 

SeQy (icvkEVfiara, 

Into English Prose. 
Eurip. Iph. Aul. 919-r9i8. 

Ifiidy UfiOQ* 

III. Into English Prose. 

Virg. Edt iy. iSTT-36. 
" At tibi prima, puer,. 

— THDodtteliir Acbille*'" 

1. ^'NuUo munurada cultn." To what fU^uIous history do 
thase irerds rehita ? 

2. '' Ipsae lacte ^leones." What is the representation of Virgil 

in these linei ? 

9. '^ Altera quor vehat Argn." Relate th« history of this ex- 

4. Tkne ioii Utm. What is probably the most satisfiicstpry 
explanation of these lines f 

Ov. Met. XV. 153— U9. 46S-T-478. 

*' O Genus attonitum-— -vivuntque receptae." 
" Quam male consuescit— congrua carpant." 
Give a short account of Pythagoras, and his system of phi- 

Hor. Sat. L. ii. S. viii. SI — 53* 

" Post hoc me docuit melimela-— « 
*-«*^testa marina remittit/' 

IV. Into English Prose. 

Xen. Hellea vi. I — 4. 

'Eyw fiiv, i av^n AtuceSrffwyioi aXffdtQ falyifTCU. 

Thucyd. vi. 81—32. 

Kal 6 moKot ovx i^^o v . , x al wapjjyti TOuUe* 

V. Into English Prose. 
Tacit. Hist. lii. 85. 

" Vitellius capt4 urbe— — quk foverat viventem." 


Cic. pro Domo. $ 29. 

" EstOy non tail in me— *^ai»ittet invitu^*" 
1 • ''In ilia adoption^'' S^idaio Uie nature of this a4optio. 
ft. " Ut in filio." ^i^plain the nature of this potestas. 
3. '' Si decemyif i," &c. Explain this maxim. 
4« What were th^ Decemyiri here mentioned ? 
Liv. zxxii. 32* 

*' In sinu Maliaco-r^— sil^tium fuit«" 

1. VThat is the gepgraphical situation of the Sinus Maliacus? 

2. Give a short account of the reign of Philip. 
S. What ^ the qhvucter pf T. Q. Flaminius ? 

Translate into Latin Prose. 

Menander returned a day later than I expected, which caused me 
to pass a miserable night, in the most disquieting apprehensions. 
But tho' your letter did not remove my uncertainty as to your 
health ; it ii| pmne measure however dispelled the gloom which had 
overcast my mind : as it was an evidence at least that you were 
still in beings I have bidden adieu to all my literary amusements 
of every kind ; nor shall I be capable of resuming them again till 
I see you here. Mean-whjlet I d^ire you would give orders that 
your physician's demands may be satisfied: for which purpose I 
have likewise written to Curius. The former, I am Cold, attributes 
your distemper to that anxiety which I hear you indulge. - But if 
you have any regard for me» awaken in your breast that manly 
spirit of philosophy, for which I so tenderly love and value you. 
It is impossible you should recover your health, if you 4p no^ pr^ 
serve your spirits : and I entreat ypu to l^eep thevi up, for my sake 
as weD as your own : I desire yov lik^wi^f to retain Acastus, that 
you may be the more convenieqtly a^nded. In a word, my Tiro» 
preserve yourself for me. Bemember the time far the performance 
of my promise is aj^roaching : but if you return to Italy before the 
day I fixed for that purpose, I will execute it immediately* Again 
and again, I bid you farewell. 

VI. Into English Prose. 

Xenoph. Memorab. iv. 3. 

*Eyv6€i iif ore cal rovg awovTas wap€aKeiia(iy» 
Thucyd. iii. 49. ^ 

Tolavra fiiv 6 Aio&>roc flw c j X6g iciv^vVov. 


VII. Translate into Latin Elegiacs. 

Did I but purpose to embark with thee 
On the smooth surface of a summer's sea ; 
While gentle zephyrs play in prosperous gales. 
And fortune's favour fills the swelhng sails : 
But would forsake the ship, and make the shore, 
When the winds whistle, and the tempests roar? — 
Ah, no : one destiny our life shall guide. 
Nor wild nor deep our common way divide. 

When from the cave thou risest with the day, 
To beat the woods, and rouse the bounding prey, 
The cave with moss and branches Til adorn, 
And cheerful sit, to wait my lord's return : 
And when thou frequent bringest the smitten deer, 
(For seldom, archers say, thy arrows efr) 
111 gather fuel from the neighbouring wood, 
And strike the sparkling flint and dress the food : 
And when at night, with weary toil opprest. 
Soft slumbers thou enjoyest and wholesome rest. 
Watchful rU guard thee, and with midnight prayer, 
Weary the Gods to keep thee in their care. 

VIII. Matheniatical Paper. 


I. Into English Prose. 

Cic Epist ad Attic, i. 3. " Aviam tuam scit o - ■ ■ 

L. F. Frugi despondimus." 

Liv. vii. 10, " Recipiunt ihde se ^circumdedit suo." 

Tacit. Hist. i. 49. " Hunc exitum— ^— nisi imperasset." 

II. Into English Prose. 

Iphig. in Aul. 975—1007. 
eXii/aQ i vol IliyXcwc 

— jjy ffiitna KOpnv, 

Hom. II. ii. 771—785. 
<A\* ixiy iy yifttrffi- 

•iUrpriffffoy irc&oto. 


Into English Prose and Latin Lyrics. 

Soph. Philoct. 676—690. 718—729. 
Xoyf fuy gqyirovflr 

-fitffrdy KaretrxjEv ; 

vvy ^ dvBpiiv ayaOwv- 

— Olrac virep iyBiav. 

III. Into Latin Prose. 

Bat when nations are in a state similar to each other, and keep 
equal pace in their advances towards refinement, they are not ex- 
posed to the calamity of sudden conquests. Their acquisitions of 
knowledge, their progpress in the art of war, their political sagacity 
and address, are nearly equal. The fate of states in this situation 
depends not on a single battle. Their internal resources are many 
and various. Nor are they themselves alone interested in their 
own safety, or active in their own defence. Other states interpose, 
and balance any temporary advantage which either party may have 
acquired. After the fiercest and most lengthened contest, all the 
rival nations are exhausted, none are conquered. At length they 
find it necessary to conclude a peace, which restores to each almost 
the same power and the same territories of which they were 
formerly in possession. 

Such was the state of Europe during the reign of Charles V. 
No prince was so much superior to the rest in power, as to render 
his efibrts irresistible, and his conquests easy. No nation had 
made progress in improvement so far beyond its neighbours as to 
have acquired a very manifest pre-eminence. Each state derived 
some advantage, or was subject to some inconvenience from its 
situation or its cHmate; each was distinguished by something 
peculiar in the genius of its people, or the constitution of its 
government But the advantages possessed by one state were 
counterbalanced by circumstances favourable to others; and this 
prevented any from attaining such superiority as might have been 
fatal to all. 

IV. Into English Prose. 

Lucret. iv. 1176 — 1196. 

" Nee requies crat ulla— — 

-lampade vitam." 


Virg. G. iv. 264—280. 
** Hinc jam galbaneos 

•appone canistna." 

Pers. V. 176—188. 

" Jus habet iUe sui palpo- 

•gostaveris allL" 
Ovid. Fast. iv. 721—746. 

" Nox abiit, oriturque Aurora^- 

-lacte precare Pakn*'* 

V. Into English Prose. 

Thucyd. iii. 37. 

IIoXXlucic fiiv ilf^ cywye ' vp So v mu rd irXiiw. 

Herod, iv. 42. 

Demcisth. De Chers. § 4. 

MiJ Toifttv dy v 9 u r c ' d iroXwXeyw Ktfkuetu 

Plat Phaed. cap. 58. p. 182. Ed. StaUbaum. 

Il/«iEi^fiai ToirvTi ' ■ ■ ' ' t ls rd ImAa rife 7%. 

VI. Into Latin Hexameters. 

These are thy glorious works, Parent of good* 

Almighty ! Thine this universal frame. 

Thus wondrous fair ; Thyself how wondrous then ! 

Unspeakable, who sitst above th^se heavew 

To us invisiUe, or dimly seen 

In thHe thy lowest works ; yet these declare 

Thy goodness beyond thought, and power divine. 

Speidc, ye who best can tdl, ye sons of l^ht. 

Angels ; for ye bdicdd himi and with songs 

And choral symphonies, day without m'gfal» 

Cirde his thnme rejoicing ; ye in Heaven. 

On Earth join aU ye Creatures to extol 

Him first, him last, him midst, and without end. 

Fairest of stars, last in the train of night. 

If better thou belong not to the dawn. 

Sure pledge of day, that crown'st the SitiQing morn 

With thy bright circlet, praise him in thy sphnt, 


Wink day arises, Unit sweet hour of primfe. 
Thou Soni of this great world both eye and soul, 
AckiR>wledge him thy greater ( sound his praise 
In thy eternal GouTse, both when ihou dimb'st* 
And when high noon hast gained, and when thou fall'st. 
Moon, that now meet'st the orient sun, now fly'st, 
With the fix'd Stars, fix'd in their orb that flies ; 
And ye five other wandering Fires, that move 
In mystick dance not without song, resound 
His praise, who out of darkness call'd up light 

His praise, ye Winds, that from four quarters blow, 

Breathe soft or loud ; and, wave your tops, ye Pines, 

With every plants in sign of worship wave. 

Fountains^ and ye that warble, as ye flow, 

Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praise. 

Join voices, all ye living Souls : Ye Birds, 

That singing up to Heaven-gate ascend. 

Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise. 

Ye that in waters glide, and ye that walk 

The earth, and stately tread, or lowly creep ; 

Witness if 1 be silent, mom or even^ 

To hill, or valley, fountaini or fresh shade, 

Made vocal by my song, and taught his praise. 

Hail, universal Lord, be bounteous stiU 

To give us only good ; and if the night 

Have gather'd aught of evil, ot conceal'd. 

Disperse it, as now light dispels the dark ! 

Vlt. Mathematical Paper. 



This examination takes place about a fortnight after the 
conclnaion of that in the Senate House for B. A. degree. 
The persona qualified tO oOst thetiideives as candidatea are 
those coihihencfiig bachelors who have taken any roathe- 


matical honoar whatever. No original composition is re- 
quiredy nor is any general paper given ; nothing but passages 
to be translated, with such questions as arise immediately oat 
of them. As in the mathematical tripos, the Examinees are 
distributed into three classes. 


I. Into Latin Prose. 

The best way to represent to life the manifold uses of friendship, 
is to cast and see how many things there are which a man cannot do 
himself; and then it will appear that it was a sparing speech of the 
ancients, to say, ''that a friend is another himself; for that a friend 
is far more than himself." Men have their time, and die many times 
in desire of some things which they principally take to heart ; the 
bestowing of a child, the finishing of a work, or the h'ke. If a man 
have a true friend, h^ may rest almost secure that the care of those 
things will continue after him ; so that a man hath, as it were, two 
lives in his desires. A man hath a body, and that body is confined to 
a place; but where friendship is, all offices of life are, as it were, 
granted to him and his deputy : for he may exercise them by his 
friend. How many things are there which a man cannot, with any 
face, or comeliness, say or do himself? A man can scarce alledge his 
own merits with modesty, much less extol them ; a man cannot 
sometimes brook to supplicate, or beg, and a number of the like : 
but all these things are gpraceful in a friend's mouth, which are 
blushing in a man's own. So again, a man's person hath numy 
proper relations which he cannot put off. A man cannot speak to 
his son but as a father; to his wife but as a husband; to his enemy 
but upon terms : whereas a friend may speak as the case requires, 
and not as it sorteth with the person : but to enumerate these things 
were endless ; I have given the rule, where a man cannot fitly play 
his own part; if he have not a friend he may quit the stage. 

II. Into English Prose. 
Theocr. Idyll, xxv. 221'— 26. 

Ov ftdy Tpiv woScLs i9y(W' 

-iv 6m f iyia^Xpto, 

1. V. S22. , wpiv liteiy. Explain the degree of latitude with 


which the Greek writers use the different tenses of the infinitive 
mood. Is there any di£ference between the usage of irplv with a 
subjunctive and with an infinitive? 

2. V. 226. How is the quantity of the second syllable in ircfH- 
Xixfuini accounted for ? Shew from a comparison with words at all 
similar in their composition, whether there is any method of remedying 
the apparent defect. 

S. V. 2d6. dtrxakdwy. What Other form of this word exists ! 
Which is the more ancient ? How is the present form explained ? 
Produce a few similar forms from Homer. 

4* V. 241.avcf>vciv. I Which of these is the preferable reading 1 
aZipv€iv, 3 Establish your opinion by authority. 

5, Derive irpo2e/fXoc» 223. avtfitSXioVf 239. repiykjiviafuviKt 241. 
ofioroC) 242. viKtdrow^ 248. ravv^Xococt 260. Xwiny, 254. Give 
the different derivations and accentuations assigned to aSpoog accor- 
ding to its significations. 

6. To what dialectj and what stage of that dialect, does the 
language of Theocritus belong? Specify in a few instances the 
difference between that dialect and others to which it approximates. 

III. Into English Prose. 

Thncyd. ii. 43 — 46. 

Ka2 otBefuy frpovfiKOvriaq airtre. 

Aristot. Ethic, vi. 5. 

Aui TOVTO HtpucXia—dyalSd irpoKTiKiiv. 

1 . Give the dates of the commencement and conclusion of the 
Peloponnesian War in years B. C. and in Olympiads. 

2. State the causes, principal events, and consequences of this war* 
What part did Persia take in it ? What was the greatest military and 
naval force employed in it, at one time, by the Athenian State ? 

3. Where and what was the KoXXurrov Tpoaareloy mentioned in 
the beginning of this oration as a place of public burial ? What 
sepulchres of eminent persons did it contain ? In what instance 
was the custom of burying the slain in this place departed from* 
and why ? 

4. What is the character of the style of Thucydides ? What is 
said of it by ancient authors ? What Latin historian most resembles 

him in style ? • What expression has Thucydides made use of re- 



garding the importance of his own work, and widi what justide? 
Enumerate the principal Greek historians who preceded him. 

5. What is the character of Perides's eloquence ? How is it 
described by Aristophanes ! What line of policy was pursued by 
Pericles ? What Statesman in the English history most resonbles 

6. (a) ^Koirovyrac f^rt Xoy^ fwr^ riyV tJ^Xnav. Bekker in hu 
edition reads wfeXlav, How are these two different forms of the 
word denominated by grammarians? Which is likely to be the true 
reading, and why ? 

(6) *AvBpwy yap iiru^aviiv vdaa yiy rd^oQ* How has this sen- 
timent been imitated by a Latin poet ? 

7. (c) TO evBaifwy, to iXsvOepor. What force has the neuter 
article with an adjective ? 

(d) dvBfd ye i^poyrjfia ixinrn- What force has ye in this passage? 

8. (e) dXo^vpo/ucu /uoXXoy ^ irapafiv^trofMu, Do you perceive 
any singularity in this expression? In what species of writers may 
the same particularly be observed ? 

9. (J) iirltnavTai TpafpevTtc Quote a similar mode of con- 
struction from Virgil. 

(g) xopo^oXXo^voi— iro(Di7j3i}icarc. What are the different sig- 
nifications of the prepositions in these two compounds ? 

10. (A) ^1^ yap ToXg Kiamt «^« r. X. Illustrate this passage from 

11. (») rriQ TE yap wrapxpvf^it f. r. X. How has Euripides flattered 
the Athenians in their pride of ancestry ? 

(*) H X«*f»<" yeyioBai. Why is the dative case here used? 
What was the general condition of the female sex in ancient Greece? 
How did it differ in the more civilized ages from that in the heroic 
times ? What effect had this condition upoA the manners, morals, 
and literature of the Greeks ? 

12. (t) 'ElipriraiKaMiiolXoy^ aircrf. 

rara tov vofwv. To what law does this refer ? By whom was it 
introduced into the Athenian State ? 

rd fiiv^Tu a. What is the peculiar signification of these particles 

thus used? 

TO diro TouU Brifioaiif. Supply the ellipses in this expression. 

7} ToXic pe'xP* ^^ ^^^ Bpi\l/ti. What was the mode of education 


here alluded to ? and what prhrileges did the objects of it enjoy ? 
What age is implied by njfc ^/3fK ^ 

9r/0avoy irportdeiaa. From what is the allumon here taken ? 

roiM Tt, Why does the former of these words receive a double 
accentuation ? 

i0Ka Keirat dptr^c* Illustrate this expression by a similar one 
from Demosthenes. 

AroXnfvpdfuvot, What is the derivation of this word? What 
were the principal funeral ceremonies observed by the Greeks ? 

1. Where was the birth-place of Aristotle? What remarkable 
benefit did he confer upon it ? Where was he educated 1 Who 
was his principal instructor? Who his most celebrated pupil t 
Where did he teach ? What was the name of his gynmasiami and 
the appellation of his sect ? What was the distinction between his 
aercaiic and exoteric philosophy? In what light did Aristotle seen 
to regard those works of the former kind which he publi^ed ? 
Where did he die ? and which of his pupils succeeded him in haa 

2. What was the fate of Aristotle s works? By whom were 
they brought to Rome, and who first performed the office of a skiliiil 
editor towards them ? What influence have they had upon Hii- 
loso^y in succeeding ages ? 

IV. Into Greek Iambics. 
Hor. Epod. ii. 1 — 38. 

V. Into English Prose. 

Sallust. Bell. Jugurth. cap. 84. 

" At Marius cupientissum& plerosque invaserat.*' 

Liv. ii. S6, 

" Ludi forte traditum memorise est." 

Cic Epist. Att. 

" Utrnmque ex tuo consillo litteras nunc expecto." 

1. Relate the circumstances which immediately preceded this first 
election of Marius to the Consulship, and state what causes contti- 
buted at this time to render him a favorite with the people. 

Mention also in what manner, and from what orders of Citizens 
at this period, the Consuls were elected. 

E 2 


2. Postquam ei provinciam Numidiam populus jussit Wat 
this In conformity with the usual practice 1 

On what occasion did the Romans first interfere in the affairs of 
Numidia ? and when was tlie country reduced to a Roman province f 

3. Expkin the expressions "postulare legionihus supplemen- 
tum," "auidlia a populis arcessere," and "homines emeritis sti- 

4. " Neque plebi militia volenti putabatur." Explain the con- 
struction of these words, and quote instances of the same con- 

5. State what these " Ludi magni*' were; mention when and 
by whom they were instituted, and what were the "spectacula" 
exhibited at them. Explain also the meaning of the phrase "ex 

6. From a review of the amtenU of this letter state your 
opinion as to the time when it was written. Mention also how £»"« 
and in what way Cicero and Atticus took a part, both then and 
subsequently, in the contest between Csesar and Pompey. 

7. Quote instances in which " oratio " is used in the same sense 
as in this passage. 

8. Explain, by reference to the history of that period, what is 
meant by .the words "Ego, inquam,*' '^sic agam;" "Senatui mm 
placere in Hupanias iri, nee eiercitus in Gneciam transportari.** 

9. Point out the difierence in signification of the words amare 
and diligere ; and translate " Te semper amavi dilexique.*' Cic Ep. 
ad Fam. 15. 7. 

10 "Qui comitatus !" Name some of the principal persons here 
alluded to as die adherents of Caesar. 

11. Explain the phrase "actum ne agas:" also the words 
"Extremum fuit de congressu nostro,'* and illustrate by quotations 
this use of the proposition "de**. 

12. Give the true meaning of the word "offendere.** Translate 
the two expressions, "Non dubito quin hunc offendam :" and " Non 
dubito an hunc offendam.'* 

VI. Into English Prose. 

Find. Pyth. iv. 22—87. 

KcrXvre, irai^c-^ral Mvin^»'. 


1. V. 25 — 28. Where was Thera, and from what state colonised ? 
Who was the daughter of Epaphus ? What the colony here pre- 
dicted ? when, and by whom, established? Explain the change 
foretold in 29— -32. 

2. V. 56. TpiriiiW&>c. Describe its situation ; and give a brief 
sketch of the supposed course of the Argonauts to accoimt for its 
introduction. Explain in connection with this the &ct mentioned 
in ▼▼. 44—48. 

S. Explain the sense of cl^/ievw, how derived, v. 97. the 
quantity of the penult of ayrvpai^, v. 42. with exceptions either real 
or apparent; the formation of ivirwrat, v. 4d. iXBoyreertny, 54. 
^fieVf 69. airofUyaVf 70. 

4. Explain the construction of ov3* dtrtSjifri viv, and produce 
examples of the different uses of I'li' in different dialects. 

5. Who are the ^vaoi mentioned in v. 84.1 With what propriety 
is the term usedl What is the event referred to in the last three 
lines 7 Give the date usually assigned to the Argonautic expedition, 
and calculate the distance of time between the two events. 

Aristoph. Acham. 59S — 617. 666 — 675. 
Tavrl Xeycic ov — ^— ol i^CKou 
Atvpo MoStr eXBs — — — tov hniornv* 

1. V. 598. Give an account of the original institution of the 
tfTponiyol, and the modification which the office subsequently under- 
went. Account for the use of the article befi)re irr^rnyov* 

2. V. 594. What is the third foot in this verse? Explain the 
general principle of the combination of letters lengthening a pre- 
ceding short vowel; and shew from it what will be the effi»ct pro- 
duced by the concurrence of /iv. 

3. V. 598. Is there any error in this line, as it now stands? 
If so, correct it. 

4. V. 602. At what period of the war, and by what circumstances, 
were military operations transferred to Thrace ? Mention the principal 
events which occurred there, with dates. State the metrical canon 
bearing upon the quantity of Ipay^pa^^ give apparent exceptions to 
it, and account for them. Give the value of the drachma, obolus, 
and mina ; and mention from Aristophanes the daily pay of other 
aervicea among the Athenians. 

5. V. 608 — 6. Exphun the allusions in these lines. 


S« V. 608. Mark the breatliing, accent, &c. of afiJiytmi^ and 
explain its formation. In 611, explain the composition of rov^rly, 
and compare it with similar usages: in 617, explain the formation 
and sense of e{/(n-w. 

7. V. 614. KonrvpaQ. Who is the person here intended? 
Trfiop the relation, and point out any other circumstances which 
confirm or invalidate the consistency of Aristophanes's description. 
Where did Lamachus die, and when? 

8. y. 615. Common reading, vvip. On what grounds is it 
objectionable ? How may the corruption be accounted for ? Ex- 
plain ipfivoy, 

9. V. 667. *Axaf>vuci/. Where was Achamae? and to what 
tribe did it belong? What account does Thucydides give of their 
strength and importance at this time 1 and what was the ground of 
their dissatisfaction 1 t 

10. V. 673. Qatxiay, Where was the place referred to, and 
for ^hat famojas ? Explain the allusion of the passage, and account 
for the use of XurapdfATVKa. 

11. Give the metrical names of yv. 667. 673. 

VII. Into English Prose and Latin Lyrics. 

Eurip. Iphig. in Taur. 1089 — 1152. 

"OpyiQ d Topd* yiyufnv itTKla^ov. 

Vlir. Into English Prose. 

Pers. Sat. iv. 1 — 32. 

"Rem populi tractas sorbet aceti." 

1. Ver. 1. Magistrum.'] What remuneration did the Sophists 
usually receive for their instructions? Did Socrates require any 
from his disciples? What was the accusation brought against him? 
Before what court was he tried ? What time intervened between 
the representation of the Clouds and his death? 

ft. V, 3. PupiUeJ] Give an account of the life of the person here 
addressed, with die dates of the events you mention. 

3. ThetOy 12. Anticyras, 16. Mantka, 24.] Explain these 
allusions, and confirm your assertions by quotations. 

4. State the arguments used in the dialdjgue of Plato, of which 
this Satire is an imitation. 


Horat. Epod. xvL 1 — 28. 

** Altera jam teritur cacumina." 

1. V. 5, Spartaau.'] Give the date and circumstances of the 
insurrection of Spartacus. Upon what occasion were gladiators first 
exhibited at Romet Describe their weapons, and their manner of 

2. V* 17. Phocaorum.'] What circumstances induced the Pho- 
caeans to leave their country ? At what places did they stop in 
their flight? Where did they finally settle? Give your authority 
for what you relate. 

3. Give the names and laws of the different lyric metres used by 

Into Greek Prose. 

My son, you are yet young : time will make an alteration in your 
opinions ; and of many, which you now strongly maintain^ you will 
hereafter advocate the very reverse : waitj therefore, till time has 
made you a judge of matters, so deep and so important in their 
nature. For that^ which you now regard as nothing, is, in &ct, the 
concern of the very highest moment ; I mean, the direction of life 
to good or bad purposes, by corresponding investigations into the 
nature of the gods. One thing, and that not trivial, I can at least 
venture, in all the confidence of truth, to assure you respecting 
them ; the sentiments, which you now entertain, are not solitary, 
first originated by you or your friends ; they are such as, at all 
times, have found advocates, more or less in number ; but I speak 
the language of experience when I say, that not one of. those, who 
in their youth had been led to think that there were no gods, has 
found lus old age consistent in opinion with that of his more juve* 
nile years. 

Into English Prose. 

fschin. Contra Ctesiph. p. 124. Ed. Oxon. 

*Oc ovv fwroy xplvovrtQ- 

ftjj fitfiaiovre avrf rove eVaiwjvc. 



I. Translate into Latin Prose. 

The merit of this prince hoth in private and public life, may with 
advantage be set in opposition to that of any monarch or citizen, 
which the annals of any age or any nation can present to us. He 
seems, indeed, to be the model of that perfect character, which, 
under the denomination of a sage or wise man, philosophers have 
been fond of delineating, rather as a fiction of their imagination, 
than in hopes of ever seeing it really existing ; so happily were all 
his virtues tempered together, so justly were they blended ; and so 
powerfully did each prevent the other from exceeding its proper 
boundaries ! He knew how to reconcile the most enterprising spirit 
with the coolest moderation, the most obstinate perseverance, with 
the easiest flexibility; the most severe justice with the gentlest 
lenity ; the greatest vigour in commanding, with the most perfect 
afiability of deportment; the highest capacity and inclination for 
science, with the most shining talents for .action. His civil and 
military virtues are almost equally the objects of our admiration; 
excepting only that the former being more rare among princes, aa 
well as more useful, seem chiefly to challenge our applause. 

II. Into English Prose. 
Horn. 11. xiv. 430 — 466. 

•irvpii ^ ovtn Se^^et, 

1. Explain the gprammatical formation of ii^hato, verse 4dl. 

2. If a short vowel end a word which is followed by another 
beginning with two consonants, state how its quality is aflected in 
'Homer's verse ; describing the principal exceptions to his general 
practice, and specifying in what particulars it agrees with, and in 
what it differs from that of the Dramatic Poets. Refer to instances 
in the present passage. 

3. On what gprounds has it been proposed to introduce the digam- 
ma into Homer's Poems ; and in what lines of the present passage 
would it find a place ? 

4. V. 448« Al. oxX/mmv. Why is the duplication of the a 
necessary ? Would it be admissible in the Dramatic Poets ? 


5, Illustrate the usages of o, ij, ro^ in Hoiner» by references to 
the present passage. Do the same usages occur in later writers ? 

6. V. 461. ioxiBirnv. Explain the propriety of the use of the 
dual number in this instance with the nominative plural, ox^^c* 
Are there any passages in the editions of Homer in which this pro- 
priety appears to be neglected ? Quote them ; and state how you 
would explain or correct them. 

III. Into English Prose. 

Thucyd. vii. 76—77. 

'OfNtfy ^t 6 Nir/ac dvhpQv ixvaL 

1. Mention the circumstance which led the Athenians to interfere 
in the affairs of Sicily ; state the arguments by which Nicias en- 
deavoured to dissuade his countrymen from undertaking the expe- 
dition ; and give an account of the expedition up to the time when 
this address was delivered. Give also from Thucydides the 
amount of the forces naval and military which set out from Athens 
upon the occasion. 

2. rwv 2uc€Xi2fy. What parts of the island of Sicily did these 
people inhabit ; and from what country, according to Thucydides, 
had they migrated ? Who were the SaccXcuirai ? What were the 
principal colonies which the Greeks planted in Sicily ? 

d. ay^pet yap, k, r. X. Quote from Greek or other authors 
passages in which the same sentiment is expressed. 

Into English Prose. 

Demosth. centra Aristog. i. 

. ^vaKordiravoroy ^ n Kiy^wevei 

— — — avOfMinroc fUrpio^ yiyvtatncwv, 
1. Explain the terms ^vde^ccyficvoc, vfitripay •xjEiporoyiay,' Kkfipuf- 
rac ^^PX^* ^^ ypdfAfMT* iicriOtl^, 

ft. What persons does Demosthenes mean to include here under 
the title of 'AOiyvdiot ? And how has his statement been confirmed 
by contemporary authorities ? 

IV. Into English Prose. 
Soph. Andg. 531—558. 

Zv 2* if KOT tAlOOV C 

iorly ij '{a/AOprm. 


Eurip. Heracl. 159—179. 
^Hy ^ cic Xoyowc re- 

rovg Kculovae Xdfifit, 

V. Into Greek Prose. 

Compassion seized the amazed inhabitants of the city mixed with 
the fear of like calamities ; while they observed the numerous foes 
without and within, who every where surrounded them, and reflec- 
ted on the weak resources by which they were themselves supported. 
The more vigorous of the unhappy fugitives, to the number of three 
thousand, were armed and enlisted in three divisions. The rest were 
distributed into the houses, and all care was taken by diet and 
warmth to recruit their feeble and torpid bodies* Diseases of un- 
known name and species, derived from their multiplied distresses, 
seized many of them, and put a speedy period to their lives : others 
having now leisure to reflect on their mighty loss of friends and 
fortunes, reckoned the life which they had saved a curse. * 

VI. Into English Prose. 

Liv. X. 7. " Certatum tamen suadenda pubUce colamus." 

1. Explain the phrase ''incinctum Gabino cultu ;" and relate the 
occasion on which the elder Decius devoted himself. 

2. Is any distinction ever made by the Latin writers between the 
terms "ductus" and "auspicium," as applied to the conduct of 
military a£Pairs ? 

3. What constituted "nobilitas" among the Romans, and to whom 
did the title of " Patricii" belong? 

4. To what magistrates was the "sella curulis" appropriated? 
and on what occasion were the "tunica pahnata*' and the "toga 
picta" worn? 

5. Explain the expression, "Jovis ornatu 4ecoratu5." What 
was the "Capis," and the "Lituus?'* 

6. In what respects was the question discussed in this speech 
one of political importance? 

Tacit. Ann. iii. 27. 

"Pulso Tarquinio plurimse leges." 

1. " Accitis quae usquam egregia." To what precedenU was the 
attention of the Romans particularly directed ? 


2. Describe the political conduct of the Gracchi, of Saturninus, 
of Drusus; the circumstances of the ^'Belluni Italicum," and the 
" Bellum Civile ;" the object of the " rogationes" of Lepidus ; and 
the alterations made at diflferent periods in the power of the Tri- 

8. " In singulos homines latse queestiones." Was there any pro- 
vision on this subject in the laws of the Twelve Tables.? 

VII. Into English Prose. 

Herod, i. 132. 136. 

Owrlri Bi roieri Hipatfai d Xdyoc alpiet, 

Hcuievovtn It tovc iral3a£ ' n i/cv^o^ Xiyeiy* 

Into Greek Iambic Trimeters. 

Cho. Who is this that cometh from Edom ! 

With garments deeply dyed from Botsra ? 

This* that is magnificent in his apparel, 

Marching on in the greatness of hb strength ? 
Mess* 1, who publish righteousness, and am mighty to save. 
Cho. Wherefore is thine apparel red. 

And thy garments as of one that treadeth the wine-vat ! 
Mess. I have trodden the vat alone ; 

And of the people there was not a man with me: 

I trod them in mine ^ger, 

And their life-blood was spxinkled upon my garment^ : 

For the day of vengeance was in my heart. 

And the year of my redeemed was come. 

I looked, and there was no one to help ; 

Therefore mine own arm wrought salvation for me, 

And mine indignation itself sustained me. 
Cho. Strengthen ye the feeble hands, 

And confirm ye the tottering knees. 

Say ye to the faint hearted, be ye strong ; 

Fear ye not; behold your God ! 

He himself will come, and will deliver you. 

Then shaU be imclosed the eyes of the blind ; 

The ears of the deaf shall be opened ; 

Th^ shall the lame bound like a hart. 


And the tongue of the dumh shall sing. 

For in the wilderness shall burst forth waters, 

And torrents in the desert : 

And in the haunt of the dragon shall spring forth 

The grass with the reed and the bulrush. 

VIII. Into English Prose. 

Hor. Od. iii. 23. 

Cselo supinas si tuleris manus 

■ saliente imck, 

Hor. Sat. i. 7. 

Proscripti Regis Rupilt- 

mihi crede tuorum est. 

IX. Into English Prose. 
Aristoph. Av. 481—503. 

'Qq 2* oi^x^ Btoi rwy dyOpmiay 

Theocr. Idyfl. vii. 1 30 — 1 52. 
Xw /i€v airoicXiVac 

dfu^ipcuaip iy(pwa. 

Virg. iEneid. iv. 5%%—bBZ. 

Nox erat, et pladdum 

promissa Sichaeo. 

Propert. Eleg. iii. 1 .1—22. 

Callimachi manes 

foenore reddet honos. 

I. Into English Prose. 

Theocr. Idyll, xvi. 5 — 83. 

T/c yap tQv OTotroi 

tticny/noya xKaitay. 

Into Latin Prose. 

Sappho, the Lesbian, in love with Phaon, arrived at the temple of 


Apollo, habited like a bride, in garments as white as snow. She 
wore a garland of myrtle on her head, and carried in her hand the 
little musical instrument of her own invention. After having sung 
a hymn to Apollo, she hung up her garland on one side of his altar, 
and her harp on the other. She then tucked up her vestments like 
a Spartan virgin, and amidst thousands of spectators, who were 
anxious for her safety, and offered up vows for her deliverance, 
marched directly forwards to the utmost summit of the promontory, 
where, afler having repeated a stanza of her own verses, which we 
could not hear, she threw herself off* the rock with such an intre- 
pidity as was never before observed in any who had attempted that 
dangerous leap. Many who were present related that they saw 
her fidl into the sea, from whence she never rose again, though 
there were others who affirmed, that she never came to the bottom 
of her leap ; but that she was changed into a swan as she fell, and 
that they saw her hovering in the air under that shape. 

II. Into English Prose. 
Hom. Odyss. v. 388 — 435. 

€1^ 5v« VVKTOC 


E yyoir/yaioc* 

iEsch. Choeph. 219—257. 

avroy ftiv dy 

^y 7reimaKiv(u, 

III. Into English Prose. 

Plat. Phaedr. 258. 

^Hu, Tf roc f^y oi^ iveica iv rpf fUffrififipUj^ 

1. What was the topic of Plato's Phaedrus? What others 
among his dialogues are on a kindred subject? How do they differ 
from it, either in the principle, or the mode of treating it ? 

2* Could the foregoing fable have been introduced into any other 
of Plato's dialogues ? What is the scene of the PhsBdrus, and what 
remarks are called forth by it, illustrating the character of Socrates I 

d. What was the rcrri{, and how many species of it were there ? 
Translate, 'Ofjudwg iv rt roiq fUKpdiQ Kcd iv rocc /icyoXiHC oi fuv Bunpfi^ 
fuyoi ciffi TO vwoZiafMf oi {f&)iTf c* oi 3* aiialperoif oi ovk ^^vre £. KaXoi;- 
ci ^ Tovf fur fuyakovc ral ^iovrac, ayira^y rove ^« fitxpovQ, rtrriyO' 


rta, Aristot. de Anim. t^. 24. Quote any passages from the 
Greek poets, shewing the love the Greeks had for the song of the 

4. Explain the expressions dXK* r), SXiyw irdffai, the formation of ^ 
fiimifilifUa and dniKooif quoting similar forms ; the formation and 
use of arra. Under what forms are Ivcra and idv used in the 
various dialects ? Shew, why Socrates says first cl i^up, and afler- 
wards» idy opuiai. Explain the difference hetween avrovc tr^c and 
avnovc, the signification of rvyxaVw, with or without a participle, and 
the use of XayBdyut with a participle, illustrating it by similar idioms. 

5. Point out the manner in which Plato plays with the names of 
the Muses he mentions. Continue tlie sentence, carrying it on 
through the rest of the sisterhood. 

Translate the following into Attic Greek of the age of 

Youth has its own wealth and independence ; it is rich in health 
of body and animal spirits, in its sensibility to the impressions of 
the natural universe, in the conscious growth of knowledge, in lively 
sympathy and familiar communion with generous actions recorded 
in history and with the high passions of poetry ; and above all, 
youth is rich in the possession of time« and the accompanying con- 
sciousness of freedom and power. The young man feels that he 
stands at a distance from the season when his harvest is to be reaped, 
that he has leisure, and may look around, may defer both the choice 
and the execution of his purposes. If he makes an attempt and 
shall fail, new hopes immediately rush in, and new promises. Henoe 
in the happy confidence of his feelings, and in the elasticity of his 
spirit, neither worldly ambition, nor the love of praise, nor the 
dread of censure, nor the necessity of worldly maintenance, nor any 
of those causes which tempt or compel the mind to look out of it- 
self for support ; neither these nor the passions of envy, fear, hatred, 
despondency, and the rankling of disappointed hopes (all Whidi in 
afler life give birth to, and regulate the efforts of men, and deter- 
mine their opinions) have power to preside over the choice of the 
young, if the disposition be not naturally bad, or the circumstances 
have not been in an uncommon degree unfavourabku 


IV. Into Latin Verse. 

He scarce had said, when the bare earth, till then 

Desert and bare, unsightly, unadom'd, 

Brought forth the tender grass, whose verdure clad 

Her universal face with pleasant green; 

Then herbs of every leaf, that sudden flower'd 

Opening their various colours, and made gay 

Her bosom smelling sweet : and, these scarce blown, 

Forth flourish'd thick the clustering vine* forth crept 

The smelling gourde up stood the corny reed 

£mbattl*d in her field, and th* humble shrub. 

And bush with frizzled hair implicit : last 

Rose as in dance the stately trees, and spread 

Their branches hung with copious fruit» or gemm'd 

Their blossoms : with high woods the hills were crown'di 

With tufts the valleys, and each fountain-side, 

With borders long the rivers : that earth now 

Seem'd like to Heav'n, a seat where gods might dwells 

Or wander with delight,' and love to haunt 

Her sacred shades : though God had yet not rain'd 

Upon the earth, and man to till the ground 

None was, but from the earth a dewy mist 

Went up, and water'd all the ground, and each 

Plant of the field» which ere it was in th' earth 

God made, and every herb, before it grew 

On the green stem ; God saw that it was good : 

So ev'n and mom recorded the thira day. 

V. Into Greek Iambics. 

Ter. Ennuch. ii. 2. 

"Dii immortales !— — 

-ex stultis insanos facit' 

VI. Into English Prose. 

Aristot. Rhetor, ii. 12. 

01 ftiy oly yfoi "TOtovroy ^Wc i^ru 

1 . What is the scheme of Aristotle's treatise on Rhetoric T and 
how does it lead him to introduce the foregoing character of young 



men ? What other work did he compose on the same subject 7 is it 
extant? Enumerate the various treatises of Cicero on similar 
topics, and point out how far they resemble, or differ from, Aristotle's 

2. Quote or refer to any passage in the Greek poets or historians, 
illustrative of the characteristics here assigned to youth by Aristotle. 
Are there any similar features in Horace's portraiture ? 

3. Explain the logical connexion of the sentence kcu fiaXXoy 
eupovirat— Toi; roXoi/. 

4. What were to Dcrranov, n XiXureioy ? Of what cities were 
these men natives, and what is recorded of each ? 

5. What is the force of adjectives in ucoc ? Distinguish between 
OvfwcoQf o^vdvfioc and dvfAwirfc. What is the usage with regard to 
the augment in verbs beginning with oif such as oivwo, what in com- 
pound verbs ? Exemplify it in the aorists of dfrorvyxdrfaf and dyav^ 
aKriw. Are there any remarkable anomalies ? What is the ety- 
mology and primitive meaning of dyavoucrew, ai///ffopoc» tvrpdwtKoQl 
Translate and explain, fuf ^XoiOpc e^pairiXoic xepieffai (Pind. Pyth. 
i. 178.) ov arwfivXSMv Kara n|v dyopdy rpifidXeicrpdireKa (Aristoph. 
Nub. 1005.) Al^xponyc ^ /A>7^ ovofMiiffBia iv vfiir, Kai fiupoKoyla^ 
rj cvr/MZTcX/a, rd ovk dnjcoi^a. (D. PauL Ephes* v. 4.) Is the 
meaning of evrpdireXoc in these passages the same as in Aristotle? 
If not, mention any other words in which the acceptation is similarly 
ambiguous. In what cases do two negatives strengthen ; in what, 
destroy each other ? State the principle that prevails with regard 
to the accent of compound words, and illustrate it by instances from 
the foregoing passage. 

Herod, vi. 128—129. 

*AiriKOfjLeyiay 5e rdy fivriarypufv — — ovvoftdierai. 

1. In what manner does Herodotus connect the marriage of 
Agarista with the chain of his narrative ? Are any other anecdotes 
about that marriage recorded? Who among its offspring or de- 
scendants acted any, and what conspicuous part in Grecian story 7 

2. Who were the Cypselidse, that Hippoclides should be preferred 
on account of his descent from them? 

3. What is the common distinction in the use of the imperfect 
and aorist indicative ? Does Herodotus ever n^lect this distinction? 
Are there any instances of such neglect in the foregoing passage ? 


What 18 the Homeric practice in this respect ? By what general 
principle of language are these anomalies to be explained ? 

4. What is the difference between Attic and Ionic Greek in the 
use of the aspirate? What is the Homeric practice? Do you 
know of any similar phsenomena in other langpiages ? 

5. Enumerate, deduce, and exemplify the various meanings of 
KaTi\tiVf Kplytiy^ opyii. What is the Homeric substitute for the 
last ? Explain vTonrevbf, iTvyeirrl% i/ifUXeia, Translate rac opx*?' 
0t(£ rds tQv eS wparrvynavi ivrwv hk fjierplwy avriiv irpoc rac if^vac* 
opdbis a/Mt Ka2 funftrtKiSc lavofiamvy ooric vor {v, Koi, Kara Xoyov 
avraic Bifuvo^ oyofia ivfiwdtrcu^f ififiiKilcLc iinavofiacKf xai ivo cif ruiy 
dpf)(t«nfwy riSy xaXiiy iiSti carcemfoxiTO, ro fiiy TroKefUKoy w^iyyiy, to 
2i tlpfriyucoy ififiiXitay. (Plat. Leg. vii. 18. p. 816.) To what kinds of 
poetry were the ififieXeia, the o-ZmwiCy and the icdp^oS, appropriated ? 

6. Translate the passage between «Jc ^e axo hivyov eyeyero, and 
ivtytucai into Attic Greek. 

7. AoceT iioi 'Hpd&n-oc tlirtiy av, iljopypv^yoQ rijv a\f}d€iayf ov 
fpovrig 'Hpoior^, Whose words' are these, and on what are they 

VII. Into English Prose. 

Cic. Brutus. 

•*Sed de M. Calidio ■ si opus erat, defuit." 

Tacit. Hist. i. 38. 

" Aperire deinde armamentarium ■■ quid diceret." 

VIII. Into English Prose. 

Hor. ii. Epist. ii. 109 — 165. 
" At qui legitimum 

millibus emptum.'* 

1 . What is the derivation of the word Vesta ? By whom was a 
temple first built to this Goddess in Rome ? What objects of pe- 
culiar interest and veneration did it contain? 

?. Illustrate as many of the expressions as you can between 
lines 109 and 126 (" At qui legitimum" '♦ Cyclopa movetur'*). 

3. '* Nunc Satyrum nunc agrestem Cyclopa movetur." Give the 
exact construction of this line. Jn some editions tliis word Saty* 
rum is spelled Satirum: why cannot this be allowed? 


4. *'Et demptusper vim mentiB gratissimus error." The reading 
of prethm for per vim has been lately adopted and received into the 
text. How would you then translate the line, and what is your 
opinion of the alteration? 

5. Give the derivation of the words *delirus»' Magena,' Mympha,' 
^mancipo,' * Cyclops/ 'vetustas/ 'tragoedus.' 

6. quod quis librft mercatus et sere est. 

— — trecentis 

nununonun miOibus emptum. 

To what different states of the metallic currency at Rome do the 
preceding sentences refer? What is the exact sum denoted by 
the latter m English money. 
Lucret ii. 542 — 367. 

*' Preeterea genus humannm •— -« 

— ^— notumque requirit." 

L Into Latin Prose. 

^ I have been very often tempted to write invectives upon those 
who have detracted from my works, or spoken in derogation of my 
person ; but I look upon it as a particular happiness, that I have 
always hindered my resentments from proceeding to this extremity. 
I once had gone through half a satire, but found so many motions 
of humanity rising in me towards the persons whom 1 had severely 
treated^ that I threw it into the fire without ever finishing it. I 
have been angry enough to make several little epigrams and lam- 
poons ; and after having admired them a day or two, have likewise 
coinmitted them to the flames. These 1 look upon as so many 
sacriQces to humanity, and have received much greater satisfiictioii 
firom the suppressing such performances, than I could have done 
firom any reputation they might have procured me, or from any 
mortification ihey might have given my enemies, in case I had 
made them public." 

**I never met with a consideration that is more finely spun, and 
what has better pleased me, than one in Bpictetus, which ph 


an enemy in a new ligfat, and i^ves us a view of him altogether 
different from that in which we are used to regard him* The sense 
of it is as foUo^rs : Does a man reproach thee for being proud or 
ill-natured, envious or conceited, ignorant or detracting ? consider 
with thyself whether his reproaches are true ; if they are not, con- 
sider that thou art not the person whom he reproaches, but that he 
reviles an imaginary Being, and perhaps loves what thou really art, 
though he hates what thou appearest to be. If his reproaches are 
true, if thou art the envious ill-natured man he takes thee for, give 
thyself another turn, become mild, affable and obliging, and his 
reproaches of thee naturally cease: his reproaches may indeed 
continue, but thou art no longer the perspn whom be reproaches." 

"I often apply this rule to myself; and when I hear of a 
satirical speech or writing that is aimed at n^e, I examvie my own 
heart, whether I deserve it or not. If I bring in a verdict against 
myself, I endeavour to rectify my conduct for the future in those 
particulars which have drawn the censure upon me; but if the 
whole invective be grounded upon a falsehood, I trouble myself no 
farther about it, and look upon my name at the head of it to signify 
no more than one of those fictitious names made use of by an 
author to introduce an imaginary character. Why should a man 
be sensible of the sting of a reproach, who is a stranger to the guilt 
that is implied in it? or subject himself to the penalty, when he 
knows he' has never committed the crime? This is a piece of 
fortitude, which every one owes tQ his own innocence, and without 
which it is impossible for a man of any merit or figure, to live 
at peace with himself in a country that abounds with wit and 

Into English Prose. 

Soph. Philoct. 1004—1044. 

■riig roeov irt^evyivm. 

II. Into English Prose. 

Cic. Epist. ad Att iv. 15. 

" Redii Romam Fonteii causa laborabit." 

1. Give some account of the persons called ' publicani.' 



f • From what sources was the revenue of the Roman empire 
derived, at difierent periods, under the republic ? 

S. Give some account of the government of the provinces under 
the emperors. 

4. Describe by a map the course of the rivers mentioned in the 
last sentences of the above extract. 

Tacit. Ann. xiii. 50 — 53. 

*' Eodem anno crebris litora fierent." 

1. Expkin the dates 'a. d. vii. idus Quint.' *v. kaL Seact' 
What were the divisions of the Roman month? how many daya 
were there in each, and how were they reckoned ? 

t* Explain fully* ' foenus ex triente factum erat bessibus.' Ex- 
plain the expressions, ' Haeres ex semisse,' ' hseres ex triente.' 

5, Explain the abbreviation * H.S. quingena.' To what sum of 
English money is it equivalent ? What would * H.S. quingentiea' 
be? Explain the construction of this phrase. What is the deri« 
vation of the word ' Sestertius ? ' 

4. What different orders of Tribunes were there ? By whom, 
and how were they appointed ? When were the offices instituted? 

ill. Into English Prose. 

^sch. Sup. 913 — 622. 
iBo(/£y 'Apyiioim 

'^vyj Srffirikdr^. 

JEsch. Sept. c. Th. 532—555. 
ovrAiic yiyoiro 

-a firi Kpdvoi deoQ. 

Aristoph. Eq. 565 — 580. 

BvXoyrieai (iovXi^aBa 

-^— — /4ijS' dirccrrXiyyur/i^vocc. 
Aristoph. Av. 685 — 692. 708 — 722. 

a y£ ^i| ^va^iv €%injT€ ro XoittoV. 

trdyra Be Oyrfrdi^ '—fiayrtioc *Air6\Kwy, 

IV. Into Latin Verse. 

(Omitting the part in Italics.) 
Hailt holy Light 

thee I revisit safe^ 


And feel thy sovereign vital lamp^ but thou 
RevidCst not these eyes, that roll in vain 
To meet thy piercing ray, and find no dawn ; 
So thick a drop serene hath quench'd their orbs 
Or dim suffusion veiled. Yet not the more 
Cease I to wander where the muses haunt 
Clear spring, or shady grove, or sunny hill, 
Smit with the love of sacred song ; but chief 
Thee, Sion» and the flow'ry brooks beneath, 
That wash thy hallow'd feet, and warbling flow» 
Nightly I visit : nor sometimes forget 
Those other two equall'd with me in fate. 
So were I equalled with them in renown, 
Blind Thamyris and blind Maeonides, 
And Tiresias and Phineus, prophets old : 
Then feed on thoughts, that voluntary move 
Harmonious numbers ; as the wakeful bird 
Sings darkling, and in shadiest covert hid 
Tunes her nocturnal note. Thus with the year 
Seasons return, but not to me returns 
Day, or the sweet approach of ev*n or morn, 

Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose, 

Or flocks, or herds, or human &ce divine ; 

But doud instead, and ever-during dark 

Surrounds me, from the cheerful ways of men 

Cut off, and for the book of knowledge fair 

Presented with an universal blank 

Of nature's works to me expung'd and ras*d, 

And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out. 

So much the rather thou. Celestial Light, 

Shine inward, and the mind through all her powera 

Irradiate, there plant eyes, all mist from thence 

Purge and disperse, that I may see and tell 

Of things invisible to mortal sight 

V. Into English Prose. 134^135. 

Hvpdfuia ^ Koi oiro^ wiiravfAai. 


Thucyd. v. 9. 

VJ. Into English Proae. 
Xenoph. Memorab. i. %• 

VII. Into Greek Tragic Iambics. 

These are the forgeries of jealousy : 

And never since the nuddle summer's spring. 

Met we on hill, in dale, forest, or mead, 

By paved fountain, or by rushy brook. 

Or on the beached margent of the sea, 

To dance our ringlets to the whistling wind. 

But with thy brawls thou hast disturbed our sport. 

Therefore the winds piping to us in vain, 

As in revenge, have suck'd up from the sea 

Contagious fogs ; which fidling in the land. 

Have every pelting river made so proud. 

That they have over-borne their continents. 

The ox hath therefore stretch'd his yoke in vain. 

The plowman lost his sweat ; and the green com 

Hath rotted, ere his youth attain'd a beard : 

The fold stands empty in the drowned field, 

And crows are fatted with the murrain flock : 

The human mortals want their winter here ; 
No night is now with hymn or carol blest : — 
Therefore the moon, the governess of floods. 
Pale in her anger, washes all the air. 
That rheumatick diseases do abound : 
And, thorough this distemperature, we see 
The seasons alter : hoary-headed .frosts 
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose ; 
And on old Hyems' chin, and icy crown, 
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds 
Is, as in mockery, set ; 


VIIL Into English Prose. 

Ter. Hecyr. Act. iv. Sc 2. 
*< Nod dam me eBt« 

-quam te, gnate mi 


Juv. Sat. V. 12— -48. 
** Primo fige loco- 

-poacentem sulfura Titro." 

I. Into English Prose. 

Horn. Odyaa. vii. IIS— 181. 

vipivoyro woKmu, 

Into Latin Prose. 

He represented to them, that the event which they and he had 
long wished for, was approaching; the whole fortune of the war 
now depended on their swordSf and would he decided in a single 
action: that never army had greater motives for exerting a vigorous 
courage^ whether they considered the prize which would attend 
their victory* or the inevitable destruction which must ensue upon 
their discomfiture: that if their martial and veteran bands could 
once break those raw soldiers, who had rashly dared to approach 
them, they conquered a kingdom at one blow, and were justly 
entitled to all its possesions as the reward of their prosperous 
valour: that, on the contrary, if they remitted in the least their 
wonted prowess, an enraged enemy hung upon their rear, the sea 
met them in their retreat, and an ignominious death was the certain 
punishment of their imprudent cowardice: that, by collecting so 
numerous and brave a host, he had ensured every human means of 
conquest; and the commander of the enemy, by his criminal 
conduct, had given him just cause to hope for the favour of the 
Almighty, in whose hands alone lay the event of wars and battles. 

II. Into English Prose. 

Aristot. Polit. iii. 1. 

T/c fuy ovv ivrlv n iroXfnyc — t^C roiavVijc fiynyVewc* 


1 . Mention the titles and subjects of Aristotle's other political 
works* What peculiarity is there in his use of the word dpixii in 
this passage? What particular sense was attached to the word 
noXtma in his time 7 

2. What were the qualifications of birth required for a citizen of 
Athens! What for an Archon? What alteration and relaxation is 
the Athenian law on this head aaid to have undergone in the time 
of Pericles 1 

S. Illustrate the phrase Jc airXJc ecirciv by its opposite. To 
what is aVXwc opposed in the following sentence, (Ethic. Nicom. 1. 
7*) ica2 oirXc^c ^i} riXtiov (\iyofuv) to koB* avro aiperoy olct, vcd foi^'- 
irorc Si aXXo ? 

4. Explain the double meanings in the simile of Gorgiaa, and the 
nature and solution of the oirop^a to which it refers. 

5. State the principal points of resemblance and difference 
between the Attic wpourarfiQ and the Roman patronus. How do 
the Greek writers render cliens and according to what analogy 7 
Explain the phrases viiuiv irpoardniy, Trpoardrav ypai^aQai, Define 
Slmi dtrpoaratrloVf Bixfi diroarafflov. 

6. What was the nature and object of the changes introduced by 
Cleisthenes into the Athenian constitution? Why were the ancient 
subdivisions of the Attic tribes inapplicable to Kisl 

7. Explain the following compendious account of the revolutions 
in the government of Athens: ''Rffay apa 'AOi^valbc Siivuc eh rac 
TToXmlac turpdwekoif koI iwinjSttoi irpot rdc ftcra/SoXdc iravroc /ioXXoy. 
BaffikElay fuy yap iJfvcyKav tna^poymQ e'lri K£KpoiroC) ml '£f>ex|Oec^c» 
Kol Oficriiac Koi ray KoSpiSiay jcorw. TvpayylSo^ iwetpa&fitray iwl rQy 
HEunarpartiiSy: ^ApiaroKparl^ Se expiitmyro fU\pi rwy Ttrpaxoviiayl 
£lra HffTtpoy AfVa T(5y nokirdy Koff tKaaroy croc ipX^^ ^€ iroXew^ : 
TeXevraioy Si iyiyero 'Avapx^cu (JEi. V. H. v. IS.) When did the 
'Avopx^a begin, and how long did it last? 

Isocrat. TUpl *Aitc^. 

Et fiiy ofiotOQ T^y 6 \6yoQ — tlycu rijy Xsirovpylay, 

1 . What opinion on the character and genius of Isocrates does 
Plato put into the mouth of Socrates? Under whom did he study 
rhetoric? What is said to have been the ordinary price of his in- 
structions and the number of his scholars? Mention the most 
distinguished of them. Which of his works are \6yoi irpdc itlhti/Lyl 


What specimens has he lefl of the yevoc avftjhvktw-ucoyl What 
were his favorite political schemes? 

2. Enumerate and define the Attic XuTcvfyyim. What is the 
difference between Xtirovpyla and tifffpopd 1 Describe the course of 
proceeding in an dvrlBo&iQ. 

3. How was the Athenian navy constituted before the time of 
Cleisthenes ? What were the duties of a rpci/popxoc? Give an 
account of the avfifwfUai and of the reform introduced into the 
trierarchical system by Demosthenes. 

4. What is the difference between tnffi^oXatn and trv^ilioXa 1 Ex- 
plain the phrases dw6 trvfifioXbty tcotytaveiy, dird av^ilUXuy BiKd(ttf6au 
Translate the following passage : xaX ikavnoviuyoi yap iy rdig ^/i/3o- 
Xa/cuc xpoc rove ^vfifidxovs ^Uaic, xal irap ijfiiy, avrolc iy rote Ofwloie 
vofjunc vouioarrtc rdc KfUtnit fiXo^iKtiy ^OKOVfuv. (Thucyd. 1. 77*) 
What are {v/ij3oXcuai ^icail 

5. Give the derivation of uirJywoc and dXp,Ctay, Explain the 
definition in Theophrastus : i/ dka^oytla — rpoffSoxla riyiSy dyaBwy 
ov*jc 8yr«ay: and express it in different Greek. 

III. Into English Prose. 

Ov. Fast. ii. 19—54. 

" Februa.Romani dixere 

•continuasse viri." 

1. By whom were the Flamines introduced? What was the 
number at first? To what number was it afterwards increased — 
and by what names were the three principal distinguished firom the 

2* Whence the name of Luperci ? Of what date was their Insti- 
tution? and to what popular superstition do Ovid and Juvenal 
allude as connected with the celebration of the Lupercalia ? 

3. By what name more usually distinguished than by the Pa* 
tronymic here used ? 

4. What was the period of the reign of ^eus ? Over what 
territory ? and to what circumstance is the allusion here made ? 

5. Who was the son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle? and on 
account of the murder of whom was he persecuted by the Furies ? 
Why is Achekuz here distinguished by the epithet Naupactmu? 
and what is the figure in prosody which is here disregarded? 
Whence also does the figure derive its name? % 


Mark the three distinctions of the Roman year with the names of 
the mcmths and the number of days in each, as used by Romulus, 
Numa Pompilius, and Julius Caesar. 

Why is the present year termed Bissextile? 

Plant. Aul. Act. iii. Sc. 5. 
" Nulla igttur dicat 

-sumptusque intolerabilis.'* 

Pers. Sat v. 52—72* 

** Mille hominum specii 

i n toe secundo." 

1. To what Greek words does ckiragra owe its meaning ? 

fL C3eanthes was the successor oi whom ? and what were the 
prindpal points in the doctrinci which the Sect to which he belonged, 

How are any similar ideas expressed by Horace ? 

Against whom was the Satire of Persius more particularly direc- 
ted T and when did he die? 

IV. Into Greek Tragic Iambics. 

Shakspeare, Jul. Cses. Act ii. 
Cal. What mean you, C»sar ? Think you to walk forth ? 

You shall not stir out of your house to-day, 
CjES. Csesar shall forth : the things, that threaten'd me, 

Ne'er look'd but on my back ; when they shall see 

The fiice of Csesar, they are vanished. 
Cal. Csesar, I never stood on ceremonies. 

Yet now they fright me. There is one within, 

Besides the things that we have heard and seen. 

Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch. 

A lioness hath whdped in the streets; 

And graves have yawned and yielded up their dead ; 

Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds, 

In ranks, and squadrons, and right form of war, 

Which drisaled blood upon the Capitol : 

The noise of battle hurtled in the air. 

Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan ; 

And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets. 

O Caesar ! these things are beyond all use, 

And I do fear them. 


CjEs. What can be avoided^ 

Whose end is purpos'd by the mighty gods ? 

Yet Cflesar shall go forth : for these predictions 

Are to the world in general^ as to Caesar. 
Cal. When beggars die, there are no comets seen ; 

The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes. 
Cjes. Cowards die many times before their deaths ; 
. The valiant never taste of death but once. 

Of all the wonders, that I yet have heard, 

It seems to me roost strange, that men should fear ; 

Seeing that death, a necessary end, 

Will come, when it will come. 

V. Into English Prose. 
Plat De Repub. viii. p. 559. 

IlaXcy Tolvwy Ijy J kyti ' col aytoiy ; 

Into Greek Prose. 

A perfect democracy is the most shameless thing in the world. 
As it is the most shameless, it is also the most fearless. No man 
apprehends in his person he can be made subject to punishment. 
Certainly the people at large never ought : for as all punishments 
are for example towards the conservation of the people at large, the 
people at large can never become the sulject of punishment by any 
human hand. It is therefore of infinite importance that they should 
not be suffered to imagine that their will, any more than that of 
kings, is the standard of right and wrong. They ought to be per- 
suaded that they are full as little entitled, and fiur less qualified, with 
safety to themselves, to use any arbitrary power whatsoever ; that 
therefore they are not, under a false shew of liberty, but« in truth, 
to exercise an unnatural inverted domination, tyrannically to exact, 
firom those who officiate in the state, not an entire devotion to their 
interest, which is their right, but an abject submission to their oc- 
casional wiU ; extinguishing thereby, in all those who serve them, 
all principle, all sense of dignity, all use of judgment, and all con- 
sistency of character, whilst by the very same process they give 
themselves up a proper, a suitable, but a most contemptible prey to 
the servile ambition of popular sycophants, or courtly flatterers. 


VI. Into Latin Hexameters. 

Rapt in ecstatic thought my soul surveys 

The pride of Grreece in long-forgotten days. 
• • • • • 

Hark ! great Alcaeus strikes the Lesbian lyre, 
And Sappho breathes the song of soft desire ; 
Anacreon warms his frozen age with wine» 
With rosy braids his silver locks entwine : 
With loftier port and conscious greatness move 
Callimachus that hymn'd immortal Jove, 
Theocritus who told in Doric strains 
The loves and labours of Sicilian swains, 
*The mighty Theban whose aspiring Muse 
On eagle wing her dauntless flight pursues, 
The awful bard» whose sacred numbers flow 
In wildest ecstasy of tragic woe« 
Of sad Prometheus tell the endless pain, 
Or sing the horrors of the Theban plain : 
And see ! the rival of his later years 
In pride majestic Sophocles appears ; 
And he whose mournful numbers taught the stage 
Medea's wrongf, and Phaedra's impious rage. 
Led by the Muse's hand in sightless trance 
I see thethief of Epic song advance ; 
A golden fillet binds the locks of snow 
That thinly crown his venerable brow — 
Wildly his hand explores the sacred shell, 
And Nature trembling owns the pow'rful spell : 
Around him throng to catch the soothing strain, 
The brave who fought on Ilion's fatal plain. 
Near these in radiant arms the heroes stand, 
Whose later valour freed their native land : 
Triumphant chiefs, and victims of renown 
Whom cypress wreaths, or myrtle chaplets crown ! 
Each, on the circle of his batter'd shield, 
Bears the device of some victorious field. 
Behold the dauntless few, whose trophies tell 
How at Thermopylae they nobly fell ! 


And those at Marathon who fought and hied. 
Before whose arms the vanquish'd satrap fled, 
Or where Pktsea spreads her wat'ry plain, 
Or Salamis repels the .^Igean main ! 
And him, the sun of •Thehes, whose warlike pride 
Rose with his arm, and perished when he died ! 

VII. Into English Prose. 

Tacit. Ann. xvi. 29. 

" Cum per hsec atque talia insignia trihuuntur." 

** Cliens hie Sorani ;" Quote the lines of Juvenal which allude 
to this transaction. 

Last sentence^ Express these sums in English money, and ex- 
plain the Roman method of reckoning by sesterces. 

Cic. Orat. pro Cn. Plancio. § 19. 

*' Jam ut ego doceo ambitioni dedit." 

Explain briefly the institutions of the Comitia Curiata, Centuri- 
ata, and Tributa, as weU as the origin of our word Pren^ative. 

What persons were comprised in the Nobilitas Romana? 

Vin. Into English Prose. 
Soph. (Ed. Col. 84— ner 

•rwy rounffuvwv. 

Aristoph. Vesp. 71 — 113. 
NO0OV yap 6 Tonip—- 

-iJc ay fjoi '{/jr* 

Explain the various judicial allusions in the preceding passage. 

I. Into English Prose. 

Soph. Antig. 407—440. 
Tocowrov Ify to irpdyfA' 


Into Latin Prose. 

Were there no advantage to be reaped from these studies, be- 
yond the gratification of an innocent curiosity, yet ought not even 
this to be despised ; as being an accession to those few safe and 
harmless pleasures, which are bestowed on the human race. The 
sweetest and most inoffensive path of life leads through the avenues 
of science and learning ; and whoever can either remove any ob- 
structions in this way, or open up any new prospect, ought so far to 
be esteemed a benefactor to mankind. And though these re- 
searches may appear painful and fetiguing, it is with some minds as 
with some bodies, which being endowed with vigorous and florid 
health, require severe exerdse, and reap a pleasure from what, to 
the generality of mankind, may seem burdensome and laborious. 
Obscurity, indeed, is painful to the mind as weH as to the eye ; but 
to bring light from obscurity, by whatever labour, must needs be 
delightful and rejoicing. 

II. Into Greek Tragic Iambics. 

OsMTN. My life, my health, my liberty, my all. 
How shall I welcome thee to this sad place ? 
How speak to thee the words of joy and transport ? 
How run into thy arms, withheld by fetters ; 
Or take thee into mine, while I'm thus manaded 
And pinioned like a thief or murderer 1 
Shall I not hurt or bruise thy tender body, 
And stain thy bosom with the rust of these 
Rude irons 1 Must I meet thee thus, Almeria 1 

Almsria. Thus, thus ; we parted, thus to meet again. 
Thou told'st me thou would'^t think how we might meet 
To part no more*— Now we will part no more. 
For these thy chains, or death, shall join us ever. 

OsMTK. Hard means to ratify that word !— — O cruelty I 


That ever I should think beholding thee 
A torture ! — ^yet, such is the bleeding anguish 
Of my heart, to see thy sufferings — O Heav'n ! 
That I cou'd ahqost turn my eyes away. 
Or wish thee from my sight. 
Almeria. O say not so ; 
Tho* 'tis because thou lov'st me. Do not say, 


On any terms, that thou dost wish me from thee. 
No» no, 'tis better thus, that we together 
Feed on each other^s heart, devour our woes 
With mutual appetite ; and mingling in« 
One cup the common stream of both our eyes, 
Drink bitter draughts, with never-slacking thirst. 
Thus better, than for any cause to part. 
What dost thou think ? Look not so tenderly 

Upon me — speak, and take me in thy arms 

Thou canst not ! thy poor arms are bound, and strive 
In vain with the remorseless chains, which gnaw 
And eat into thy flesh, fest'ring thy limbs 
With rankling rust 

III. Into English Prose. 

Plin. Hist Nat viii. 27. 

'* Nee haec sola k mentis appellavere quidam." 

Cic. Epist ad Fam. i. 7. 

" Quare ea quae scribam— — temere fecisse dicturos.*' 
Tadt Ann. iv. 40. 

" Ceteris mortalibus in eo stare*— negotiis permixtos." 
Liv. xxxviii. 5. 

** Arietibus muros quatiebat ^terrorem in&rebant'* 

1. Derive the foUowing words: 

" Ruta," " Ciconia," " Origanum." 
What healing quality does Ovid ascribe to the herb Ruta 1 

2. " Marathro herbae sese afifiricans." 
Explain the construction of this passage* 

S. " Pardalianches." 

Give instances of the names of plants, in our own language, si- 
milarly comfounded. 

4. State fully the difference between ** Senatus oonsultum," and 
** Senatus auctoritas." 

5. What phrases were used to express the introduction of a Bill 
into the Senate — and what to signify the Senate's approval of itl 

6. To whose custody were the SibyUine Books confided 1 


IV. Into English Prose. 

Plat. Symp. c. xxiv. Ed. Stallb. 

Kai iyta clwoVf Elfv ^ rj tov dyaBov. 

1. What is the maio argument of Plato's Banquet? Who are 
the speakers ? and in what manner is that argument handled by 
each of them ? What may we suppose to have been the purpose of 
the several speeches? What other writers have composed Ban- 
quets ? in what relation do these stand to Plato's ? how far do they 
resemble or differ from it? 

2. What is known of Diotima ? how is she introduced into the 
Dialogue ? and what may we conceive to have been Plato's motives 
for introducing her ? 

S« Aiyeral rcc Xvyo^, uic ol o.v to riftiav iavrtSv (jp^o'iVf oiroi ifttS^ 
9tv* What is the Xoyoc here referred to ? to what doctrines of what 
philosopher does it allude ? what is the truth which it parodies ? and 
in what respect is that truth misrepresented in the parody ? Tran- 
slate and explain "Exanroc ly/iwv i<mv dydptiirov ^vfifioXov, are rer/iij- 
fjiiyoc, iSvirtp at yj/fJTrai, e{ iyoc ^vo. Trace the various meanings of 
{v/i/3oXoKy until you get to the one it bears in modern languages. 

4. TeXoc ioKii cxecv i? aVojcpio-ic- What is the place assigned by 
Aristotle to cv7ac/ioWa in the system of morals ? and how does he 
define it? 

5. Explain the various meanings of ^rifiumpyoc from the Homeric 
age downward. 

6. Fill up the elliptical constructions ui^jrep ay in 1. 9, and' Iva tI 
in 1. 14. 

Translate into Attic Greek. 

We have been hovering on the shores of Greece until the season is 
going by for aiding her ; and another Power will soon have acquired 
the glory and the benefit of becoming her first Protectress. If a 
new world were to burst forth suddenly in the midst of the heavens, 
and' we were instructed by angelic voices, or whatever kind of re- 
velation the Creator might appoint, that its inhabitants were brave, 
generous, happy, and warm with all our sympathies, would not 
pious men fall prostrate before Him, for such a manifestation of his 
power and goodness ? What then ! shall these very people be the 
first to stifle the expression of our praise and wonder, at a marvel 


fine more astonishing, at a manifestation of power and goodness far 
more glorious and magm'ficent 1 The weak vanquish the strong ; 
liie opprest stand over the oppressor: we see happy, not them who 
never were otherwise, not them who have made no effort, no move- 
ment of their own to earn their happiness, like the creatures of our 
imaginary new world, but those who were the most wretched, and 
the most undeservedly, and who now, arising as from the tomb, 
move the incumbrances of ages and of nations from before them, 
and, although at present but half-erect, lower the stature of the 
greatest heroes, 

V. Into English Prose. 

Juv. vii. 150 — 196. 

"Declamare doces 

matre rubentem." 
Lucan. vi. 667 — 694. 

" Pectora tunc primum 

in Tartara lingua." 

Explain and illustrate the popular superstitions referred to in 
this passage. 

VI. Into English Prose. 
Horn. IL xviii. 590—605. 

'iilvevov Kara fiiffaovc^ 

1. Explain the comparison with the x^^ ^^ Daedalus. What 
quality did the Greek mythology ascribe to the works of Daedalus 
in common with those of Vulcan ? Could the movements described 
in this passage be represented by a single group of figures) 

2. Mention the derivations of 'A/i^yvifcic, iftOeot, aXfetriPouu, 
^<{ppy{. What is iidpxeiy fwXtnic ? What distinction is observed 
in the meaning of the aorist and imperfect forms in amy t 

Pind. Isthm. v. 48—74. 

iXu yvy /loc inioBe y iKyur* 67ny. 

1. What were the earliest poems in which the adventures of 
Cycnus, Memnon^ and Telephus, were celebrated! What trage- 
dies were founded on them ? 

2. What was the original name of £gina? . By what fable was 



it connected with Achilles 1 and with the Mynnidonil From wbtl 
city did it receive its Dorian colony? 

S. Explain the allusion to Salamis from Herodotus. Horn M 
£gina contribute involuntarily to the issue of the Pcnian war t 
Aristoph. Lysistr. 597^-^86. 

Nvv fiiv yap 2f| xak rocm yyrpaiQ 

Tf ^fif ^(Kaivay v^ijyiu. 

1. What remarkable event in Athenian history marks the year in 
which the Lysistrata was performed ? 

2. Explain so far as is necessary to understand the passage, the 
nature of the evils alluded to, and the remedies proposed in the 
last speech. Who are ol awurrdfuvoi ical iriXovync cavrWc ? By 
what terms does Thucydides describe the same thing 1 How oome 
oi 6^€CKovrec Tf hifwolf to be classed along with (cmn and furouaoil 
What was the office of ^vXapxK ? 

VII. Into Latin Elegiacs. 

Slow sinks, more lovely ere his race be run, 
Along Morea's hills the setting sun ; 
Not, as in Northern climes obscurely bright, 
But one unclouded blaze of living light ! 
O^er tlte hushed deep the yellow beam he throws 
Gilds the green wave, that trembles as it glows. 
On old JSgina's rock, and Idra*8 isle 
The god of gladness sheds his parting smile ; 
O'er his own regions lingering, loves to shine ; 
Though there his altars are no more divine. 
Descending fast the mountain shadows kiss 
Thy glorious gulph, unconquered Salamis ! 
Their azure arches through the long expanse 
More deeply purpled meet his mellowing glance, 
And tenderest tints, along their summits driven 
Mark his gay course, and own the hues of heaven ; 
TiU, darkly shaded fVom the land and deep, 
Behind his Delphian cliff he sinks to sleep. 

Into Latin Hexameters. 

Therefore, when any favour'd of high Jove 
Chances to pass through this advent'rous glade, 


Swift as the sparkle of a glluicii^ Mar 

I 8lic»bt from heaven to give liim safe coA^Miy, 

As now I do : but first I must put off 

These my sky-robes, spun out of Iris woof, 

And take the weeds and likeness of a swaiik, 

That to the service of this house belongs, 

IVho with his soft pipe, and smooth-dittied song, 

VfeU knows to still the wild winds when they roar, 

And hush the waving woods ; nor of less faith. 

And in this ofBce of his mountain watchf 

Likeliest, and nearest to the present aid 

Of this occasion. But I hear the tread 

Of hateful steps. I must be viewless now. 

I. Into Latin Prose. 

Hardly any device, which the ingenuity of man has diMOVetM 

for ensnaring or destroying wild animals^ was unknown to tlie 

Americans. While engaged in this favourite exercise, they shak^ 

off the indolence peculiar to *their nature, the latent poW^iis attd 

vigour of their minds are roused, and they become active, petse* 

vering, and indefatigable. Their sagacity in finding their prey» 

and their address in killing it, are equal. Tlieir reason and theif 

senses being constantly directed towards this one olqect, (be fimner 

displays such fertility of invention, and the latter icqmte such a 

degree of acuteness, as appear almost incredible. They discern 

the footsteps of a wild beast, which escape every other eye, And 

can follow them with certainty through the pathless fi>rest. If they 

attack their game openly, their arrow seldom errs firom the mark ; 

if they endeavour to circumvent it by art, it is almost impossible 

to avoid their toils. Their ingenuity always on the itretch, and 

sharpened by emulation, as well aa necessity, has striick out many 

inventions, which gmsatly facilitate success in the diase. The ntost 

singular of these is t))e discovery of a poison, in which they dip te 

arrows empk>yed in hunting. The sBghtttst wound wilU (hM« 



envenomed shafts is mortal. If they only pierce the skin, the 
blood fixes and congeals in a moment, and the strongest animal 
falls motionless to the ground. Nor does this poison, notwith- 
standing its violence and subtlety, infect the flesh of the animal, 
which it kills. That may be eaten with perfect safety and retains 
its native relish and qualities. 

The received value of names imposed for signification of things, 
was changed into arbitrary. For inconsiderate boldness was count- 
ed true-hearted manliness: provident deliberation, a handsome 
fear ; modesty, the cloak qf cowardice ; to be wise in every thing, 
to be lazy in every thing. A furious suddenness was reputed a 
point of valour* To readvise for the better security, was held fi>r 
a fail pretext of tergiversation. He, that was fierce, was always 
trusty ; and he, that contraried such a one, was suspected. He, 
that did insidiate, if it took, was a wise man ; but he, that could 
smell out a trap laid, a more dangerous man than he. But he, 
that had been so provident as not to need to do the one or the 
other, was said to be a dissolver of society, and (me that stood in 
fear of his adversary. In brief, he that could outstrip another in 
the doing of an evil act, or that could persuade another thereto, 
that never meant it, was commended. 

II. Into English Prose. 

JEach. Choeph. 1^61—388. Ed. Scholf. 
Ovroi irpo^ffti AstJUnt 

•^afii^dpTf fJiopf, 

Eurip. Cyd. 41 — 62. 

Ila ^ fUK yivvaliay pV learipfaV' 

•AJtrvaliay ei<ria <rKOwi\Mv, 

Hom. Odyss. vi. 1^66—284. 
"'Ev^a di re tnfi' dyopij — 

-ToKdeg re koX iaOXol, 

I. Explain the following naval terms and give the Latm names 
corresponding to them: xtkifffiartLf e'dwXca, xopvylSeCf irapdofifwy, 
Oe^ccXioc, irXdnif iirlrovoif iro&Ci iropa^flfyfiaro. 


2. Oiye the derivations of Te/^fuira, dievKia^ virep^/aXocy nyXc- 
Bawkiyf pvroUnVf dwaiivavair. 

3. With what four substantives is the epithet ecVoc most com- 
monly fomid ? Explain its peculiar signification with each. 

4. Describe the situation of the island Phseacia. What were its 
more ancient names ; what was it called in the time of Thucydides, 
and what is its name at this time ? At what period was it most 
celebrated in history, and for what reasons ? 

III. Into Greek Prose, and the Exercise to be accented. .. 

The best way in the world for a man to seem to be any thingy is 
really to be what he would seem to be. It is hard to personate 
and act a part long ; for where truth is not at the bottomi nature 
will always be endeavouring to return, and will peep out and be« 
tray herself one time or other. Therefore, if any man think it 
convenient to seem good, let him be so indeed* and then his good- 
ness win appear to every body's satisfaction ; so that upon all 
accounts sincerity is true wisdom. Particularly as to the affairs 
of this world, integrity hath many advantages over all the fine and 
artificial ways of dissimulation and deceit ; it is much the plainer 
and easier, much the safer and more secure way of dealing in the 
world : it has less of trouble and difficulty, of entanglement and 
perplexity, of danger and hazard in it ; it is the shortest and near- 
est way to our end, carrying us thither in a straight line, and will 
hold out and last longest. The arts of deceit and cunning do 
continually grow weaker and less effectual and serviceable to them 
that use them ; whereas integrity gains strength by U8e« and the 
more and longer any man practiseth it, the greater service it does 
him, by confirming his reputation, and encouraging those with 
whom he hath to do to repose the greatest trust and confidence in 
him, which is an unspeakable advantage in the business and affiurs 
of life. 

IV. Into English Prose. 
Tacit Ann. vi. 23. 

** Drusus deinde extinguitur— -^— sponte sumptus." 
Complete the account of the death of this Drusus from other 


sources, expUining the eatpression, '* Adstitisse tot per annos, qui** 
&c. and " Ut quis egredientem cubiculo,'' ^c 

Who u the person meant by *' filium fratris," and what is the 
history of his death ? 

I4V' sQUCYiii. 66. 

" 9er. Siilpicio deinde referent e- - ■ ■ non habeam." 

'* Apud Antiatem inveni.*' Who is the person here mcptioned; 
and what character does Livy give of him elsewhere ? * 

Granting the supposition, " Potius quadragies, quam ducenties 
quadragieSi litem asstimatam** ; how is this an argument^ that tiie 
numbers of the gold and silver in the case of Scipio are inverted? 

Cic De Orat. iu. 27. 

" De virtute enim» de officio judicio viderentur," 

** Eamque tribus, lite/' &c. What are the terms commonly used 
by Greek and Latin writers on rhetoric to express these three 
kinds ? 

What were the subjects first treated of by ancient philosophers ; 
^d to whom is the introduction of dialectics assigned ? 

V. Into Latin Hexameters, 

With Palamont above the rest in place, 

Lycurgus came, the surly king of Thrace ; 

Black was his beard, and manly was his face : 

The baUa of his broad eyes rolled in his head. 

And glared betwixt a yellow and a red ; 

He looked a lion with a gloomy stare* 

And o'er his eye-brows hung his matted hair ; 

Big-boned, and large of limbs, with sinews strong ; 

Broad-shouldered, and his arms were round and long I 

Four milk-white bulls (the Thracian use of old) 

Were yoked to draw his car of burnished gold. 

Upright he stood, and bore aloft his shield, 

Conspicious from afar, and overlooked the field. 

His surcoat was a bear-skin on his back ; 

His hair hung long behind, and glossy raven-black. 

His ample forehead bore a coronet 

With sparkling diamonds, and with rubies set ; 


Ten brace, and more» of greyhoundi, snowy fidr, 

And tall as stags, ran loose, and coursed around his chair, 

A match for pards in flight, in grappling for the bear. 

With golden mussles all their mouths were bound, 

And ooDari of the same their necks surround. 

Thus through the field Lycurgus took his way ; 

hundred knights attend in pomp and proud array. 

Into Latin Elegiacs. 

When he, who adores thee, has left but the name 

Of his fiiult and his sorrows behind. 
Oh! say wilt thou weep, when they darkei^ the fame 

Of a life that for thee was resign'd ! 

Yes» weep, and however my foes may condemn, 

Thy tears shall effiice their decree ; 
For heaven can witness, though guilty to them, 

I have been but too fiuthiul to thee ! 

With thee were the dreams of my earliest love { 
Every thought of my reason was thine : 

In my last humble prayer to the Spirit above, 
Thy name shall be mingled with mine ! 

Oh ! blest are the lovers and friends who shall live 

The days of thy glory to see ; 
But the next dearest blessing that heaven can give 

Is the pride of thus dying for thee. 

VI. Iifto English Prose. 

Herod, i. 1 94. 

To ii aafdvT^y OlSvfM v wo rdjd^oc rov irorafioS. 

1 . Supposing these to be Babylonian talents, what was the burden 
of the larger vessels in terms of English Avoirdupois weight ? 

t. old n ioTu Explain the original formation of this expression. 
Whence came the re? and how, according to the grammarians, 
does its omission aflect the signification of the phrase! 
Thucyd. iii. 11. 

Kal cl ftiu aiMyofioi t o ai/ro iroiavfuv. 


I. State, clearly and briefly, the leading points of distinction in 
the usage of ov and fuf, ov fjtij and ftiy ov. 
Demosth. adv. Lept. §. 31. 

IloXXfli Be Bavfuiiiay Aewrlyov rotovr oviiy eiroi. 

1. What was the ground of contest between Demosthenes and 
8. (a) Before whom did the vrfvOuxot appear ? 

(fi) In what did the tuBvya and BoKiftatrla differ ? 
S. What is the force of the expression ^ffjXdoy oi 'xpoyoi ? 

4. Translate 

(a) Tavra ical ra rotavra irdyra wofHunioofieda "Ofoipoy 
re jcac rove aXXouc irociTrac /iij xuKewiUyeiyf ay ^la- 
yfKu^fuy, Plato* PoiU, iii. 

(/3) Tlipiwn fuy ovy ZUy^}\idy fum rdc 2^c» i/ampoi ^off- 
KoiTcc elvac. £y<. de puhL peam, 

5. (a) What were these vvVduoc, and how appointed ? 

(/3) To what public officers was the same title appUedt 

6. What was the nature and extent of the orcXe/cu at Athens? 

7. What is the exact diflference of meaning in the words 

(a) <£ywV, (fi) Sixfif (y) BiaSucofflal 

VII. Into Greek Tragic Iambics. 

When Evening lights her folding-star on high, 

I live and breathe, and in the sacred hours 

Of quiet and repose my spirit flies, 

Free as the Morning, o'er the realms of space, 

And mounts the skies, and imps her wing for heaven. 

Hence do I love the sober-suited maid ; 

Hence Night's my friend, my mistress, and my theme ; 

And she shaU aid me now to magnify 

The night of ages. — 

Behold the world 
Rests, and her tir'd inhabitants have paus'd 
From trouble and turmoiL The widow now 
Has ceas'd to weep, and her twin orphans lie 
Lock'd in each arm, partakers of her rest. 
The man of sorrow has forgot his woes ; 
The outcast that his head is shelterless, 


His griefii unshar'd. — ^The mother tends no more 

Her daughter's dying slumbers^ but, surprised 

With heaviness, and sunk upon her couch, 

Dreams of her bridals* Even the hectic, lull'd 

On Death's lean arm to rest, in visions wrapt. 

Crowning with Hope's bland wreath his shuddering nurse. 

Poor victim I smiles. — Silence and deep repose 

Beign o'er the nations ; and the warning voice 

Of Nature utters audibly within 

The general morifl : — teUs us that repose, 

Deathlike as this, but of far longer span, 

Is coming on us — that the weary crowds, 

Who now enjoy a temporary calm, 

Shall soon taste lasting quiet, wrapt around 

With graveHdothes. 

VIII. Into English Prose. 

Terent. Phorm. Act. ii. sc. i. 3 — 20. 

'* Ad te summa solum, Phormio, 

ducent damnatumdomum.' 

Hor. i. Epist. xv. 26 — 37. 
•* MsBnius ut rebu s 

-corrector Bestius." 

Pers. i. 5—12. 123—134. 

** Non si quid turbida Roma 
splene cachinno." 

" Audaci quicunque afflate Cratino 

Calliroen do." 

Explain examen^ castigeSf trtUina — abacot meUu^ Calliroen, Who 
is meant by prcegrandi cum sene^ and why is he thus designated ? 
Propert. i. 9* 

" Gavisa es certe 

-sanguine pluris amor." 

At what time did Propertius live ; and what was the nature of 
the law here mentioned ? 



This prize is contended for by those Incepting Bachelors 
only whose names appear on the First Tripos, that is, who 
hold a place among the Wranglers or Senior Optimes. The 
examination takes place abont a month after the conclusion of 
that for B. A. degree ; and medals, valae fifteen guineas each, 
are presented by the Chancellor to those candidates who 
are adjadged to hold the first and second places in it It is 
of mnch the same kind as that for University Scholarships. 


I. Into English Prose. 

Tacit Ann. iii. 7 — 10. 

'<Tum exuto justitio— — — ad tenatum remiUit." 

II. Into English Prose. 

Soph. Phaoct. 271—313. 

Tor afffuvoi fjL iJc elioy 

•nir aZft^yov vo90V. 

AriBtoph. Vesp. 1102—1121. 
IloXXaxov (TKOiroviTec lifMs- 

'fvf ijfiptip T(Mifi6Koy. 

Theocr. IdylU xv. 1—37. 
£v&M IIfNi(ci^a; 

■rdv ylnncdy wporidfiKa. 

III. Into Comic Iambics. 

Ah good my master, you may sigh for death, 
And call amain upon him to release you; 
But will you bid him welcome when he comes ? 
Not you. Old Charon has a stubborn task 
To tug you to his wherry» and dislodge you 
From your rich tables, when your hour b come. 


1 muse the Gods send not a plague amongst you, 
A good, brisk, sweeping, epidemic plague : 
There's nothing else can make you all immortal. 

Into Tragic Iambics. 

Glamis thou art and Cawdor, and shalt be 

What thou art promised. Yet do I fear thy nature : 

It is too full o'the milk of human kindness 

To catch the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great. 

Art not without ambition ; but without 

The illness should attend it. What thou wouldst highly. 

That wouldst thou holily ; wouldst not play Mae, 

And yet wouldst wrongly win : thou'dst have, great Glamis, 

That which cries, Thus thou must do, if thou Jutve it ; 

And that, which rather thou dost fear to do, 

Than wishest should be undone. Hie thee hither, 

That I may pour my spirits in thine ear, 

And chastise with the valour of my tongue 

All that impedes thee from the golden round, 

Which fate and metaphysical aid dodi seem 

To have thee crown'd withal. 

Into Anapaests. 

And longer had she sung, but with a firown 

Revenge impatient rose : 
He threw hia blood-stain'd sword in thunder down ; 
And with a withering look 

The war-denouncing trumpet took. 

And Uew a blast so loud and dread. 
Were ne'er prophetic sounds so full of woe. 

And ever and anon he beat 

The doubling drum with furious heat ; 
And' though sometimes, each dreary pause between, 

Dejected Pity at his side 

Her soul-subduing voice applied. 
Yet still he kept hia wild unalter'd mien, 
While eaoh strain'd ballof sight seem'd bursting from his head. 


Into Greek Prose. 

But when they made it a contest as well as a study, when 
they hung up wreaths and crowns as the rewards of victory, and 
turned dramatic spectacles into a kind of Olympic games, they 
brought a crowd of competitors to the lists. The magistrate gene- 
rally, and private citizens in particular cases, furnished the exhibition 
at an immense expence, and with a degree of splendour we have 
little conception o£ The happy poet, crowned with the wreath of 
triumph, presenting himself to the acclamations of a crowded theatre, 
felt such a flood of triumph, as in some instances to sink under the 
ecstacy and expire on the spot ; whilst on the other hand disap- 
pointment operating upon susceptible and sanguine minds, has been 
more than once productive of effects as fatal: such minds, though 
they claim our pity, do not merit our respect, and it is a consola- 
tion to reflect, that where there is a genius like that of ^schylus, 
there is generally found a concomitant magnanimity, which can dis- 
regard, with conscious dignity, the false misjudging decrees of the 

IV. Into English Prose. 

Pers. iii. 1 — 34. 

''Nempe hoc assidu^ ? 

-non bullit in undft." 

Into Latin Prose. 

"You write me word, that considering our mutual affection and 
late reconciliation, you never imagined, that you should be made 
the subject of public jest and ridicule by me. I do not well under- 
stand what you mean ; yet guess that you have been told, that, 
when I was speaking one day in the Senate of many, who were 
sorry for my having preserved the Republic, I said, that certain 
relations of yours, to whom you could refuse nothing, had prevailed 
with you to suppress what you had prepared to say in the Senate in 
praise of me : when I said this, I added, that in the affiur of saving, 
the State I had divided the task with you in such a manner, that I 
was to secure the City from intestine dangers, you to defend Italy 
from the open arms and secret plots of our enemies ; but that this 
glorious partnership had been broken by your friends, who were 

chancellor's medals. 93 

afraid of your makiog me the least return for the greatest honours 
and services which you had received from me. In the same dis- 
course, when I was describing the expectation which I had conceived 
of your speech, and how much 1 was disappointed by it, it seemed 
to divert the house, and a moderate laugh ensued ; not upon you, 
but on my mistake, and the frank and ingenious confession of my 
desire to be praised by you. Now in this, it must needs be owned, 
that nothing could be said more honourably towards you, when in 
the most shining and illustrious part of my life, I wanted still to 
have the testimony of your commendation*'' 

V. Into English Prose. and Latin Lyrics. 

Find. Pyth. viii. 1—77. 

^iki^poy *Ainr)(la evpvxppovc ayviac* 

Vf . Subject for Latin verse ** Alexander ab IndicA expedi. 
tione reditnms duodecim aras statait." 

VIL Into English Prose. 

Thucyd. vii. 25. 

'EyeVcTO Be Kal irepii rwy aravp^ v Tdpaic irairo/atc ij(p^vTO» 
Demosth. Contra Phorm. 

*A§DOwnLc Toiwy iiftMy9^''-^)(ptifiaT dwoltimKiytu. 
Give a particular explanation of the words 

diriyyVf InpirKody dfi^onporXovy, iyytluv i^txrolm 
Plat. Repub. iL 8. 

Tavra travra c^, i ^/Xc SciiKjparcf ,-— ^ilyairccOo/iovf. 

I. Into English Prose. 

Tadt. Hist. iv. 8. 

^'Marcellusy non suam sententiam— -eligerentur." 
Quintil. xi. d. 

" Tqgam veteres ad calceos ^non inhabile.** 

Into Latin Prose. 

"When I arrived at Arpinum, and my brother was come to me, 
our first and chief discourse was on you ; which gave me an oppor- 


tttDity of falling upon the afikir of your sister, which you and I had 
talked over together at Tusculnm : I never saw any thing so flrfM 
and moderate as my brother was, without giving die least ht&t, of 
hu ever having had any real cause of oflenee firom her. The next 
morning we left Arpinum ; and that day being a festivid, QuintttS 
was obliged to spend it at Arcanum, where I dined with him, but 
went on afterwards to Aquinum : You know diis villa of his : as 
soon as we came thither, Quintus said to his wife in the civillest 
terms ; Do you, Pomponia, invite the women, and I will send to the 
men : (nothing, as far as I saw, could be said more obligingly, eidier 
in his words or manner:) to which she replied, so as we all might 
hear it, I am but a stranger here myself: referring, I guess, to my 
brother's having sent Statius before us to order the dinner: upon 
which, see, says my brother to me, what I am forced to bear every 
day. This, you will say, was no great matter. Yes, truly, great 
enough to give me much concern ; to see her reply so absurdly and 
fiercely both in her words an4 looks: but I dissembled my 

IL Into English Prose. 

Herod, i. 185. 

TovTO fuv 5i| Toutvxo iroirioe avrf c ra irpaypara. 

Thucyd. vii. 70. 

Upotrayayofuvoi Si oi ^vpaicovfftoi irvicyonpai Ijcay, 

Plat. Phaed. cap. Ixiv. Ed. Stallb. 

FcXaVac Si ct/ia ifovx^* POfUfWv elvai. 


Ilcpi Si Tov }p€vS6fuyoy iXijfifi wponpov. 

III. Subject for Latin Verse, 

^iXoira/o'/iovcc yap Kal ol deol, Cratyl. }. 50. 

IV. Into Greek Prose. 

For what remains, the excellency of Shakspeare was, as I have 
said, in the more manly passions ; Fletcher's in the softer : Shaks* 
peare writ better betwixt man and man ; Fletcher, betwixt man and 
woman : consequently one described friendship better ; the other, 

chancellor's medals. ^ 95 

love. Yet Shakspeare taught Fletcher to write love. It is true, 
the scholar had the softer soul; but the master had the kinder. 
Friendship is both a virtue and a passion essentially ; love is a 

passion only in its nature, and is not a virtue but by accident 

Shakspeare had an universal mind, which comprehended all charac- 
ters and passions ; Fletcher a more confined and limited : for 
though he treated love in perfection, yet ambition, revenge, and all 
the stronger passions, he either touched not, or not masterly, 
^schin. Contra Ctesiph. 5Z^53, 

Demosth. Olynth. i. 3. 

"Eyw fuv yop, i Avdpic A8i|KiIdc dvtiiiffiiaBai* 

V. Into English Prose. 

Soph. Trach. 1212—1222. 
"Oc fwi irdrepf 

-cVcica^eiv ifjii. 

Into English Prose and Latin Lyrics. 

Find. Nem. ix. 104—132. 

*Eic irovwv 5*, oi avy vtoran 

Theocr. Idyll, xxv. 68 — 83. 

Tovc il KvyaQ irpoavovra^—— 

•d^riveg yirtff alin^. 

Hom. Odyss. xiii. 429 — 438. 
'Oc apa fuy t^fiiyri 

'fiv dopnip. 

VI. Into Latin Elegiacs. 

There's a bower of roses by Bendemeer's stream. 

And the m'ghtingale sings round it all the day long; 
In the time of my childhood 'twas like a sweet dream 

To sit in the roses and hear the bird's song. 
That bower and its roses I never forget. 

But oft when alone in the bloom of the year 
I think, — is the nightingale singing there yet f 

Are the roses still bright by the calm Bendemeerf 


No, the roses soon wither'd that hung o'er the wave ; 

But some blossoms were gather'd whfle freshly they shone^ , 
And a dew was distiU'd from the flowers, that gave 

All the fragrance of summer, when summer was gone. 
Thus memory draws from delight 'ere it dies. 

An essence that breathes of it many a year* 
Thus bright to my soul, as 'twas then to my eyes. 

Is that bower on the banks of the calm Bendemeer. • 

VII. Subject for Latin Theme. 

'* Sit, quod vis, simplex duntaxat et unum." 

VIII. Into English Prose. 

Pers. iii. 88—106. 

" Inspice nescio quid 

-subiere Quirites." 

Virg. -ffln. X. 185—212. 

*' Non ego te Ligurum ductor- 

-murmurat unda." 

Lucret« ii. 408 — 430. 

" Omnia postremo bona- 

-inukeque sapores." 

Plant. Pers. i. 2. 8. 

** Veterem atque antiquum- 

-remorandus est gradus.*' 

IX. IntoEnglish Prose. 
Aristoph. Vesp. 230— 25S. 

•idy rlfuoy wplaaBai, 

Into Greek Tragic Iambics. 

The Oracles are dumb, 
No voice or hideous hum 

Runs thro' the arched roof in words deceiving. 
Apollo from his shrine 
Can no more divine. 

With hollow shriek the steep of Delphos leaving. 

chanceli^or's medals. 97 

No nightly trance, or breathed spell, 

Inspires the pale-ey'd Priest from the prophetic cell. 

The lonely mountains o*er, 
And the resounding shore, 

A voice of weeping heard, and loud lament ; 
From haunted spring, and dale, 
Edg*d with poplar pale, 

The parting Genius is with sighing sent ; 
With flow'r*inwoven tresses torn, 
The Nymphs in twilight shade of tangled thickets mourn. 

In consecrated Earth, 
And on the holy Hearth, 

The Lars and Lemures moan with midnight plaint ; 
In Urns, and Altars round, 
A drear and dying sound 

Affrights the Flamines at their service quaint ; 
And the chill marble seems to sweat, 
Mobile each peculiar Power foregoes his wonted seat. 

I. Into English Prose. 

Juv. Sat. vii. 106—134. 

" Die igitur quid causidicis- 

-stlataria purpura filo." 

Terent Prolog, in Phorm. 1 — 22 
Postquam poeta vetus 

•sibi id esse allatum putet.* 

Into Greek Prose. 

This kind of learning, therefore, you do not passionately ad- 
mire, but have rather chosen to devote your chief attention to the 
study of eloquence. A study, whose high importance we ex- 
perience daily in all our public transactioifs, and which enables us 



to deliberate on all affairs of state : by which you too have discovered 
no inconsiderable share of wisdom, in directing and prescribing to 
your subjects, in judging of what is truly noble and equitable, and 
what is contrary to these, and in dispensing punishments and rfr* 
wardsi according to those unerring rules derived from this impor* 
tant knowledge. These studies prove your true discernment, and 
give the most favourable assurance both to your father, and to others, 
that, by a due perseverance in such laudable pursuits, at a maturer 
time of life, you will arrive at the same distinguished eminence in 
true wisdom, which your father confessedly enjoys at present. 

II. Into English Prose. 

Herod, ii. 40. 

'H ^ ^ iialp€<nc rHv tp^y rd iKliroyro rwy Ipiiy, 
Pht. PhQeb. 23. 

2w. 'Birecdii ^yfjv diretpo v Kara rccvra w^avriiic* 
Demosth. contra Aphob. i. 4. 

'O yap iranipf J av^c ^cimffral— dcoxexpii/ieVov. 

III. Into Latin Prose. 

As soon as we got through the straits of the morass and the 
woods, we drew up the twelve cohorts in order of battle. The other 
two legions were not yet come up. Antony immediately brought 
all his troops out of the village, ranged likewise in order of battle* 
and, without delay, engaged us. At first they fought so briskly on 
both sides, that nothing could possibly be fiercer ; though the right 
wing, in which I was, with eight cohorts of the Martial legion, put 
Anton/s thirty-fifth legion to flight at the first onset, and pursued 
it above five hundred paces from the place where the action began. 
Wherefore, observing the enemy's horse attempting to surround our 
wing, I began to retreat, and ordered the light^rmed troops to 
make head against the Moorish horse, and prevent their coming 
upon us behind. In the meanwhile, I perceived myself in the 
midst of Antony's men, and Antony himself but a little way be- 
hind me ; upon which, with my shield thrown over my shoulder, I 
pushed on my horse widi all speed towards the legion of recruits 
that was coming toward us from the camp : and, whilst Antony*s 
men were pursuing me, and our*s, by mistake, throwing javelins at 

chancellor's mbdals. 99 

me. I was presenred, I know not how, by being presendy known to 
our Boldien. 

** The origin of the human soul/' says he» *' is not to be found 
any where on earth. There ia nothing mixedi concrete^ or earthly ; 
nothing of water, air, or fire in it. For these natures are not sus- 
ceptible of memory, intelligence, or thought ; have nothing that can 
retain the past, foresee the future, lay hold on the present ; which 
fiiculties are purely Divine, and could not possibly be derived to 
man, except from Crod. The nature of the soul, therefore, is of a 
singular kind ; distinct firom these known and obvious natures : and 
whatever it be that feels and tastes, that lives and moves in us, it 
must be heavenly and Divine, and for that reason eternal. Nor is 
God indeed himself, whose existence we clearly discover, to be com- 
prehended by us in any other manner, but as a free and pure mind, 
dear firom all mortal concretion ; observing and moving all things, 
and endued with an eternal principle of self-motion* Of this kind, 
and of the same nature, is the human soul/* 

IV. Into Greek Hexameters. 

Then with a rushing sound, th* assembly bend 

Diverse their steps : the rival rout ascend 

The royal dome ; whilst sad the Prince explores 

The neighbouring main, and s o rrow in g treads the shores. 

There, as the waters o'er his hands he shed. 

The royal suppliant to Minerva pray'd: 

'* O Goddess ! who descending finom the skies 
Vouchsaf 'd thy presence to my wond'ring eyes ; 
By whose commands the raging deep I trace, 
And seek my sire through storms and rolling seas ; 
Hear firom the heav'ns above, O warrior-maid ; 
Descend once more propitious to my aid. 
Without thy presence vain is thy command : 
Greece and the rival train thy voice withstand." 



Into Greek Iambics. 

Let It be so — ^Thy truth then be thy dower : 
For by the sacred radiance of the sun ; 
The mysteries of Hecate, and the night ; 
By afl the operations of the orbs, 
From whom we do exist, and cease to be ; 
Here I disclaim all my paternal care. 
Propinquity and property of blood, 
And as a stranger to my heart and me 
Hold thee from this for ever. The barbarous Scydiian, 
Or he that makes his generation messes 
To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom 
Be as well neighbour'd, pitied, and reliev'd. 
As thou my sometime daughter. 

Into English Prose. 

Aristoph. Eccles. 728—745. 

Eywy ly ck oyepav y£— 

'Tor ayXoy dfitrt* 

1. Explain very briefly the allusions in this passage. 

2. Arrange the plays of Aristophanes in chronological order, 
mentioning the most prominent political circumstances in each — 
those especially which mark the date of the piece. 

Tacit. Ann. xyi. 26. 

** Contra qui opperiendnm domi Senatus oonsulto.*' 

Id. Ann. iii. S\. 

** Inter quae Severus Coecina ■ ■ stipendia explevisset.'* 
Cic. Philip, ii. 17. 

*' Ab h4c religionum— — de tant4 impudentii." 

V. Into Latin Hexameters. 

From the moist meadow to the withered hill. 
Led by the breeze, the vivid verdure runs. 
And swells, and deepens, to the cherish'd eye. 
The hawthorn whitens ; and the juicy groves 
Put forth their buds, unfolding by degrees, 
Till the whole leafy forest stands displayed, 
In full luxuriance to the sighing gales ; 

. ciiancbllor's medals. 101 

Where the deer rustle thro* the twining brake, 

And the birds sing conceaVd. At once array'd 

In all the colours of the flushing year, 

By Nature's swift and secret»working hand, 

The garden glows, and fills the liberal air 

With lavish fragrance ; while the promised fruit 

Lies yet a little embryo, unperoeiT'd, 

Within its crimson folds. Now from the town 

Buned in smoke, and sleep, and noisome damps, 

Oft let me wander o'er the dewy fields, 

Where freshness breathes, and dash the trembling drop» 

From the bent bush, as thro' the verdant maxe 

Of sweet-briar hedges I pursue my walk ; 

Or taste the smell of dairy ; or ascend 

Some eminence, Augusta, in thy plains, 

And see the country, far diffused around. 

One boundless blush, one white-empurpled shower 

Of mingled blossoms ; where the raptur'd eye 

Hurries from joy to joy, and, hid beneath 

The fair profusion* yellow Autumn spies. 

VI. Into English Prose ; and also (omittiog the Antistropfae) 
into Latin Lyrics. 

Eurip. Ion. 1048—1089. 

*£<vo^/a Ovyarep AdyLtarpoc 

6 ^i/3cioc ctXaVaC' 

Into English Prose. 

Epbippus ap. Athensum, xi. liiO. 

Eircir* dvaaraQ ivorcyoQ vtavlag : — 


Explain the third line. 

OifjuH dvoKKeiTig* dvo fuv RiypivOoc oXimXc, 

AriKdvTOv c dyadoy Kilptrm olyoirecov' 
01 ^ dyaOoi ^ei/yovvi, troXiv ii Kaicoi hewovtriv' 
«<: Kvyj/tWi^ov Zei/f oXitnti ycVof. — Theog. HOO. 
Explain the History. 


Into English Prose. 

Hesiod. Clyp. Here 886—401. 

•irokuQ y opvfMySoQ optipei. 

VII. Subject for Latin Verse. 

retire a Kovfoic wvtvfiaaiv fiotnsov^ viav 
4fV)(jiy oraWiiiF. — Soph. Aj. 578. 



The principal Classical Lectures are in most of the Colleges 
those given to men in their first year of residence. The sub- 
jects are greatly varied ; but they are more usually a Greek 
play, a selection from one of the Greek historians, orators, 
or philosophers, and from some Latin writer, either of prose 
or verse. A general examination in these subjects takes 
place throughout the University at the end of the third term ; 
at St. John's they examine at the end of the first term also. 
At some Colleges, especially Trinity, two papers are gene- 
rally given on each subject; one containing a variety of 
questions arising out of the subject, or connected with it ; 
the other consisting of passages from the book itself to be 
translated, and a piece of English to be rendered into the 
same language and style. The former kind is, with a few 
exceptions, the only one we have admitted into our col- 

In the larger Colleges, and in some few of the others, a 
portion of the Greek Testament, one of the Gospels, or the 
Acts of the Apostles, is a subject of examination for second- 
year men. And besides this, some classical book is read in 
the lecture-room, generally one of those which form a part 
of the previous Examination, or Little Go. The first and 
second terms of the second year, and not unfreqnently also 
the second and third of the first year are employed by the 
tators of the smaller Colleges in preparing their men for this 


public examination. Homer is commonly a subject for the 
third year at Trinity ; at the other Colleges, those persons 
who are candidates for Mathematical honours are exempted 
from the interruption of classical lectures ;* the rest are kept 
employed upon the six first books of the Iliad and iBneid, 
which form the c^assieal part of the examination for ordi- 
nary' degrees. 




iS'tfi^ Coll. et anno. 

]. Whbn did Herodotus live? Who were the principal Greek 
writers previous to hiff time ? 

S« From what Hiitonans is it supposed that he derived any in- 
formation ? 

3. About what time does the history of Greece begin to be au- 
thentic! state how long after the time of Moses, and how much 
earlier than the age of Herodotus. 

4. Which were the principal Oracles consulted by Croesus ? were 
their answers derived from human contrivance or some supernatural 
causes ? state the reasons usually given for both opinions. 

5. Give some explanation of the Fable of Arion. 

6. What were the principal dialects of the Greek language 1 ex- 
plain the term Kolyri yXtiffenj — mention some of the peculiarities 
of tlie Ionic dialect— change the following words to the common 
tongue :— Oi7<ra/i€vov* (iaffiKfitffV irtdwy' iytyiaro' avkaro* airo&- 
^j(aTuC irerdxan^ dywdarai. 

7. Translate, and supply the ellipses in these passages: 

(1 .) ^^6 ^e 0f 4 Kal if iroXXfj r^c lUKoiroyyTioov {v rarc<rrpa/[i/if vi|*— 
(2.) iwivoficrac ra ^v diiiiyavov ^{oipciK re ical ^xc^(i0xi90(ii.— • 

8. Draw a map of Asia Minor ; mark the boundaries of the con* 
quests of Croesus ; shew the courses of the Rivers Halys and 
Hsemus ; point out the positions of Sardes, Miletus, £phesus» 
Smyrna, Phocsea ; the Islands Chios, Rhodus, and Samos. 

9. Give some account of the Cimmerians. 

10. 11. Different passages to translate. 



1 . Translate the following passages into English : 
'Opfuiodai flip yvv eV Ta^KivTOQ 

■rat dviKOfUvov airiyyccerOai way to ycyowJc. — 

cap. 24. 

^Edpvrwn H ravra roim deoirpiirouii- 

•$^}| Bi o^ Koi if moXXii rf c HeKorovyijirov rfv 

KanoTpafifiivri, — cap. 67. 
lo d£ anayriay uwvfia fieytorov " 

^•^-^aXXa rpoKf rf avr^ wouvyrai irXoca. — cap. 1 94. 

2, Cap. 6. OSroQ 6 Kpourosp (iapfiapwy npwroQt rUtv lifuit l^ftev, 
rove f^y KOTtOT^'^TO 'EXXfiViui^ cc ^ipov dwaytry^v^ rove ^9 fCkovQ 
wpoaeirot^aaro, — Explain the use of the middle verb in this passage. 

3. Ilapa TOVTiav HfxucXei&ii ivirpa^vriQ (al. iwirpa^vret:) iaxp^ 
r^y dpxv^ ^^ Qtfmpmrlov — cap. 7. Render this passage according to 
both readings ; and corroborate your translation of eVirpa^»T£c by 
quotations from Homer or Herodotus. 

4« Render the words othna iv vdv itm avBpbnroQ fntfi^ofni* ifuli ^ 
Kill av irXovrc£iv fuv fxiya ^o/fccu, koX ficuriKivQ elvcu, iroXkuy dyOpuh- 
wQy* eKciyo Si to ilpeo fu, ovkw at iyta Xcyw, Tcply ay Tekamifmyra 
KokuQ Toy al^ya irvOw/icu— cap. 32. Support your interpretation of 
ovfi^opi^ and ^lytai — also render the two phrases vpiy ay reXcvni- 
oavra • . • miBwiJiiUf and nply ay rtXevniiraffOcu . • . irvOta/iot. 

5. 'Airucvcerai eg Tag 2df>&c dyifp tntfju^j ixofuvoQf kou ov xadapOQ 
Xeipac itiy. napeXdiiy Si oirog eg ra Kpoimv ohcla^ icara yofwvg rove 
iwixupiovg KaOapffiov iSiiTO KvpfjeaC Kpoiaog Si fuy iicd&ppe, iwd ii 
ra yofitiofuya tKoLtiat 6 KpolaoCf imtyddyero oKoSiy tc koI Tig £ci|, Xi- 
yiay rdZe' "QyOpunrtf Tig te itiy, roi k*o6£i' r^c ^pvyirfg ijmty^ i-x-ltrrtog 
ifjLol iyiyeo ; nya re dySpQy ^ yvycuKwy iijtoytvaag— cap, 35. Trans- 
kte this passage. Was all this in conformity with the manners of 
the age ? Explain eir/vrioe, and mention other instances which may 
occur to you of the same custom. Describe the ceremonies alluded 
to by the words rd yofu(6fUya ivolvitn. 

6. Explain the use o£ icara^pon/uovrec in the passage icara^y^- 
aayrtg *ApKdcwy Kpiaaoyig clvoi — cap. 66. and distinguish Kpelvavv 
and dfulywy. 


7. "Eirc/irc OiOfrpomvc ec rou^ e&|yi|rcac TcXf(i|<ro'£«i)K — cap. 78. 
Who were these ^£i|yirrai ? Where was this oracle : and who was 
the persbn from whom it derived its name ? 

8. Tf a Kpolfff eoTEorri iirl ngfc irvprjcf itrtXBeiy^ xai vep eV Ktucf 
cotTf roooifry, rorov 2oXwih>c» cS^C oi €ii| avy dif tlpfifdroy, to ** Mi|2e- 
va elycu rwv J^Qyr^av oX/3cok.*' «Jc ^e dfpa /itv icpofrr^voi rovrOf arcveiini- 
ftfyov re koX dyeun-evdiayra ix iroXX^c V^v)(iv^* h rp^C Syopduai 2oXw- 
ya — cap. 86. Translate this passage. Explain the phrase «Jc fuy 
Tpoarfiytu rdvro ; and support your translation of dytyiiKdfieyoy. 

9. ^CLffl Si avrol AvScl ... cod Tvpmiyifiy airouritfoc— -cap. 94. Do 
Horace and Virgil mention this ? If so, quote passages of these 
poets wherein allusion is made to it. 

10. M^&M de vwiKwj/ay TUp^jftn^ ap^yreg Tijs dwa "AXovc irorafwv 
'AcTAiic £ir* ina r/MifKotra ical ixaroy hvHy Btoyra^ vdp^ ^ otmy oi Sm/- 
Bai ipxoy — cap. 130. When did this empire oftheMedes com- 
mence, and under what kings did it continue ? What extent of 
country is to be understood by the expression i| dy^^AKovQ Trorafiov 
'Aolfi ; and how far, according to his historyt did Herodotus's know- 
ledge of Asia extend ? What appear to have been his ideas res- 
pecting the eastern boundary of Europe beyond the Euxine ? 

11. Give, from Herodotus, (cap. 131, 132.) some account of the 
worship of the Persians, and of the ceremonies observed by them in 
ofiering up sacrifices. 

12. What events in Greece occasioned the £olic and Ionic mi- 
grations ? What extent of country, according to Herodotus, was 
occupied by the Ionic settlers ? Name the principal cities situated 
within this territory. 

13. Give Herodotus's description of the tower of Belus. What, 
according to him, were its dimensions? Give them in English 
feet. Did any other building of antiquity equal or exceed this in 
magnitude ? 

14. Tiyofuyov Si rovrcv rotcvrov 

^-^yvy Si e( dtrpotrSoKfiTOv ai^i napifmitray oi Il/pcreu— cap. 191. 
Translate this passage. What is the mood, tense and voice of eVe- 
rdxaro ? With what tenses of the mdicative mood is the particle 
ay joined in a contingent or conditional sense ? 

15. 'H a Kamrlri OdXaffcra, itni cV itwr^Sf ov trvfifdiryovaa rp 
irtpjl OaKdffffff* rrjy fiiy yap "EKKriyig vavTiXKoyrai irdaay, mc ij H/u 


aniKi^v BdKaffmi, koI i| *£fw0(MJ, fiia rvyxdvtt iovaa. — cap. 202. Is 
this correct? If so, whence could Herodotus have derived his in- 
formation ? When, and by whose orders had Africa been circum- 
navigated before his time? Give his account of this voyage. 
Give the modem names of the Seas here mentioned by him. When 
and by what modem navigator was the Cape of Good Hope passed, 
and the first voyage to India made ? 

16. Where does Herodotus place the Massagetae? Give his 
account of the expedition of Cyrus against this people. Does 
Xenophon's account of the death of Cyrus agree with that of 
Herodotus? If not, which do you consider most entitled to credit; 
and why ? 

17. Give the mood, tense, and voice of i^^nro — cap. 66. of 
XvwtolaTO — cap. 99. of Ke\([aplBaTai — cap. 140. and of ifveucarro-^ 
cap. 178. and write down each of these verbs in the common form. 

Wha! is also the common form of fUitav — cap. 202. of rpi{a (cot 
ffi^i Tpdfli iitvprjfjLara iytviro — cap. 171) o£ 6r€f — cap. 95. and of 
eiriirXoa — cap. 94. ( . . irXoia, ec rd ivOefiivoi rd t.drra otra vfi i|y 
ypfiard eirtirXoa, airoirXeovat • . . . ) 

18. Mention the principal dialects of ancient Greece, and the 
districts where each peculiarly prevailed. Give tlie futures, At- 
tic^, and lonic^, of oT^/iacvoii, Kakiia, ^apH^Ofiaif 9K€^c^w and fiiytf, 

19. Give some account of the manner in which Lycurgus 
changed the constitution of Sparta {jxtriarrifrt rd vofxtfia iraWo* koX 
ifvXak ravra ^17 irapajSacVciv .... cap. 65.) 

20. Draw maps; (1.) of Asia Minor wiihin the river Haiys^ 
shewing the situation of its several provinces ; the course of the 
Mseander, Caicus, Granicus and Halys. (2.) of Greece within the 
isthmus of Corinth. 

21. What are the modem names of CBnotria and Cyrous men- 
tioned in the account of the Phocseans — cap. 1 66, 167 ? Point out 
the situation, and give the modern name of the people called by 
Herodotus 'Evcroi. How far westward does it appear this his- 
torian's knowledge of Europe extended ? 


CAIUS COLL. 1822. 

First Paper. 

1. Give a sketch oY the hfe of Herodotus, referring to authori- 

By what Classic Authors are the nine Books of this History 
named after the Muses ? Have they been always so 
designated ? 

What other works, extant or lost, are attributed to Hero- 
dotus ? Why is it doubtful whether they were written by 

2. Enumerate the principal writers who preceded Herodotus, 
From what sources did he derive his historical and chronological 
information? Who was the first Prose writer, and what his 
subject ? 

When were laws first committed to writing among the Greeks ? 

3. Did Herodotus write in his native dialect? Trace the changes 
of the Ionic dialect, and their causes. 

Who are the laones of Homer ? 

4. By what writers were the Greeks called lleXaayoll Is there 
any mention of Pelasgi inhabiting otlier parts of the world ? 

Give an outline of the history of this people. 

5. Draw a map of Asia Minor, marking the course of the 
Halys, and the different people who formed the Lydian empire 
under CrcDsus ; also the chief Ionian and ^olian cities. 

At what periods did the Greeks settle there? When did 
they first become tributary to a barbarian poWer ? 

6. Reconcile Herodotus* account of the duration of the As- 
Syrian empire with that of other historians. Enumerate the 
different revolutions in the Assyrian, Median, and Babylonian 
empires ; giving the dates. 

What are the Scripture names of Sardanapalus, Arbaces, 
Belesis, De'ioces, Cyaxares (son of Astyages) and Cam- 
byses ? 

7. £iri TovTov (Ardys) re rupavvEvovTOQ ^^aphlutv, Ki fxfiipioi il tjdiwy 


vwo £irv9ewy rtiv No/LtaSwv ifytvatndvTEQt dtniciaTO ec rrjv ^Acr/iiv, Koi. 
Sap^iCy irXif V rqfc cExpoiroXiocy cIXov. 

'AXvamic ^c Kvafidpjf re rf Ai^uScew airoyf^i^ kmikifoinp col M^- 
3bc9x« Kififuplav^ re eV r^c 'Av/iifi iUS^atn* 

From what countries did the Cimmeni and the Scythians 
come ? What is further related of them in this book ? Assign the 
dates of the Incursion and Expulsion of the Cimmerii. 

Give instances of a similar use of ifOca, 

8. Quote from other authors who have mentioned the story of 

What were supposed to be the consequences of suicide, and of 
want of the customary rites of burial ? 

9. "ExoKTOff Se oi iv X€fKr\ tov ircu&^c rov ydfw y 

-'O fuv ^ Biatrav el\€ iy KfnUfmv, — cap. 35. 

Translate this passage ; and produce quotations in explanation 
of the custom alluded to. 


I* eg ^piyag ^\6e < 

(6) ^yeipoy BwrlyaQ ix rwy iroX/wv ae rtyig 

9<^i < irpoeidcaro > kov r«. 
V. irpoelSoyro J 


(c) (Pisistratus) ^ "W^ C ^^ rvpayyl^^ (jyetpe rplrn 

(d) opKUL a voueriu ravra ra idyea ra vep rt "ESXip^g' 
Kal irpoc T6vroitnf eircav rove fipct)(ioyaQ ifnTdfuayrai cc 

n|K < , ^ >ro aiiia aFoAeiyov^i aXAJiXwy, 

lofW)(poiirfy i 

Which readings are preferable, and for what reasons ? 
11 — 14 Passages to translate and explain. 

Second Paper. 

1. Mention the most famous oracles of antiquity, with a brief 
account of them. 


What is the probahle origin of the phrase ofi/^aXoQ rifQ y^t 
applied to Delphi f Are any other places so called ? 

2. What is the *£pv6f»^ O^Xatrati ; whence is the name derived? 
Trace the courses of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Araxes. 
Mark the positions of Babylon, Nineveh, Ecbatana, Susa, 
and Persepolis. 
S. In what circumstances does the account of the capture of 
Babylon given by Herodotus agree with the Prophecies rekting to 
it in the Holy Scriptures? 

4. How fiir does Herodotus' description of this dty diflfer from 
that of other authors? 

What is the subsequent history of Babylon ? What is ascer- 
tained of its site and remains ? 

5. What were the weights, and measures of surface and capacity, 
used at Athens ? 

6. State the length of the Stadium used by Herodotus, and of 
the )3curcX/|ioc wftyvC' Explain the terms iiaarakaltnoQ^ TJfjuTdKayrov 

7. Translate into Greek: 

They agreed that both armies should retire to their respective 
homes, lest remaining on the field of battle, either should be in- 
duced to render assbtance to their party. After their departure^ 
the men who had been selected for the purpose, came to an en- 
gagement, and fought with so little inequality, that out of six 
hundred but three remained, when night had terminated the con- 
test. Of the Argives two survived, whose names were Alcenor 
and Chromius ; they hastened to Argos, and claimed the victory. 
The Lacedaemonian was called Othryades, who, plundering the 
bodies of the slaughtered Argives, removed their arms to the camp 
of his countrymen, and then resumed his post in the field. 

8. What were the Ai6iipa/ij3oc, and yofWQ opOwc ? 

9. In whom were the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Power 
vested in the constitution of Athens, established by Theseus? 
What alterations were made from that time to the expulsion of the 
Pisistratidae ? 

10. What was the constitution introduced at Sparta by Ly- 
curgus, and what were his military regulations ? 


Explain fierd ^i, ra t'c rroXEfxov ixoyray irMftoriag icai rpiiyica^ac 
KOI mfvaina Eorti^e. 

1 1 — 18. Passages to translate. 


A. Translate accurately the following passages; and point out 
and illustrate any peculiarities of grammar or construction. 

(1) 'EoTparevero St vird mtpiyyuy re Koi Trii\KrHiav^ kol avXov 
ywaiKffiov TE Kal dvSpritov, (Jc ^£ €C rrjy MiXij(rt»|y dTrUoito, oiKtifiara 
uiy rd eVl rwv dypiav ovrt KaripaXKEy ovre iy£7rlfiirp% ovre OvpaQ 
drrimra, ia &* icara x*^»?»' itrrd^eyai' 6 Se rd re SivSpea Kolroy KopTroy 
rov iv ry yy ojcwc iropa^Oc/pcici', airaXXdo'O'ero ofrimo, 

(2) 'a fiamXev, voc xpiifia fieyitrroy dyetpdvri ijfAiy iy rj x^P9' ^^ 
rdepya ha<^eipeu rovroy irpoOvfieofuyoi eXieiy ov ovydfieda. vvv 
iy wpofrBeofieOd aev roy iral^a Kal XoydSac vciyv/ocKai «.-t;Vac ffw/ixcp;^ 
lifjuy, wc iy fuy e^Xwfxey cV ttjq x*^9^^' 

(S) Ov yap jjv Zeiyov Kard rovro fifj d\w kotL dirorofiog re yap 
iari ravrri tj dicponoXiQ Kal afiaxoQ* r^ ovSe Mi/Xiyc 6 vporepov flatn- 
Xevc Zapciuy fiovy^ ov Trepniveuce roy Acovra, roy ol )J iraXXaiciJ ireKe^ 
TeXfirffftreuy liKatrdynay, wc, irtpieyetyfievrOQ rov AeovroQ ro relxoc, 

ifToyrai 2ap^c£c avaXa>ro(. 

(4) ^fl Trat, (ri yap iyta ii oypiy ovelpov ov reXirjv ij^lKeoy, rf (retavrov 
Se fioipri vepuiQ' rvy iv Wi xa^P^" «C UipfraQ' tto/ittovc he eyw dfia 
ir£>i/^- iXdtay Se cm varepa re Kai unrepa evptjffEig, ov Kard Utrpa- 
5onjv re roy fiovKoXoy Kal ri;V yvya'iKa avrov, 

(5) KarvTrepSe he iroXX^ BajSvXwyon wpvfftre eXvrpoy X//*yjj, 6Xlyov 
ri vaparelrovtra diro rov worafiov, fiddoQ fiey k ro ifhttp del ^pvtrifovtrm, 
elpos ^£ ro irepifurpoy adrov irouvtra eUoffl re Kal rerpaKotrlwy araSi^r' 
rdv hi opvtrtrofievov xovv cV rovrov rov opvyixaroQ dydifflfiov irapd rd 
X€CXea rov Torafwv To^x^ovtra. ewel re he ol iSpvKro, XiBovc dyayo- 
fJLevrif Kpriirlha kvkX^ wepl avrtjv rfXatre* 


B, What is known of the life and travels of Herodotus from his 
own writings ? 

C (a) What is the oldest Asiatic nuNiarchy mentioned by 
Herodotus? Into what Empires, under what Monarchs, was Asia 
divided (1) in the time of Solomon, (2) in the year 700, B. C. (S) 
in the year 540, B. C. (4) in the year 500, B. C? 

(6) Who was originally o fxiyac BaeiKevQ^ and by what rig^t did 
the kings of Persia assume that title ? 

(c) What attempts have been made, at what periods, by the 
rulers of Persia on the nations to the North ? 

Z). 1. Who were properly lonians? Whence and about what 
period did they emigrate into Asia ? 

2* From what fact, mentioned by Herodotus, does it appear that 
they suffered no material political oppression either from Croesus or 
from Cyrus? 

E. 1. Which was the most powerful city of Greece in the earlier 
ages ? To what circumstance of locality do you attribute this ? 

2 What cities are mentioned as more powerful in the middle of 
the 6th century B. C.l To what merit or accident did they owe 
this superiority ? 

S. Who first among Greeks used ships of war ? By what states 
was the maritime superiority successively possessed ? 

4» What appears from Homer to have been the usual form of 
government about the Trojan war ? What was that of Theseus 
according to Euripides ? 

F. Express the following passages in the language of Herodotus : 
1 . Whether by any one's counsel or by his own suggestion. 2. 

Thinking at any rate to get the second prize. 3. He marries his 
son and sends for his daughter from Persia. 4. You condemn 
yourself to death. 5. In this occupation they consumed all the 
summer season. 6. Oh most generous of men, art thou he, who, 
ere I had yet any power, gavest to me ? If it were little that thou 
gavest, yet the &vour is equally as great, as if I should now receive 
any thing important. In return I give thee gold and silver in 
abundance, that thou mayest never repent of a kindness conferred 
on Darius the son of Hystaspes. 

G. Correct (or defend) the foUowing passages : 

I. gwqitmtoy ^tiv foiHv kok^v^ twatr^foy Bi wop* avrov. 


2. iKKXfiiofiivoi ^i r^ b^ oi verivlcu, vvMmQ avrovc v^ f^v 

3* (HffTi ^i vepl ToWov woiiiap avrovc, xal3dc avrocc napiStMCt rtjy 
ykufraav iKfiadieiy, 

4. vfTodifievot Se r^y fidywy rote (^KCiporoXocin ro iyvwywyf k^fiiffifi< 

5. Kpoiaoy re a/ia dyofuyoQ, icoU rove "Iwvoc ^y o^^yl Xoyf' 
wonitrdfuyot njy vptaniy eJyai, 

6. <rvy r|p orpoTf dfJM)(^£i tn^a^ ihfurovc TrapiSoaav. 

H. 1. Between what degrees of latitude did the empire of 
Crcesus lie; and through how many, degrees of longitude did it 
extend ? 

2. Delineate the western coast of Asia Minor, marking the situ- 
ation of the principal cities, the mouths of the rivers, and the islands 

3. What are the latitudes of Sardis, Babylon, and Ecbatana, and 
what the hearings of the two latter cities ? 

4. Herodotus (cap. vi. and Ixxii.) mentions the Sv/mm and Svpcoi* 
prove that both these readings are correct, and applied to the same 
people. Where were they situated? How distinguished by 
Herodotus from the Assyrians ? How from the Syrians properly 
so called ? 

5. ^H KaffTrlri da\dfT<ni itrrl eir* itinirrjci &c. What does Hero- 
dotus mean by r^ h-tpfi daXdffffn'i What, in other places, by ijie ^ 
BaXdffari ? What by ij '£pv9pi} OoXaVeny ? 

6. What are the antient (Greek) names of Corsica, Sardinia* 
Cadiz, Otranto, Colouri, Stanco, and Boudroun ? ' 

K. Quote passages in which Herodotus and Homer make use 
of the same forms, 

(a) 1. Of Pleonasm. 2. Of Anastrophe. 3. Of Apocope. 
(4) Of Tmesis. 

(6) Herodotus uses foJci, eV/flrcoc, fopfa^eCi fufurifiiyosf iXKafi- 
ylMffSai' what are the Attic forms ? Do you find the same or 
similar lonisms in Homer or in Anacreon ? 

(c) Give instances of the pleonasm of elKoi from Herodotus and 
any other author. Is this properly called an lom'sm ? 

(d) Mention a few Herodotean lonisms which are not found in 

(e) What is the usual Homeric sense of iraXtF? Is it ever 
found in Herodotus t 


{J) In what sense does Herodotus use ol toxccc? Quote a 
simflar usage from Aristophanes. 

{g) Vespee 1387. oim yd m Btia Karonrpoihi Mvpriac. Construe 
this line. Derive Karawp. and give its Herodotean usage. 

£. C. 58. ro S* 'EXXifWKOF yXtitrtrff fjtiy^ &c. 

1. About what time does the name "fiXXiyvcc appear to have 
been assumed by all who spoke Greek ? 

2. Were the Asiatic colonists considered as'EXXiyyec? 

8. To whom was the term confined by Homer ? and to whom 
refused by Demosthenes ? 

4. Are the three great divisions of the Greeks ever mentioned 
by Homer? 

5. Into what tribes does he distinguish the Cretans? quote his 

M. C. 59. MeyojcX^oc rov AXx/ia/wvoc* 

1. Mention the origin and trace the line of the two families 
most distinguished in Athens during the 5th century B.C. 

2, Construe and explain the following passage : 

eircir tyrifia MtyoKXiove, rov 'NLeyaxkiovs, 

*A2cX^(2^k, aypoiKO^ tSv, c£ &trreoQ, 

fftfiyilyf Tpv^aaVf iyKeKotovptajjiivTiy, 
N, Atticise (both in language and style) the following pieusage : 
Tain-a 2c ^ iv eirircXea iylvtro' ical 6 Kvpoc irapaXafiuv rdv \oy6y 
dvia\nrt. ivpfHy 2c iy ahrf ro (iifiXloy iyeoy, Xa/SwK iTreXiyero' rd ^i 
yfidfJifAara cXcyc rait, "^O irai Kay/ivaeta, tre yap deol iiropiwaC oh 
yap ay Kore cc rocrovrov rv^iyc dwiKtv, av vvy 'Aorvdyea roy ireiavTOv 
^oyia rlcraC xard fuy ydp rijv tovtov iFpoOvfjiitiy ridyijKac to 2c Kara 
Ocovc re Koi ifii tnpuic" 

0. Translate the following into Latin Prose : 
"AirXji^re alfjunros Kvpe, fjofiSiy iirapB^t rf yeyoy6ri Tfii trp^yiiari^ 
tl dftreXIyf Kopirf, rw vep avrol ifitriirXdfAeyoi fialytffBe ovra>, iSartf 
KaTioyrog rov olvov cc t6 irw/ia, ifrayanXtieiy vfiiy circa icaicd, roiovrf 
^apfjuucf ioXMffa^, cVpdn|(rac irai2oc rov IfwVf aXX' ov fid^g xard ro 
Koprtpoy. yvy iy fuu cv vapaiyeoOaric virdXajSc roy \6yoy. dtroiovs 
fUH roy valda, avtOi cV rrjffh rrjc x^P^^ « W/i«>c, Maff<ray€Tiiay rptn|- 
fUMplBi rov arparov Karvfipleac' il 2c raiira ov- To^tniCt ifKioy eiro- 
fiyvfU TOi roy "S/LaatrayiTuy ^tnrorriy, { fxijy ae. iyw koL dirXtiaroy 
ioyra, atfiaroQ Kopifrw, 



P. Translate the following into literal English : 

Oa dc av wapaBiiuvrai KOfuaBivra r6y vacpov, muvfn rdwtp oi fiam^ 
Xifiot 2ffv0ai* roi0 Jroc dfrm^fivomu, rpiya^ frefUKilpavrtu^ (ipaxfovoe 
TepirdfjvoynUf fUnawov mi fiya Karofiwaorrag, dccc rfc ri ofttrnt^c 
)^cp6c ^iarov^ hmpweorrai^ iydevnv Bi KOfii(ovGi it dfiJ^ rov vinty 
roS /SamXeoc is dXXo cOyoc tUv afFXpvm' oi ii o^ Imifrai ec rove ivpo- 
repov ^XOov* iwedv Si wdyrag vepiiXd^fn rov ytKvv KOfil(ovr€Cf ir Ti^ 
poifft €ffj(ara Karouaifiiroiffl tlai twp idvi^y rHy apixcvaif koH iv rpn 
ra^9t. (iv. 71.) 


1 • Give a short sketch of the life of Herodotus, mentioning par- 
ticularly the cause of his leaving his native country, the countries 
through which he travelled, and the means he took to make known 
his history. From what writers is the information respecting him 
principally derived, and hy whom has his character heen attacked 1 

2. Write down the four dialects of the Greeks. Which of them 
was the native dialect of Herodotus, and why did he prefer the 
Ionic 1 In which districts was the Ionic spoken, and who were the 
most celehrated. writers in it ? 

3. Mention some "of the principal characteristics of the Ionic 
dialect Express the following words in it : ira»c, >ja6Qf opdwf fiovoQ, 
Oavfia, aJrov, o2k, and oirrofjuUf and convert these loniasms into com- 
mon Greek, ividy^ dtfiitpiii, Sn^t o{fyo|ia, ^cv, airoicXiytw, irXevyaQ and 
druoD/icyoc- Also decline fi(unX£vc throughout, first in Attic and 
then in Ionic. 

4. Translate the following passage into English : 

Hapiiiany ii fitrd tovto cm AvSoi 

■iiavroy iwuBoraafdiii rf TVfifif.^-c. 45. 

5. Give a short account of the oracles at Delphi and Dodona* 
and those of Trophoniusi Amphiaraus, and the Branchidea. 

6. Draw a map of Asia Minor within the river Halys. Write 
down the names of the principal divisions, and insert the following 
places, Sardis, Ephesus, Colophon, Halicamassus, Miletus, and 
Clazomense, as also the islands Leshos, Chios, and Rhodos. 

7. When did Lycurgus flourish ? Give a short sketch of the 


government instituted by him, and state what method he took to 
ensure its preservation, and how long it endured before it was sub- 
verted by the Romans. 

8. Give a short account of the life of Cyrus according to Hero- 
dotus, and state how long he lived after the taking of Babylon. By 
what other writer has his life been written, and does it greatly diffisr 
from that of our author ? In what remarkable manner is the name 
of Cyrus introduced in the Bible ? 

9. Translate, and explain the construction of the following sen- 
tences : 

^Q TToif iari r^ fxe vucgc yvtafiriv dmi^lvwy vepl tov ivvnyicv, 
Ovre ihcJ^fi fiadietv^anMbv KoraiucdiuQ Bdyaroy. 
*EfuaBovTO TTcip ovK iicBMrroQ njy avXiiv — diroKXritaag Sx*«c— Ka- 
rw^yfjtmc rfjy rvfHiyvl^^iKKKriiofuvoi ij iSpji — <n3i|- 

And give the meanings of these words, iirltrriCQy airtpf^dQ^ dyaBaipyoQi 
dy^painiiiiif, and irepif^ynipia. 

10. AvSoIcr/ Tt irdffi ?rpoc(irc dveiy 

rd 5e aXXa i^fuirXlydtay XiVKOv ^(pvtrov oraOfUfy ^irdXayro.— 

cap. 50. 
Translate this.. State what was the form of the i}/iiirX<i^cov, and 
what difference there is between rpla raXavra and rplroy ijfiirdXayroy. 
Give the meanings of Xcvkov and dirifdov, and the real signification 
of araBfiiy iXxeiy. 

11. 11 de Rcunr/f| ddXttertra eari £ir* iwirrrJQf ov ovfAfilffyowa rf iripy 
Bdkdffirjf, rriy ftty yap "EXXi/vcc vavr/XXovrac irdaav» koI if £$cii imiXiiay 
BdKoffffa, ii 'ArXavric Kaksofxiyri, xdi ij'£pv6/>ij, fjtia Tvy\dyEi iovofi. 
Translate this passage, and give the modem names of the seas men- 
tioned in it. Give some account of the opinions of Herodotus 
respecting the form and geography of the earth, and state what was 
his idea of its boundaries. Is the statement in the passage before 
us correct ? 

12. Tfjc ^€ ^Affovpirig Iffrl rd fUy icov 

—0 a /3affiXiftoc ir^X"^ ^^ furplov iarl wi^eoc fJiiii»ty rpurl 

hucrvXoiffL — cap. 178. 
What were the ibur great empires of the world ? and which of 
them was the most ancient ? Where is Babylon supposed to have 
been situated ? and by whom was it founded ? Give the length of 
the common cubit compared with the foot. 


19. To be translated into Greek. 

" And he said, O King, I have done these thmga with ywn good 
fortune indeed, but with my own evil fortune. And the cause of 
these things was the God of the Grecians, who excited me to make 
an expedition. For no one is so infatuated as to prefer war to 
peace. For in the latter children inter their parents, and in the 
other parents their chOdrcn. But it must in some way have been 
pleasing to the Gods that these things should so happen." 


St. JOHN'S COLL. 1825. 

■ I 

1. What were the limits of the Persian Empire at the time Darius 
undertook the Scythian expedition? Explain in what manner the 
kingdom of Media became united to it ; and state in their order, 
with dates, the expeditions and principal battles by which the Em- 
pire had been extended. 

2. Mention the particulars of the injury, which Darius alleged as 
a pretext for the invasion of Scy thia. What is Mitford's conjecture 
as to the real motive by which he was induced to undertake that 
expedition? Shew the excellence of the policy adopted by the 
Scythians, from the result of other invasions which are recorded in 
ancient history. 

3. MtKnaSew ^ev tov ABtivcUoy* 'larialov Bi rov "MaXxivIov* 

Give an account of the principal circumstances in the lives of these 
commanders. Describe the situation of the Chersonese of which 
Miltiades was governor. How did he obtain that government, and 
what caused his return to Athens? 

4. What means did Herodotus possess of becoming acquainted 
with the geography of the countries described in this book? Point 
out some particulars in which his description is erroneous. He 
compares the form of one part of Scythia to parts of Atticli and 
lapygia; explain his meaning by a sketch of that part according to 
his conception, and of the countries which he supposed it to 


5. Wbo were the founders of the principal Grecian colonies 
which were settled in Asia Minor? At what period did the iSolic 
and Ionic migrations take place? Explain the immediate causes of 

6. ci2rcu ivSexa /ivpia&c <ca2 cicarov opyvuwv yivovrui' Translate 
this passage, and write down in Greek the equivalent number of 
moBuH. State the grounds on which you determine the length of 
the Olympic stade, and of the stade used by Herodotus in this book. 

7. Translate and explain the construction of the following 
sentences : 

iad^ra Be ^opdovm r^ SicvOcjcpf ofiolriVt yXtSirfray Bi IBlfiv. §. 106. 

v/ielc tify fiijBeyl Tpovif^ Ik rov fuaov KonifiEyoif vtpuBifrt liftiac 
Bioi^dapiyra c §.118. 

ravra /icV yvy iirl afuxpoy rt it^^yro rov irokifiov, §• 129. 

01 Be oyotf iprifuadiyrec rov oylKov^ ovrut fiiy Brj fiaXXoy ToXXf ttemy 
rijt ^yfjt §• 135. 

oc Bi Bij TUpffai Toy irpOTefMviwn-iiyyeyofuyoyeTl^yfTovroy^vXaa' 
troyrec ijifrav* Koi ovna fioyi^ tipoy roy iropov. Ola Bi XEkufUyrit 
Tfjc ye^vprjQ cvrv)(dvrec, cc irdaay dppiaBiriy dn-lKaro, §. 140. 

8. dfiax^l* d/rnxn^^' By what rule is the termination of adverbs 
of this form determined? KarapUfiiyoi' Explain the meaning of 
this word, ov rf dadeyearaTf troifnary HvOayopif. Quote from 
other authors instances of a figure similar to this. State the dif- 
ferent interpretations which have been given of the following 

MayBpoKXia roy ^fuoy iButpiitraro ircun Biica. §. 88. 

iOvoQ yXavKoy re vdy Iff^ypSt etrrl koX irvj^v, §. 108. 

rl yap irci6a>/iev, /ii| PovXofiiytay iifumy rifuapieiy ; §. 118. 

^y fUyroi cir/p ical evl njv i^furipiiyj dpfig rt aJBiKiittyf koH lifiiic ov 
friuro/uOa, §• 119. 

01 Be SkvOcu ec ftiy rove *Aya0vp9OV£ ovKen dvelTayrat aTucyioyro, §. 

9. In what part of Greece was the Ionic dialect originally used? 
Mention the subsequent distinctions in this dialect* and the different 
authors who used it, whose writings are still extant. Give in- 
stances of the difference of Ionic forms in Homer and Herodotus. 

10. Translate into Greek Prose. 


" In every age the immense plains of Soythia have been inhabited 
by vagrant tribes of hunters and shepherds, whose mdolence refuses 
to cultivate the earth, and whose restless spirit disdains the oon* 
finement of a sedentary life. In every age the Scythians have been 
renowned for ^eir courage and conquests* On reviewii^ their 
history, we are compelled to confess, that the pastcval manners, 
which poets have adorned with the fairest attributes of peace and 
innocence, are much better adapted to the fierce and cruel habits of 
a military life." 


Sine CoU, et anno, 

' 1. Who was the first Greek Prose Writer? Who the first His- 
torian? When and where did they live? Why were the first his- 
torical records in V^rse ? And why has Poetical preceded Prosaic 
composition in every Qountry ? 

2. Give an account of Herodotus ; particularizing, among other 
things, when he lived; his country, and the cause of his leaving it; 
why he wrote in the Ionic Dialect; and what countries he visited. 

3. Delineate the principal excellencies and faults of Herodotus as 
an Historian. Is his accuracy to be depended upon ? Has it been 
impeached or confirmed as to geographical details by the discoveries 
of modem travellers ? 

4. Describe the character of Darius. — How did he obtain the 
throne of Persia? W^ there any difference of opinion as to the 
form of government to be established? 

5- What was the relative importance of Athens and Sparta at the 
time of Darius's invasion? Does Herodotus mention any circum- 
stance in Book VI. from which the superior power and influence 
of either may be inferred? 

6. What illustrious Athenians were in the Battle of Marathon? 

7. Do the histories of ancient Persia, transmitted to us by native 

8T. JOHN'S COLL« 121 

writCTs, oonfinn aay of the particulars related by daaeac authors res- 
pecting Cynls, Cambyses, Darius, and Xerxes, or the invasions of 
Greece ? And how far is the credibility of the Greek writers affected 

8. For what was the family of the Alcmaeonidsa distinguished ? 
What two alterations in the govemment of Athens were effected 
principally by members of it? And what other illustrious persons 
belonged to it ? 

9. What was the office and power of Polemarch ? Describe the 
mode of passing laws at Athens, and mention the prindpal advan- 
tages and defects of the government 

10. Grive an account of the Spartan government as to the foUow- 
ing particulars at the; time of the Persian Invasion: 

(1.) Power of Kings in the assembly of the people. — In the 
Senate, according to Herodotus and Thucydides. How 
may the difference in their accounts be reconciled? To 
what tribunals were they amenable ? 

(2.) Seiiate, how constituted ; power and office of. 

(9.) Ephori, when and why instituted ; how elected, and for 
what period ; utility, and effect on government. 

(4.) Assembly of People ; power of: difference in the con- 
stitution and power of the Assemblies of Spartans and Lace- 

(5.) Point out the principal advantages and defects of the 
government, and compare it with that of Athens. 

11. Give the dates of the following events in years b. c, and of 
the Olympiads : Legislation of Solon — Revolt of Ionia — Descent of 
Mardonius — ^Battle of Marathon. 

12. Mention the modem names of countries comprehended by 
Herodotus in extent of Scythia from East to West, according to 
Rennel or any other author. 

15. What were the Gea/io^pca? (§. xvi.) And why was the 
same, Deity supposed to preside over agriculture and legislation? 

14. Draw a map of the eastern coast of Thrace, &c. down to the 
Sinus Saronicus ; marking the Chersonese, Mount Athos, Euboeay 
Eretria, Euripus,^ Marathon, Athens, and the island of £gina. 

16, Distinguish accurately between olKiv and oIkI(v; Tpivfiv^ 
and Oewpoc; yao^ ccpov and rifuroQ; Uvoq^ irpoUyoQ, and dopvjevoc. 
Is any instance of the io^n^yia mentioned in the Iliad? 


16. In the following passages give the precise meaning of the 
words between brackets : 'O ii Idif^c^ [w'c elx<] iir\e€ — Auwetpdro 
avnay rijc re dydpayaSiifCf Kal [rijc ofyyijt,} Kal wati^tnoQ — 0< Aojoe- 
huiwviOi avTOV [anroiTO*] furd ^ ov yap ii/EBliotray avror oi Zocvk- 
dtotf iydevTtv ciafialvti. Reconcile the apparent contradiction in the 
last sentence ; and mention any passage in which a verb is used 
similarly to dwroyro. 

1 7. Translate the following passages into English : 
Noffnfo'aiTa ^ fuy vfnjyoy oi ex^^ ^^ ^^^ i^povQ, ^fuyoi /uy 

ititpoioKfitrayrat ovk iXdeiy ro "ApyoQ, irapeoy tvTreriutt fu^y cXcik. 'O 
Si <npi cXc^e, ovre el \l/€vi6fteyoCi oSti el dXffdea Xcy«^y, ej((u acu^riyiioQ 
elircu* eXeie ^ iy ipdfteyoQj hrel re Ivj to tov "Apyov Ipoy IXe, SoKtety 
oi if/ekri\vdiyai roy ^pfifffioy tov Beov' vpoc iy ravra ov Bueaievy 
veipfy TtjcvoXiOQ irply ye Si^ipolai XP^^'F<^^> '^^ f^c^^i ^'^^ ^'' ^ ^^C 
mpaitBolf ctrc oi ifivoSwy etmfKe. 

*£irl (vpov ydpaKfirjc exercu ijfiiy rd irpiyfiara, aySpec^luyec, f 
elycu iXivdepoun f BovXoun, koI tovtokti tJc SpriiriTji<n' yvy wv vfiie^f 
^yfuy (iovXriaBe raikcuiriaplaQ iyheKeoBtUfTo 7rapa\pijfia fiif ToyoQ vfuv 
eoTCUf olol re Se effeirOe, virepliaiiKofuyoi rovQ eyayrlov^f eJyai ekevOepoim 

18. Give the substance of Longinus's remarks on the latter 




1. State briefly, with dates, the particulars of the 
(a) Life of Herodotus, 

(/3) Extent of his travels. 

(y) Shew from the evidence of his works, that some ad- 
ditions were made to his history after.he had joined the 
Athenian colony to Thurii. 

2. (a) What is the authority for believing that Herodotus recited 

his history at the Olympic Games? 
(/J) Mention any points of the narrative which render this cir- 
cumstance improbable. 


8. (a) What is known from Herodotus and othersi of any Greek 
prose writers prior to the time of Herodotus ? 
(j3) OwffidZia ^ (irpooB^Ka^ yap ^ij fwi 6 \6yog e£ opX^Q iiliifro*) 

Herod. B. IV. 
Translate, and quote the expressions of Thucydides, which are 
supposed to allude to the style of Herodotus. 

4. (a) Mcrd ie tovtov (AaVi^) ivOevrfy i^ayaxOivra, A^fXoc ^irtvij- 

0i}> 4i»c cXeyov 01 Ai/Xiot, jcai irfMlra koI varara fu.'Xl^ ifiev 
fftitrdelira, Herod. 
(/3) in K A^Xoc eVinjOii oXiyf irpo tovtuv (the beginning of the 
Peloponnesian War) irporepoy oviroi (nurSiiffa^ df* o3 "TEX- 
\rfy€c fiifAyriyrai, Thucydides. 
Translate these passages, and attempt to reconcile them* giving 
at the same time the latest events recorded in the History of 

5. 01 *AOfiydioi dxiCXjoyro njy riyefwyiriy tovq Aaicc^ai/ioWovc* Uran. 

c 3. 
Illustrate this more fully with reference to the conduct of the 
Athenians in the affair of Gelon the Syracusan. 

6. 01 yap £v/3oeec irapa^^piycra/ieyoi rov BoKiioc j(fni<rfwyf iJc ov^y 

Xiyoyraf ovrt ri i^KOfiiffayro ov^ev, oire 9rpocmi£avro, wq 

wapeffofuyov afi iroXifioVf irepivcria re iTroui<rayro a^en aiJroZ- 

91 rd xptiyfjuMTa, c. 20. 
(a) I'ranslate the passage. 
03) What degree of credit appears to have ahached to these 

oracles in the time of Pericles? 
(y) Distinguish between xpfiirfwl and \oyla. 

7. Theraistocles to the lonians : fuftyrifiiyoi, on dpyiiBty i} ex^ 

«rpoc Toy Bapfiapoy aV* vfuvy rifjiiy yiyoytm 
Explain this from the preceding books, and shew concisely the 
immediate causes in the affairs of Athens, which led to an 
open rupture with Persia. 

8. Translate accurately, 

Okora /lev vw fiovkevojiivoiffi dyBpwxoiffi, cJc ro Ivliray iOlXei 
yivtaOai' firj &^ oitcora fiovXtvofiiyoun^ ovk eOeXfi ovii 6 SeSc xpoay^ 
p€€iy irpoc rdc dyBpfomfio/Q yvw/iac. Tavra Xeyovnoc Ocfuoroi^ovcy 
aSn/Q 6 KopivOioc ^ASiifmyroc m^ptro, aiydy re letXevwy rf fiif itni 

rplcf Koi Evpvfiidha ovk itSy imy\rn^itiy dwoKi dy^pl' ir6\iy ydp 

124 colLeok examinations. 

toy BtfuaroKkia vapexpfuvoyf c4rta inXivt yi^/iac 9v/ij3aXXc«0ai. 
ravra U oi wpoiftf^f art ifXitiKtedy re jcai Koniyovro ai *A6l$yiu. 

9. iwixaXioagOai rovt 'Atar/^c m/fifnixavSi c. 64. 

Explain this passage, and refer to any previoas mention of 
the iBacidse in the history. 

10. Translate from the Ranae, 

mU ri ffv ^pdfOQ ovrutt avrovc yevyaiovc e{E^&({ac ; 

Ai^x^Xc \i(fiv, fiti^ avOa&^c ffe/ivwd/icyoc xsiXiwairt. 

ipdfia iro(i}Vac''Af»ewc fuaror. 



rove cwT* «ri 0»//3ac* 
d BtoMfuyog irdc ay ric dyrjp TJpdaBri ^iot iJyau 

Tovrl fiiy tmi kcucov ecpyavroc. 8i|/3aibvc yop ircTo/i^Kac 
dyhp€ioripovc elc roy irokefioy' koI rovrou y oHytxa rwrov. 

liXX' viily fwr^ iffjy doKtiy, a\X* ovV cVi rwr* crpoxcoree. 
cTra liZc£fiLQ UipvaQ fierd tovt ividvfuly e£c2£3a{a 
yixdy del tovq dyritrdKovct KOtrfiiitrac ifyyoy aptoroy. 
Give the date of the first appearance of the Persse, and a slight 
sketch of its argument. 
1 1 • Give the order and succession of» 
(a) The Lydian kings, 
03) The Median. 

(y) Enumerate briefly the several conquests which led to the 
establishment of the Persian dominion. 
12. 'Hw'c re ^lefaiyet koI oi avXkoyoy rwy emfiareiify voiqvdfuyoi, 
vpofryopeve ei exoyfa fuy eK vdvriay ecptrrojcXcijc* rd ^e ewea 
ny^ vdyra Kpeavu rdiai rfatrotn dyTindifuya* oaa it ey dySfw- 
irov ipv<n Kal Karamaeri iyylytrai, vapaiviaat Stj, Tovriay rd 
Kp€<rtn§ aipieaOai, vat icorairXifac TTJy fJ^«v, iir^ytiy iiceXtve 


Translate the passage, and explain any peculiarities of syntax. 
IS, What mention is there in Herodotus of the following Poets? 

(a) Alceeus» 

03} Anacreon, 

(y) Simonides, 

(2) Archilochus. 
How does he determine the time in which they respectively 

flourished ? 

14. (a) tppvKTOs 2c ^VKTOv ^€vp OT dyyopov nvpoi 

iirtfifrty, Agamemnon. 
(fi) KOiX avTOv (Jldya) dv<rlp<rt IwtriiTj^in iccti Xa/iira2i tkamBOvrtu* 

Herod. Erato. 
Translate these passages, and explain the allusions. 

15. Investigate the etymology and meaning of the expressions : 

yyiainfia)(ieret KpuivfiytroVf oKovrpoxov^f ixipatiero^ Xiirapitiy. 

16. (a) /ii} icarairXi^t TiyMjiivov vpo^oelfif 
(/3) rd axpi^ora olKtriufy i\6fuya, 

(y) Kal TIC oUliiy ri dyairkaadoBiay koX (ncopov dywcH^ c^enii. 
Translate, and explain the peculiarities of syntax. 

17. Illustrate the origin and meaning of the following phrases of 

Herodotus : 
(a) Kaifulti Wn|, 
(fi) Jpyo Ai|/ivia, 
(y) Thai oi dBayaTl(oyric» 

1 8. Convert the sense of this passage into the language and dialect 

of Thucydides. Oi 2* eV 'A^'rjyflrt fidpfSapoif <i>c ^ dfffii" 
vtHffi fifUfni eireXa/ii^c, drplfia^ re elxov nic veoCi ical tf^ 
dwej^piero rcurwc Tpifawvtn fi<nr)(jlffv dyeiy Iv rf itapioyri. 





A, 1. At what time does the knowledge of the affairs of 
Greece become historical ? 2. By what persons has the history 
of Greece been transmitted to posterity, reckoning from the time 
above required to the reduction of Greece to a Roman proconsular 
government ? 3. Assign to these writers their respective shares 
of this history, with the events and dates with which they begin 
and conclude. 4. What are the chasms remaining? Are they 
in any degree supplied by Herodotus or Thucydides ? 5. Which 
is the war on which Herodotus preserves a studied silence ? Ex- 
plain his silence. 

B, 1. Before the return of the Heraclidse, how were the 
intervals between distant events computed? Shew the imper- 
fection of that method, and its actual and necessary termination in 
fable. 2. From what epochs do Herodotus and Thucydides 
reckon? d. When were the Olympiads adopted as a chrono- 
logical sera ? 4. Which are the two great desiderata in Grecian 
chronology ? Is any assistance given by Herodotus on this 
point ? 5. State concisely the grounds of difference between the 
chronological systems of Newton and Blair. 

C 1. Longinus calls Herodotus 'OfirtpiKuraroi. — In. what re- 
spects is the assertion true ? Can the epithet be substantiated from 
this book of his history ? 2, What other authors does Longinus 
specify as imitators of Homer? S, Translate his expressions, 
diro rov 'Ofitipuccv tKilvov vdfiaTot c2c avroy fivplag otrag iraparpmrdc 
dirox€TevirdfjLtyoc» itrrt ^ ov KKovri to irpdyfm, aXX* iJc diro KoXwy 
ffdwv 1} 7r\a<r^riay { ^fifucvpyrifidriav airorvrwcrcc* 

D, 1. What is the nature of Plutarch's attack on Herodotus; 
and the precise meaning of the title of his work, inpl rjc 'Hpo^orov 
Konn|6c/ac? 2. What nation does he mention as expressly wrong- 
ed in the ninth book of Herodotus ; and what passages of this book 


does he impugn? 5. Assign the probable motive of Plutarch; 
and confute his attack both by general proofs of history, and by 
proofs drawn from Plutarch himself. 4. Translate his words, 
ypa^ucoc ctvi^p, koI ly^vc o Xoyoc, Kal x<xp^C tTrttrri koI ^eiyorriQ ical 
ipa rote ^triyiiftaffi'' ftvBoy ^ <Jc 8r aoi&)c» ifrierrafiiyuf fur ov, 
Xiyvpwc ^ Kol yXo^vpwc ^jyopcviccv, dfjt^kei ravra xal KfiXti koI 
irpoadytrai irctvrac. 

E, 1. Through what countries had Herodotus trayelled? 
9, What geographical opinions did he hold respecting the form of 
the Earth, the relative magnitude of its parts and its Eastern 
h'mits ? S. How long and by what other geographers were his 
errors received ? 4. What corrections did the Indian expedition 
of Alexander introduce into the ancient systems of geography? 
5. Draw a map containing the countries and capital towns only 
of the Grecian states who composed the confederate army at 

F, 1. Account for the existence of the different dialects of 
Greece. — What number does Herodotus acknowledge? 2. In 
the distinction between the early and later Ionic, which came the 
nearer to the Attic ? 3, Explain the reason why Herodotus has 
written in the Ionic ? and mention some general forms in which he 
differs from Homer. 4. Give examples taken by preference from 
this book> and classed under some general heads of Ionic and Attic 
forms.' 5. Point out how the locality of Athens influenced her 
dialect, and produce examples of such influence. 

G, 1. Give a brief sketch of the legislation of Lycurgus, and 
in particular explain so much of it as shall bear upon any passages 
in this book of Herodotus, — especially the following : 

(a) fiovvoi ^e ^rj iravruiv dvSfHawioy iyiyovro oSroi ^apriiii^<n 
iroXc^rac. (c. 35.) Are there no exceptions to this statement ? 
(/3) AwciMtytKov ^elirvoy (c. 82.) (y) Ttay £«Xan-ea»v ir€vr€LKia\CKioi 
Kal rpitifAvptoi (c. 28.) (^) Aaredoc/iovcoi 2e ovk iiay fniyoyrac iua^ 
xtiy (c. 77.) {e) ovk tTitrrdfityoi iTttyp}ia\uiy (c. 70.) (f) Kal a^i 
^y vaxlydia — wepl frKElarov 3* Jiyov rd rov Biov irpoavyeiy. Mention 
instances of parallel conduct that occur in Herod, lib. vi. Pau. 
manias, and Xenophon's HeUenics. (17) rd AaKehufwylt^y ^y^fiara 
M^ aXXa ^poytoyriay koX aXXa Xtyoyrtay (c. 64.) 

2. Explain the proverb of lioK^yiKal ^eXijvat. — ^and that in 


Arrian ro irepl rmv Aaxt^fMorii^r XiyofuroVf dUoi XcoftcCi cv '£4kc«y 

^ oXwircrcc* 

i vdcny dvBpw^oiviy i\BurToi ^ponSr, 

yfffv^y aKucrcci fifixaro^^^ Ktudiy, 

cAiKra, Kovcev vycec, a\Aa wav ircpi4 

fpovovvnCi oBIkioc evrv)(€iT a/ '£\XaSa. 

tI ^ owe iv vfAiv iariy ; ov vKtltrroi ^yoi ; 

ouK aitrxpoKephsic ; ov Xiyoyre^ oXXa ^v 

yXw(rflr|}, i^yovyrec ^ oXX* t^tvploKtvff del ; £ttrip. Andnm* 
H, wpo^yra dc ff^i c)' re Aitf^i^ cat iy Aikpdien. iyiyero (c* 95.) 
1 . What circumstances contributed to the decline of Dodona, and 
the importance of Delphi ? 2. Were these two oracles known to 
Homer? S. To whom does Herodotus ascribe the religion of 
his country ? 4. Taking merely the evidence of this book, what 
additions and alterations had the religion of the Greeks received, 
since the time of Homer, in respect of the objects of worship* and 
the persons who officiated as its ministers ? 5. By what inference 
do we learn from Herodotus, that the Unity of the Deity was once 
taught by the Pelasgian Priests of Dodona? 

/. NeiXe^y Tf Koipav iwanrofuyoc erl MiXi/rov Kriarvy. (c. 97.) 
What were the events that led to the Ionic migradon'-^wbat cities 
were founded, and what extent of territory was possessed by these 
settlers 1 To what migration did Halicamassus belong? 

Oima 2i| 79 iivrepey Iwv/ti aVo JUpvitay dwearfi, (c. 104.) Give 
a succinct narrative of the first Ionic revolt 

Mention very briefly, and in chronological order, the events of 
the Persian war subsequent to the battle of Mycale: and the re- 
moter ccmsequences of the war as a&eting the balance of power in 
the Grecian States. 

Kt G. d. dfia a wvpaoiei itd niauy e^cc fiofftkA ^iiXtieeiy ioyn 
-iy Zdpiwi &n ixoi toq 'AOi|mi£. 1. On wha( stations would you 
place the beacons ? S. What similar event is said to have been 
announced across the .^Sgean sea by the same means, and on what 
stations does ^schylus place the fire-signals ? 

C. 11. Tuy wepuUfMy Acucc&u/ioWwv. which were the chief towns 


of .LacSonia as ascertained either by history, or by the separate 
coinage of their money still extant 1 

C. 27. iWc TOTt ixorrae IIcXoiroyvi}ffov. To what revolution do 
these words refer, and what great constitutional changes did it 
introduce in the governments of Greece ? Which states rose by 
the change, and which fell ? 

Are the achievements of the Athenians cited in their dispute 
with the Tegeans the subjects of other panegyrics? In what 
terms does Demosthenes allude to them? Prove from ancient 
authors the pre-eminent place which the battle of Marathon held in 
the Athenian mind. 

Translate Aristopb. Acharn. 697. 

*A\apyiKdl trrirroi yipovrtQ wpiyivoi 
ArepdfMort^ MapaOn^KO/m^^af a^yidfiriyoi, 

C. 89. Apvoc icc^oXac. Relate the fable that gave to this place 
its name, and translate ; no ^ e( ovpayov _irvp OKfiirroQ eir^ rrfv ^vv 
i^peraif n/fifiKdiuv ro Sev^poy, ov firjy e£aifn|«rwv ye Ttiy eV avrf 
fonifuiy' TO yap ywpLov iy J ravra fyvoc icc^Xa^ crc. 

C. 5S, fxiycv ravra yevw/ieVov. What is the opinion of Dawes 
on the form and derivation of the words veVwroi, iyiymv, vevw- 
fiiyaVf iyytiffai ? Have you any thing to allege against it ? 

C. 75* ir«pl rwv fitrdXXuy rwy y^pvoimy iy Aary. What name 
did this place afterwards receive, and with what events is it con- 
nected? From what mines did the Grreeks draw the precious 
metals current amongst them ; and what was the weight, form, and 
workmanship of the money in the greatest circulation, \pva6y 
erimifioy (c. 41)? What is the figure stamped on the Persian 
gold coins still extant? Does it explain a celebrated saying of 

C. 81. Kol SiKorriy c{eXoia-ec rf iy AcX^ccri dif dw* 4c o rpiircvi 
6 xptf (Tioc dyeridri 6 iir\ rov rptxapiiyov of nog rov ^dXxiou cVeorcJc. 
Translate the sentence. Gibbon says of the brazen serpent, *' the 
Cruardians of the most holy relics would rejoice if they were able 
to produce such a chain of evidence as may be alleged on this 
occasion." ^^te the evidence for the actual existence of this re« 
markable memorial of the battle of Platsea. What became of the 

Tripod according to Paupanias ? 



L* Translate and explain the peculiar ezpresaions and^worda 
occurring in the following passages : 

va^ TO luv dir iffutty oifrw wclpivikop iov ve^anu M iWc 'EAXii- 
rac. c. 7. 

fxeyaXai xXuna^Q dyamirriarat ec n|v TUKoirovviffmy rf TLifOif* 
c. 9. 

Mop^Fioc ^£ dviKtdy^ivt, c. 13. 

c^ hi irpoiTu riit vvicroi wpoeXiiXarOj rriviimvra irpoesXdwiCt k^ r* X« 
c. 44. 

Ttiy itrrparriytt 6 *A^d/3aCoc» rovrovt, ^Kutg i| «rii/ij3oXjf ryiVeT«» 
^(£ KanipriirfiiyoQf wapayyiCXac icard rurvTO Uyai iravruQ rp ar avn»c 
iitiydrgroi ocvc av aJroK opiunri oirovd^c e^ovra. c. 66. 

cVi/Sarcvo^v rov fii^iiy/ov ovix>/iaroc itiikufifiayt eirl n|v *£XXii&i 
cpya. c. 95. 


BOOK 11. 


1. Mention the chief grounds on which Sir Isaac Newton and 
others have rejected the common system of ancient chronology. 
What remarkable anachronism is avoided by the proposed change ? 
At what point of history do the two tables first synchronize ? 

II. Give an account of the principal Grecian historians that pre- 
ceded Thucydides, the ages in which they flourished, and the sub- 
jects on which they wrote. 

III. 1. Give an account of the age and life of Thucydides ; the 
place at which his history was written ; and the circumstances that 
led him thither. 

2, How inuch of the Peloponnesian War does his history com- 
prehend 7 And by whom has the remainder been supplied ? 

9. Point out in a few particulars the difference between the Ian- 


guage of Thuoydides and XenophoD, and say in what dialect each 
wrote. Tif V tAv ipywv vworoiay — r«v cpywy tjJv vToyomv — Which of 
these forms is more duuracteristic of the style of each? 

IV. 1. Enumerate the chief of the Grecian States ; and mark 
the periods in which they respectively acquired any distinguished 
celebrity, with the occasions and persons, 

2. What is the first instance recorded of the connection of any 
of them with Persia 1 And what part did Persia take in the Pelo- 
poonesian War 1 

V. In what year, in what state of things, and on what conditions, 
was the thirty years' truce concluded 7 Who was at that time at 
the head of the Athenian affairs ? And to what party in the state 
did he belong 1 

VI. 1. In what year was the war transferred to Sicily ? What 
was the occasion of Athenian interference there ? What was the 
force sent out? And who were the commanders ? 

2. Mention the chief battles of the war, particularizing the 
place — year — commanders — and everU» 

3. Mention the particular circumstances which followed the 
battles of Olpse and Arginusss. 

VII. 1. What was the nature of the connection between colo* 
Bies and the mother-states 1 

%. From what countries were the following colonies ? Amphi* 
polisy Corcyra, Cumasi Epidaomus, Syracuse, Tarentum, Zacyn* 

3. Whose colony was Potidsea ? When did it become subject 
to the Athenians ? Who afterwards took it from thei^i ? And by 
what name was it subsequently called ? 

VIIL Give the different accounts of the Spartan army accord- 
i^ to Thuoydides and Xenoqphon : point out the inconsistency, and 
reconcile it, if possible. 

IX. What were the imk^ re^^-— of what length, by whom built, 
where, and for what purpose? What other wall was there of a 

2IU Bpotftftdc. Whose s<¥i was he ? What part did he after.* 
wards bear in the war ? When, a^d where, was he slain ? Whafi 
celebrated character fell in the same battle ? 



XI. dfiKovro ec *Axapyd^, x^^^ fuyunov rtfc *ArTuc^ rwv ^fi^fr 
KoXovfiiytay, {. 19* 

1. What were the A^/ioc, and how many were there? 

2. Give a brief sketch of the subject, time of actioni and lead- 
ing characters, of the 'Axopvijc of Aristophanes* 

9. Quote from it the descripticm of Pericles. 

XII. /SovXd/xevoc €C rf^v^Affraxov KartXBiiv, Give the sense of 
KortKBeiy, Quote the celebrated passage of the tragedian in which 
it is so used ; and give the substance of the humorous dispute oc- 
casioned by it. 

XIII. rrjy yap xtipay -dd tn avrol olMWvrec* §• 36. 

1. Explain these words of Pericles spoken of the Atlienians. 
To what cause may we attribute the fact here assumed ? How did 
the Athenians evince their fondness for this boast, in language or 

2. Refer to some of the principal removals of oAer Grecian 

XrV. ahXoL voTtpoy *Apxi\aoc Kpticvoyi ri ^yfiwayrei oc 

aXXoi jSttflrcXeic oktu oi irpo avrov ytyofuyoi, 

1. Give the names of these eight kings, and the order and dates 
of their reigns. 

2. Whom do Herodotus and Thucydides represent as the 
founder of die Macedonian monarchy t From what country did 
he come, and from what family was he descended ? 

3. Whom do subsequent Chronologers mention as the founder* 
and when ? 

4. How was the celebrated Philip related to Archelaus, and at 
what distance of time did he live ? 

XV. Accentuate rpowawy according to Thucydides and Xeno- 
phon ; and say* whether rparmoy or^ffot, and rpowawy aniaaoBtu, 
may be indiscriminately used. 

XVI. 1. Give accurately the distinguishing senses of v^eci *^cc 
ftfucpocy frXoid, oXxdietf rptiipciif rircj3c(£cc* 

2. Explain the following words and sentences : jcaracrrpwfta, 
BpfioQf op/Uw, opfd^ta, aiV$€c raOciotii nic mmtoc* ec fipax^^ Atxi'- 
Xar. Xa/3($>Ta rHy ravrSy ^Kaaroy rrjy Kiimfy, kuI fti vinfpiatoyt Koi 
rdy rpowtoTiipa. 


XVII. Correct the following solcecunis : 

1 . iiTiiidy Katpoc ikdfil3ay€. 

2. A>c emnSdyoyrOy ore iy rrj iroXet ^v. 

3. oray irapd \6yoy rl ti irpafcrc. 

4« yofdl^oyriif cl xpiiniy ravnfv XdPiinn, p^d/o^c av 0^91 raXXa 

XVIII. Translate the followiDg. 

1 . iir diKOVm iiri rtiy vpoyoywym iwl hovXel^, iif iavrf (in 
n^y tfcit^tlp^aiy e^* iawf iyofJuZty elyau) irpoc rovrotc* irpoc ravra. 

2. oil (tf^pcffav pov\tva6fuyoi wc tok (iaaikia, §. ] 5. With what 
limitation is cJc used in this sense ? 

3. jcai ^vyolna (v. {vvocic/^} e£ iixlyov ^Adrfyaioi cri icai n;y rj Oif 
iofrrjv ififwrtk^ irocovac, ibid. Is there any good authority for sup- 
posing that the feast here referred to was one called Synoecia ? If 
not» what different translation does the sentence admit of? And of 
what feast are we to understand it ? 

4. iS6K€i yap atlroic, aXXuic r€ icaX fcpHroy yavfMxlat vetpaaafU- 
yoiQf ToKvc 6 wapdKoyoc tlycu* §. 85. Investigate the phrase aX- 
Xwc T€ Kol, 

&• ^ re iy r^ laBfif ivifwy^ yByofuyiif «ai Kara njv aXXriy iroptiay 
i| oypXatOTfiQ BiiliaXey avroy^ /idkurra ^ ij iy rfj Oivop €irioj(emc, 
$. 18. Produce examples of a similar use of &a/3aXX«i. 

6. Oc f *A6ifyaI6c, vara fUay yavy rcray/ieyoc, wepUifXeoy avrovq 
rvxKff Koi £tfr$70v it oXIyoy, iy xpf dtl wapairkioyrtt* $• 84. Il- 
lustrate iyj(pf. 

7« fio^ re yptiiuyoii koI irpot dXXifXovc dyrti^vKaK^ rt Ka\ Xoiiopi^ 
ooHy mniKOvoy ovrc riSy wapayyeSXofuywyt ovre r^y KtktvvrQy. ibid,. 
Who were the KeXtvarai ? 

8« wc cl^e rdxcvQ cxaoroc* Explain the construction. 

9. ov^ iiKOioy^ rric yytifxric ro fiij Kara KpdroQ yvcffiiy, i')^y ^ riya 
ir avrf> avriKoylay, rq|c ^ufi^opdc rf awo^yri djipKvytadai, §. 87. 

10. wepiylyyerai li vuiy irXqiOo'c re yeuy^ Kal irpot rp ypf oUti^ 
ovoji, owXirHy irapoyrvyf yavna\uy' rd H ToXXci, rtiy irXetovw aro^ 
ofuiyoy TraptvKevaefuynty ro Kpdroc itnriy, tSirre oiH xaff iy tvplaxth' 
luy elja^r«#c i^ if^C o^oXXofieVovc* xal Stra ijfidprofuy irfx^epov, yvy 
avrd ravra irpoeryeyofuya iiioffxaXiay irope{ei. 



1. Give a summary of the history of Athens from the retreat of 
Xerxes to the commencement of the Peloponnesian War, marking 
the dates of the principal events. 

Point out the chief ex(5&llencie8 and defects of the characters of 
' Themistocles, Aristides and Cimon. How fax did the conduct and 
policy of each of these statesmen contribute to the prosperity of 
their country? 

2. Mention what took place at the congress of the Peloponnesian 
^ confederacy held at Lacedscmon in the autumn of Olymp. 87. 1. By 

what arguments did the Corinthian deputies endeavour to prevail 
upon the Lacedaemonians to engage in war with Athens ? 

S. When did Pericles first take a part in public affairs, and when 
and whom did he succeed as first minister of Athens ? 

How is the eloquence of Pericles described by Aristophanes ? 

Give the substance of the speech ascribed to him by Thucydides 
(6o(^ 1.) when he recommended his countrymen to resist the 
demands made upon them by the Lacedaemonians. 

4. When did the Attic year commence, and in what way did the 
Athenians divide their months ? 

Translate and explain the following passage of Aristophanes : 
irc/iTmj, TerpaQ, Tplrrf, //era rovnyv ^evrepa' 
cTO*, ijy iyw fiaXierra iratriav rjfupwv 
de^ouca, Kal ire^piica, ical /33eXvrro/iat, 

evOvc furd touttiv ear tvri re koI via. Nub. 1 126 — 1128. 
What was the /iiyV ifi(i6\ifju}Qf and what was tlie object of it? 

Compute the day and month of our year corresponding with the 
12th day of the month Anthesterion (ij 3a»Sci:ari7 cV rf 'Ayd£(mjpt£yi) 
mentioned chap. ,xv. 

5. In what way and by whom were the Athenian vessels of war 
usually manned, and what was in most cases the full complement of 
the trireme ? Shew how Thucydides afTords the means of computing 
the number. Into what three classes were the rowers divided ? 

How and by whom were the trierarchs appointed, and what 


were the duties of their office ? What alteration in the law reapect- 
ing the trierarchs was introduced by Demosthenes ? 

6. Upofnoyruy fiiy i^aKoaluy raXdmav wc M. to iroXv ^opov KaT 
ivutUT^y airo TiSy fyfiiuf)(my rp iroXei, avcv r^c irpoffd^ov — Chap. xili. 
What was the origin of this tribute {^popoCi by whom was it first 
coUected, and what was at first its yearly amount (L 96.)? 

Who were the 'EXXifMorafi/oc, and when was their office sup- 
pressed ? 

Point out the chief distinctions between the conditions of the 
independent {avroyoitot) and subject (imiicoot) aQies of Athens. 

From what sources was the remainder of the revenue (i| oXXiy 
wpotfo^) here mentioned principally derived at this time ? 

What were the elmpopal, how levied, and when were they first 

imposed? ' 

7. vwapxoynay iy t^ wcpowoXii in rirt dpyvpiou ivKnifjuiv cjcuccff- 

^iX/ii»v raXarruv. Chap. xiii« 

What sum is this in English money ? In what part of the 
Acropolis was the public treasure preserved, and to what officers 
was the custody of it intrusted ? 

8. From what classes of Athenian citizens were the light-armed 
(\fHX6i) and heavy-armed (oirXlrat) soldiers usually taken! Why 
was the life of a foot-soldier called Terpw/SoXcn; /3toc ? Give instances 
from Thucydides of the amount of pay which they received on 
diflferent occasions. 

9. 'AyioTTiffav &' icai Alytynrac ry oirry Oipei rovrf c4 Aiylytit 
^ABfiyaioi. . . .irucaXioayrec wk riKiffra rov vokifAOu treaty aiWowc 
elyae— Chap, xxvii. How could this charge be brought agamst the 
^ginetans ? What seems to have been the poUcy of Perides upon 
this occasion ? Mention firom Thucydides other instances of the 

same practice. 

€{eir6/«4«y {ftrnpoy ov iroKKf k ovrny rove ohairopoQ^ln cases of 
this sort, how was the property of the conquered people divided 
amongst the new settlers ? What name did these bear, and what 
were their privileges ? 

10. "EXBiay cc rac 'Adifvac o Nvfi^Jwpoc nfy rt rov SiraXww 
ipfifjMxlay iwolTiae icoi Sd&wcov roy vioy ovrow 'AOiifaloy— Chap. xxix. 
In what manner does Aristophanes notice this in hb play of the 
Acharnians ? 


Translate the Mowing passage : 

Tovri W cWi TO KOKoy ; 

^OBofidvTvy mrparot, 

Tovrocc €av rcc 2vo ^a^/iac fuadov Sc^w, 
jcaraircXrcwovroi njV Boion-Zav oXi}y. 


Totff^t ^vo ^paxfidg ; 

wrotrreyoi ytiv r av y 6 Opavcnyc ^«C 
o walwoXic' oifwi raXaCf diroKKvfuUf 
vTo tUv *0^fJuiyTwy rd axopo^a iropdaifuyoQ. 
ov cara/3aXccre rd tncopo^ ; 


ov fAtj 7rp6<ni TovToi<nv iffKopo^ivfuyoiQ. Ach. 155 — 167. 
Explain the allusion in the last line. 

In what year of the Peloponnesian War was the comedy of the 
Acharnians represented ? 

11. Translate the following passage: 

'Ev li rf avTf \€ifMiyi oi 'ASi^valot, 

-furd 2c rovro diripxoyTcu, — Chap, xxxiv. 

What was the KdSXi(rroy irpoaorttoy here mentioned ? Where was 
it situated, and whence did it derive its name ? 

Why is this custom of burying the slain called irdrptog yofioQ I 
To whom is its institution attributed ? 

12. Translate the following passage into English and Latin : 
XaXeirov yap ro lurpL^Q diruy 

-^jSoyovyrsQ ij^ri xal dinvTOVfny, — Chap. xxxv. 

13. iKtlyoirt. a(uM iiralyw, Koi Iti fiaXKoy oi irariptQ ijfuiy' tflrryo-- 
dfuyoi ydp irpoc oig c2e{avro» otrrfy iypiuy dpj(Tiyp ijfiiy roTc yvy 
wpovKanXuroy—Chsp, xxxvi. In what terms does Aristophanes 
speak on the same subject in his play of the Ktiights, ver. 568, &c.? 
What was at this time the extent of the Athenian empire ? From 
what year is the commencemefU of this empire usually dated ? Its 
dwraiMn is variously reckoned at 45, 65, 78 and 85 years. How 
are these varieties to be accounted for ? Mention what events 


these periods respectively comprise, and shew that they are not 
inconsistent with eadi other. 

14. Transbite the following passage : 
Xp^fieOa yap iroXcrc/f ov (fiKovini 

•oiuifiaToc d^yel^ remJXvrai* — Chap, xxxvii. 

Mention some of the principal institutions and laws introduced 
hy Sohn^ and shew how far that lawgiver is entitled to the praise 
bestowed upon him by Aristotle (Pol. Bbok II.) of having provided 
for the balance of the different powers of the state (filiae icaXut n^v 

When and by whom was admission to offices of government 
granted alike to all Athenians ? 

What comparison does Polybius make use of in describing the 
Athenian democracy, and to what period in the history of Athens 
does his description (Book VI. 44.) seem more ][^articularly appli- 

15. Ta 6pv€a Koi rerpdiroBa, Stra dydpioirtay dfirrercu, iroXXwv drd^tav 
yiyvofuytay fj ov irpo^et rj ytvtrdfuva huipBdpero, nxfuipuiv ^ rwv 
fiiy TOiovTtav opyiOwy iwCKnyffig vai^iic iyiyero, xal ov^ ib>p^yro ovre 
SXXbtQ oSre irep\ roiovroy ovBiy. oi Bi Kvyee fxaXKoy aioBtiffiy frapvypy 
TQv diroPalyoyTOt ^lo ro fyty^icurdoBcU' — Chap. 1. 

Translate these words, and quote from Lucretius (Book VI.) the 
lines in which the same circumstances are described. 

16. Translate: 

*£ir/€0e 5* aifrovc /loXXov irpoc ry vwapy^pyri voy^ ■ 

rovro KoX KoXoy koX ^(pf^ffifwy rorcWii. — Chap. lii. liii. 

17. Translate the following passage from the Grorgias of Plato : 
22QK. *AXXa TO^e fuH eliri M rovTff ec Xtyoyrat 'AOiyvauH iid 
Hepuckia lieXriove ytyoyiyai,-^ irdy rotfyoyrloy ^ta^apifjyai viriKtlycv, 
ravrl yap iyktyt dicovw JhpucKda ireiroci^iccyai *Adriyalovi dpyavg^ xal 
&cXovc, teal XaXovc, koI ^CKapyvpovq^ cic fuerOwpopdy irpwroy Karaemi' 

RAAA. Tttfv ra <Sra carcayoruv dxovEcc ruvra, i SJcparec* 
2QK. 'AXXd rdie ovidri cuovw, dXkd olBa aa^^ ical eyw jrat av^ 
art TO fiiy wpwroy idioxlfui IlepacXjJCf kci2 ovStfilay aia^pdy ^iKffy icorc- 
ifnt^dtrayro avrov ^Adriyaioi ifV/ra x^lpov^ Jioay* iirulti It kolKoX KqyaM, 
iyeyoytoay vw' outov, cVi rikemj tov fiiov UipucKeov^t tcXoniv avrov 
Kort^ni^aayro' oXiyov it icol OayaTOv irlfitiffaVf iriXoyori «Jc xoviipov 


KAAA* Ti wp ; ToJrtnf iveica kwcoc ir IlcpucX^c ; 

How far can Pericles be justly charged with having introduced 
measures which tended to produce the efiects here described? 
What is meant by the expression etc fuoBo^ofidr icaroanfffatTa, and 
to the discharge of what duties did Perides annex wages (fua06y]g 
and what were the amounts of these t Quote passages of Aris- 
tophanesy in which allusion is made to them. 

What is the description given of the Athenian people (iiiftoQ) by 
that poet in his play of the Knights ? 

xXoinjv avTov KareylnfftvayTo — what ground does there seem to 
have been for this charge, and what is the story told respecting it ? 

18. Translate the following passage into Greek : 

Is there not something in the woods and groves, in the rivers and 
dear springs that sooths» that delights, that transports the soul 1 
At the prospect of the wide and deep ocean, or some, mountain 
whose top is lost in the clouds, or of an old gloomy forest, are not 
our minds filled with a pleasing horror ? How sincere a pleasure 
is it to behold the beauties of the earth ! What beauty, what 
contrivance is there in animal and vegetable bodies I How ex- 
quisitely are all things suited as well to their particular ends as to 
constitute opposite parts of the whole : and while they mutually aid 
and support, do they not set off each other ? 



L 1. State all that Thucydides relates concerning himself; the 
reasons he assigns for selecting the Peloponnesian War as the subject 
of his history : his account of the opportunities he enjoyed, and the 
means he used, for obtaining accurate information: how &r he 
means the speeches to be considered as genuine. Prove that he 
survived the war ; and state the argument from a fact mentioned in 
Book iii. to prolong bis life still further. Point out a passage in 


Book Till, in which he avows his political flentimeiiCs. 8. Who is 
said to have published the history of Thucydides, and on what 
authority is this reported ? 

II. What are the laws of history according to Cicero, ii. de Ora- 
tore? Judge Thucydides by those laws. What does Dionysius 
object to Thucydidesi (1) as to his subject, (2) beginning and end, 
(8) want of variety, (4) method, (5) temper and disposition? Answer 
1 and S from Thucydides, expose a misapprehension in 2, and try 5 
by particular instances in Book iii. 

III. When does Thucydides begin, and how divide the year? 
His reason ? What historian first dated by Olympiads ? When did 
he live? Supposing the war broke out the 10th month of Olymp. 
I.XXZVII, 1. reduce the surrender of Platsa, supposing it to happen 
at the Summer solstice of the 5th year, to Olympiads, and years 
before Christ. Insert your calculation. 

IV. Describe the supremacy over the Greeks in general, for which 
Sparta and Athens contended, (1) as to the nature and extent of 
power claimed, (3) as to its professed objects. What was required 
by Athens and Sparta from their particular allies ? Mention from 
Thucydides a remarkable difierence between the two States in 
this respect. 

V. What were the ostensible reasons of the Peloponnesians for 
going to war ? What two principal circumstances made them natu- 
raUy hostile ^to Athens ? What caHed forth their enmity on this 
occasion 1 Which of them was the chief instigator, and from what 
probable motives ? What was the general feelii^ in Chreece as to 
the justice of their cause ? 

VI. Which were then the three great military, and the three 
great naval powers of Grreece? Which of die two contending parties 
was stronger in the field, in ships, and in money ? Which, by its 
position, and by the nature of its resources, could best support a 
protracted war? What moral causes gave the Laoedsemonians a 
chance of success in invading Attica ? What was the plan of Perides 
for meeting the war, and how far justified by events ? 

VII. (oi Aifffitoi) furd hwctiaiiiovimv Kot^Bouirtir fyyytvdv ovr^y. 
Class under the yirri into which the Greeks were divided, the fol- 
lowing nations : Athenians, Lacedaemonians, Boeotians, Syracusans, 
Leonttni, Lesbians, Melians (MfjXcoi.) 2. Trace the Lacedsemoni- 


ans through their several migrations, according to Herodotus. 3. 
Whence had the Boeotians migrated ? whenf and why ? Who were 
the Bouaroi koX 'laof ec» Iliad. N. ? 4. How does Thucydides account 
for the early prosperity of Athens and Corinth ? 

VIII. Draw three maps: 1. Greece south of Thermopylae, 
shewing the situation of the several nations ; the course of the Ache- 
lous, Eurotas, Alpheus, Asopus ; (Eta, Parnassus, Cithaeron, Fames ; 
Euhoea, Melos, Patmos. 2. The seat of war on the £gean, shew- 
ing the position of Miletus, Ephesus, Colophon, Lesbos, Chios. 
3. The seat of war on the Ionian ; Ambracia, Argos Amph. Leucas, 
Naupactus, Cyllene, Stratos, Calydon, (Eniadae, Corcyra, Sybota. 

IX. 1. Give a short outline of the financial system of Athens, 
from Thucydides. 2. Where had the treasure in the Acropolis 
been origilially deposited, and why? Whence did it arise, and 
what political efiects ensued from the measure which led to its accu- 
mulation? 3. Point out a passage of Thucydides, shewing the 
great value of Euboea to Athens, and facts mentioned by him, prov- 
ing the importance of the Thracian settlements. What were they 
usually called? 

X. Translate literally the following passages into English : 
1. C. S3. 'Airo 2c Tfjc 'Ed^aov 6 'AXk/^c cirXcc Kara rd^o c 

•KoX ^Xajcf|v a^ai koX i^opiirifnv irapafryi/iy. 

ft* C. 45. ^H rolyvy ^tivonpov tl tovtov ^oq eipenov i^y- 

rj aXXf rf htiyf, 
3. C. 82. oi yap iy rdic irokEtn irpoardyre^ 

•rj ^doyf rov xcpucvac, iie^elpoyro. 

In the above quotations, 1. What part of speech is *Efv^iac, 
ch. 33. 1 Give a similar instance from the third Book. 2. ec mU 
c#c ftai iuyoovyro fuytiy, ch. 33. Others read ci iccU wc fjui — Which 
is right ? Translate, and give an instance. 3. Korixerai and Kpelv 
rovoc, ch. 45. Give instances of their meaning in this place, and 
express that meaning by a quotation from VirgQ. 4. cViirXcov re 
avToy iiolaviy, ch. 45. Various reading, aifroiv. With what dif- 
ferent words can this agree? Translate the phrase according to 
those several constructions. 5. eVe^'cffdv re, &c. ch. 82. Supply 
the ellipsis, translate the phrase, and give an instance of cVe{EX6cIv 
or tVe^uVai so used. Alter the stops, and translate. How will the 
meaning of eVcijfccrav be altered ? Give an instance. 6. Write 


out tHare ev9cj3e/f — tiKovoy ch. 82. in the order of construction, sap- 
plying the words understood* lUustrate evwpewelif \6yov by what 
he has said before. 7« olc fnffifialri ibid. What is the force of the 
optative ? Give an instance. 8. What geographical difficulty is 
there in ch. 88. and how is it to be removed ? 

4. o yap wapafialytiv n fiovk&fii¥0^^ to (Others, rf) firi irpoi^v av 
iwiKBtiy morpiirtrau Write this in order of construction, according 
to both readings ; and translate it both ways. 

5. o re rocc oXXimc iiaKitna ivvoia w%imv (iefiaioi rifuv rovro o ^ofiot 
exypoy vaptixt. ch. 12. Transcribe this with accents and stops, and 
translate it. 

6. tl yap hfyardi tffuv ix tou laqv icai avrtvifiovktvfrai KaX dyreTifu- 
X^tftic, ri i^€i if fide CK Tov ofiolov iw ixilyoic clvac ; ch. 1 2. Others, 
dvreiri/icXX^inu. Which is right, and why ? 

7. Kal o ri ay il Xoy^ miaSiyrt^ vir* ovrwv dfidprtgre, rj oixTf iyh^t^ 
ovK ixtxiyivyuQ i|ye<ff6e ec vfidg, ical ovk ec niv rwv lvfifia\iay yapiy 
/laXaM^effdac. ch. 87. 

8. )(pi| hi wpoQ ra fuyim-a Kal iy ry roifht di/uwyri lifJtac irepairipia 
irpoyoovyraQ Xcyeiv vfi^y rCiy hi dkiyov vKOirovyTtty. ch. 48. Bxplain 
oEiovyn by what has gone before ; give an instance of similar 
construction : supply the ellipsis, and translate the phrase into 
familiar Greek. 

9. davfid(v hi koX SmiQ iarai 6 dyrepuiy xal diuatru^y diro(^y€iy rat 
fuy MiTvXriyaliay dhuclac lifjuy •i^Xifiove ovvac, rdt h' i{/ierepac 
ivful>opd£ rote kufAfjutxpiQ /3Xa/3ac icaOcffra/ieVac* ch. 88. Others 
read ov pKdfiaQ. Expand the argument, with and without that 


10. rd n diro rAy iyayrimy koKmq Xeyofuya iytht'^pym ipywy ^vkcucj 
ei wpwxouyt ical ov ytyyawrnri. ch. 82. Explain IpywK ^vXoxp 
from another part of this digression. 

11. ov ydp fy 6 hiaXvmav, oSre Xoyoc iyypoCt oir€ 5pK0c ^ofiipoC' 
Kp€(ira€vc ydp Sync drayra Xoyiirftf cc ro dyikirunoy tou /3c/3aiov, 
/ii| waBtly fidXkoy irpoeffKowouy rf vumvaat ihvyayro. Explain 
i^l(r9ov£ from another part of this digression. Distinguish 
Kp€l(r9my and dfuly^y, and translate into Greek, /urio meliar 
quam bello. 

XI. Translate into Greek the following passage : 
Good God I shall we not, speaking the same language, possess- 


ing the same character, struggliog for the same cooatitutioii, take 
warning from this example, and conciliate the people ? Or shall we 
with our eyes open run upon our destiny, as ancient fablea tell of 
men devoted running into the jaws of the perdition to which they 
were doomed? The present times hold out examples too legible 
for mistake. If demonstration shall fail to work Upon us» we are 
undone : and if any truth has been more strikingly illustrated than 
another, it is this : that you shall not touch the liberty of the lower 
classes, without making the higher orders pay a severe retribuUon. 



I. 1 . What is mentioned by Thucydides of himself in the coarse 
of his history ? It. What internal evidence is there o£ his having 
survived the termination of the Peloponnesian War ? 3. What 
opportunities were open to him for obtaining the best infiMination 
from both parties at war ? 4. " Zf|X*>nfc ^ yiy^ytv 6 OovKwilinc 
cic fwV njv olxayofjUay, 'Opipov* Iliy&ifMiv di, elc ro /bicyoXo^'c "ol «^- 
\6y rov xap«*f»^poc* daai^c li Xeyw dtrifp eVfriyScVi «>^ f^n ^deiv cii| 
/3aroc, /1IJ&' evrcXiJc ^ivirrtu, iravri Tf ^Xofievf yoovfuvot cvx<p«ICf 
aXkd Toic X/ov oo^Ic ^ifia(6fM€voQ, vtipd tovtoiq QoMfuUnroA. Hin^^wt 
U iw oXiyoVy «c i^trty" \vtvKXdq, kojL roc Topyfow rw Acoitimw irafM- 
0r4J9e(c, «:ai roc ovriBeVcic rdv oyofidTiaVf evhtict^voat icar iKsXvo KOipcv 
irapd To'iQ''^XKn(TC fidXieraUirdvTwv (5irep ctiro/uy) €fi|X«d«i'''0^i|pov, 
ical rijc vtpi rd orofiara cVXoy^c, koI r^c «-cpi "jV •vvacatv wcptficiag, 
T^C re iirxyoQ rife icara n^y €pfkf\vtiav, xni tw JCoXAotiCt koX rov rax«wc-" 
Translate this; and explain and exemplify the wapiauwie and 
diTcO€«ic, the ItrxvQ and the rax^C attributed to the style of 

II. 1 . What were the alleged, and what the proximate causes of 
the Peioponnesian War? 2. Enumerate the members of the 


Pdi^nnesian confederacy ; and shew in what manner their private 
interests and their political views and prejudices inclined them seve- 
ndly to the war. 

III. 1. At what time do the Grecian states appear to have 
taken the form of democracies and oligarchies ? 2. Are the seeds 
of popular government discoverable in the kingly governments 
described by Homer ? S. What is the earliest instance recorded 
of the direct opposition of the 3^/ioc of Athena to its aristocracy 7 
4« Exemplify the virulence of party feeling in Greece antecedently 
to the wars with Persia : and mention the most striking instances of 
its operation during the Pelf^oniiesian War. 5. Shew from history 
that as early as the times of the Peisistratids it had been adopted as 
a principle of Lacedaemonian policy to support the oligarchal party 
in foreign states. 6. Distinguish between hntoffTila JXcywv, and 
loovofduf (IV. 78), or oKiyapxlo, looroftoQ^ (III. 62) ; and exemplify 
the one and the other from the political history of Greece. 

IV. 1 . Give a brief outline of the increase of the Lacedaemonian 
power from afier the return of the Heraclidse till it became the 
prevailii^ power in Greece. 2. What was its number of ships and 
troops sent to the Trojan War 1 d. What the number of icKiipoi into 
which Laconia was divided in the time of LycurguSf and by inference» 
the number of Lacedsemonian fiimilies ? 4. What was the amount 
of the Lacedaemonian force at the battle of Plataea ? 5. What the 
greatest force employed by it during the Peloponnesian War? 
6. Explain briefly the respective powers and offices of its King8« 
Ephors, Senate, and Commons. 

V. 1 . Enumerate the allies and tributary dependencies of Athens 
at the commencement of the war. 2. Detail fninutely the successive 
steps by which the Greek islands were reduced from a state of alliance 
to a state of subjection ; and specify which was the Jirst to sufifer. 
3. Compare the authority exercised by Athens over them^ witli that 
of Lacedaemon over the allies under its protection, and that of 
Thebes over the other towns of Bopotia ; iUustrating the last-men- 
tioned by examples from the Sd and 4th Books of this History. 

VI. 1 . What was the annual amount of the ^opoQ at the breaking 
oat of the War ; — and how much increased from the assessment 
levied by Arisddes? 2. What were the other sources of revenue? 
and, appro^rimately, to what amount t S. What was the value of 


the sums in the treasury at the time above mentiimed ; and under 
what divisions ar^ they classed by Pericles 7 4. Explain the mean- 
ing of eimbopdf and mention on what occasion^ and to what amomit 
the first on record was paid into the Athenian treasury. 5. What 
was the pay at this time of the oTcXlTtie ? What of the yavnic ? and 
how reduced afterwards ? Supposing 5000 oir\irai and 1 00 triremes 
to have been kept in service for half the year, calculate the expence. 
6. How long was the siege of Potidsea ; and what its expence to 
the state? 7. What other drains were there upon the public 
treasury? 8. How soon does it appear to have been exhausted) 

VII. 1 . At what number are the owXirm^ the imreiQ, the rof/orcu 
and the triremes of Athens rated by Pericles ? ft. At what the 
iroXerac by Aristophanes ? 3. Deduce from either of these data an 
approximation to the whole of the free population : and, supposing 
Attica to contain 54,000 square stadia, compare the number to the 
square mile with that of England or any European country. 4. What 
calculation has been formed respecting the mimmum of the Athenian 
population in the time of Demosthenes from the quantity of com 
yearly imported as compared with the meal rations allowed to each 
soldier of the army besieged in Sphacteria ? cap. 16. 5. What 
is the number ofskmes attributed to Athens in the census preserved 
in Athenaeus ? 

VIII. Kal Toh iwpaiav ^fiovftevot avrHr (nSv EtXcJnay sc.) njv 
VEorrfra koI to wXijGoc' d^l yap to. ird^Xd AarcSai/iov/oic 'Tpot tovq £!- 
Xikirac rijg ^XaicrJQ vipi fiaXiora jcaOevn/icec. cap. 80. 1 . What name 
^does Thucydides elsewhere give to the Helots ? IS. Mention briefly 
the circumstances of the Helot war; and illustrate the conduct 
pursued by the Laciedaemonians in the case detailed in cap. 80, by 
other similar instances. 5. Compare with this the Athenian policy 
respecting slaves. 

IX. 1. What was the e£fect of the system of slave holding 
on the character, habits, and social rebitions of the lower 
class of the woXirai 1 S. Illustrate from Aristophanes. S. 
What were the means of livelihood daily offered them by the 
state ? 4. Compare the value of such maintenance with the price 
of comf and the price of labour at that time, as stated by Aristo* 
phanes. 5. Of what nature were the poor laws of Athens ? 

X. 1 . What was the plan of campaign laid down by the Pelo- 


ponnesian confederates against the Athenians ? Mention a similar 
plan adopted by one of the kings of Lydia against Miletus, 2. What 
was the plan of defence proposed by Pericles ? S. Give a concise 
summary of the principal events of the war arranged year by year ; 
and shew from these that his judgment was completely verified by 

XI. 1. Give the dates of the Acharnenses and Equites of Aris- 
tophanes. Illustrate from him the passing feelings of the day at 
Athens respecting the war. 2. Quote from Euripides or Sophocles 
any more remarkable expressions of political feeling connected with 
this subject. 3. Give the substance of the eulogium passed on 
Athenian manners and society by Pericles in his funeral oration ; 
contrast it with those of Sparta ; and shew by a sketch of the state 
of Athenian arts, literature^ and society at that time, the strong 
ground of attachment to their country that they afibrded to the 
higher classes. 

Xn. 1. Explain tbefoUowing nautical terms : xeKn^* Xpvrpuni, aWrc- 
cv dfii^iiipiKOVfj(e}p are2ijpay aVa/3a6pa, irctpif/Eipeffla^ iropairXctv dir6 icoXm* 
2. To whom doesThucydides attribute the change from the old model 
to that of the trireme as then used ? 3. In what did this change 
consist? State its advantagesy and its inconveniences. 4. What 
was the mode of a sea-fight before ? What at the time of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War ? Exemplify firom the actions of Phormion or any 
others recorded in Thucydides. o. Describe the arrangement of 
the QaXdfjuoif (eyyirat and SfHivtrai. 

XIII. t. C. 91. Twy aXXuy Bocbn-opxiiSy ot eieriy iy^eKa oJ (we- 
waivourr^y fidxioBai, What is known from Thucydides respecting 
the powers of a Boeotarch ? How were they limited? 2. C. 14. 
npoievoc XaXxi2ewv. By comparing diflferent passages in Thucydi- 
des and Xenophon, determine the nature of the office ; and mention 
to what modern office it may be resembled. 

XIV. 1. Grive the value in English measure of the words x^^^^f 
corvXiy, fuhfiyo^, 2. C. 118. Aaicc2cu/ioWovc irXcIv /ii) fjuucpf vffi, 
SXXf Bi Kumipii TrXolf i{ irerroKOiruL rdXayra ayoyri fiirpa. Translate 
this, and express the burthen of the vessels allowed in tons. S. fjiyd 
dfyvpUw, how much was this in our money ? 

XV. Translate literally the two following passages ; and explain 
the more remarkable constructions. 



1« C. 18. 2o>^poVfiiv £e drhpHv oiriv€C rdyoBd c£ dfi^fioKoy oot^- 
Xcuc idevrOf xal race fvfi^opaZc oi wJrol tvlsuva-iaTtpoy &y TrpotnpipotyrOf 
t6v re ToXtfiov yofjUerann /iiy, xaB^ otrov ay rcc avrov /lepoc fioikufnUf 
fura^eipl^eiyi rovrip fwcTvac, (£XX* cJc av a< n^ai avrQy ijyiiirtayrai. 
Kol tKd\iaT ay ol roiovroi irra/ovreci ^ca ro^ /ii), r^ opOcvfuyij^ avrov 
7ri€rr£VQyT€G, iiraipiaBoAf iy rf evrv)(eiy ay fjuiXiorra jcaraXvocvro. 

£• C. 18. *Ec rovro tc ireputTTri iy rv^iy, «lKffr£ Adriyalovg fiiy ix yrjc 
re Koi ravrvfg Aair«i»vcK^C9 dfivveoBai iKilyovs ^VctrXeovrac, Aaire^cufto- 
v/ov£ ^i, €K vwy re jcal elg n}v eavrfifv« nokEfjUay oiaay^ iir AOriycUovc 
dwofialyeiy, iirl iro\v yap ivoiti rrjc &){>}c iv Ty rorcy roig fuy^ ^ei* 
pwraig fiaXiara civcu, cat ra irc^^a KparlaroiQ, rocc ^9 OoXa^ff/occ re, 
ral rale vaw^l itXciotov irpqex^cv. 

XVI. 1. In the form of the words kudcvy, ij^vyrfifitrayy xKevtrau* 
fteyoif state what is peculiar ; and whether other similar forms are 
found in Thucydides and the cotemporary Attic writers. 

2. Should we read eMxet in the imperfect or nMxei ? and why? 
nXaratyc or IlXaraietc ? Mention other similar words to hoth. 

8. Give the meaning and derivation of the following words and 
expressions ; ^Airoffifiwvai, ic^Xi^f, rec^^piici vepuaTrrf^ rpvyrfro^^ icarap- 
9eic» X/ira dkelypetrBcu, ofna^erai ^cdfwye^f Klyhvyoy dyafi^irrety. 

XVII. Translate the following passages ; and if you prefer any 
different readings, give your reasons for it. 

1. Tovc fjxy cZy eenrXovc raic vav^^v dymrptipovQ fiviiiy Kkj^vety 

2. Kai 01 XaXKi^ibty wpitrj^eic ^vfxirtifioyreg idlhaoxoy avrov ^i) vfrefeX- 
Oeiv r^ Hep^lKKif. ra ^etvd lya vpoOvfioripf t\ouy Kai ec ra eavrcJv 

S, Kal ro fuy evtJyvfAoy rHv BouMirwy TJaerdro vvo rQy ^Adfiyaluv koi 
eVifccav roue re oXXov^ ravrg rai, &c. 

4. C. 86. ovrw iroXXi^v irepccJin}!/ rtiy li/xlv e*c ra fiiyurra Sia^optJv 
voLovfuda, Duker says, ''Recte ni fallor: — Portus ^la^dpw." 
What would be the difference in the grammar and in the sense, 
corresponding to this difference of accent? 

XVni. Draw a map of Greece south of a line joining the Sinus 
Ambracius, and Sinus Pelasgicus. 




A. State shortly (1) the epochs at which the history of Greece 
becomes authentic and continuous : S. the sources and value of 
our information with respect to its previous history ; 3. the time at 
which it becomes connected with the sacred narrative ; 4. where it 
is taken up, and where laid down, by Thucydides ; 5. the writers 
by whom it was continued down to the ,time when it merged in that 
of Rome; and 6. the most remarkable changes which the nation 
has undergone from that time to the present. 

B* 1. Mention some of the early historians enumerated by 
Dionysius : are any of them alluded to by Herodotus or Thucydi- 
des? On what subjects did they generally write? Of what parts 
of Greece were they mostly natives, and how is this accounted for ? 

2. Translate "Eva xpoxcipiora/ievoc iroXc/iov tqvtqv itnrovdcurev 

dyaypi^C i^pwfiiyocreTo fftSfxaf Kalriy^idyoiay vyialytay^ koI fiej^pi 
warroc avrov fiuaaoQ (quote the words of Thucydides B. v. of which 
this last sentence is a version ;) vpwroy iiir drj xard tovto hifWa^ 
rmvTcpo aurotf truyypai^otyf Xcyii; ^c Kara to Xa/ieiy virodttTiy firire 
fioyoKuiXoy irayrdiraaiy, /zifrc ti^ iroXXa fUfupiafUyriy Koi dtntydpnira 
rf^aXcua. (Dionys. Hal.) Give the substance of the passage in 
another treatise in which Dionysius expresses a directly contrary 
opinion. 3. Mention shortly his other objections to Thucydides : 
do you consider any of them well-founded ? 4. What opinions are 
expressed by Cicero and Quintilian as to the benefit to be derived 
by an orator from the stu^y of Thucydides ? 5. State the con- 
siderations in the introduction of Thucydides which justifies his 
choice of a subject ; and the terms in which he there developes his 
conception of the use and purposes of History. 

C 1. What do we gather from Thucydides concerning his per- 
sonal history, especially with respect to his advantages and*qualfi- 



cations, and his having survived the war ? ^. Is there reason to 
doubt the story of his having been induced to write history by 
witnessing the recitation of Herodotus 1 S, By what contemporaiy 
authors now extant are his writings best illustrated ? 

Z). 1 . Translate 2Si093re/rd) hi rcc ^nira rove 'xpovov^f koX /jof r^y 
tKCLffTa-xpy rj dpxovnnf if aVo Tifi^erivocrtiydirafUBfiiitnyrwyoyofidTwy 
c'c ra irpoyeysyrifiiya atifioiyoyriayf wiarevtrae /laXXov. Ov yap 
ojqpi/3&c iirriy ole koX mpxofuyote koI fucrovvi koI Stuq intj^rf exeyeVc- 
TO Tu 2. .How does Thucydides date the events of the war ? 5. 
By what marks does he fix its commencement? 4. To what 
epochs does he refer in speaking of the early history of Greece ? 5. 
What difference is there in the manner in which he refers to Olym- 
piads, and that in which they are used as chronological epochs by 
succeeding historians ? Who was the first of these ? 

E, 1. What was the nature of the ijyefwyia exercised by the 
Athenians and Lacedaemonians respectively? Translate, KpyzlotiQ 
irapaiyifftit iyiyyoyro vvip rfJQ re voXxnac ijytfAoylaQ teat riJQ iy 
HtKoTOyyiifff irorc ItrofwiplaQ. At v^hat period did Argos enjoy the 
former ? Explain the nature of the latter from the claim advanced 
by her at the time of the Median invasion. Herod, vii. 3. Shew 
(from Thucyd. v.) that she had hopes of recovering it during this 
war. 4. What states acquired in succession the supremacy of 
Chreece from the battle of Salamis to that of Leuctra ? and what arc 
the dates and events alluded to in the following passages : 01 irpoyo^ 
yoi lifJMy irivrE xal rerrepaKoyra eny rwy *EKkiiyiay rip{,ay iimyrtiy, 
(Demosth. Oljrnth. iii.) KalToi trpoardrai fuy vfuit ij^^ofi^Koyra enf 
KcA rpia rQy 'EXXiyVoiv iyiytaBe, wpoffrdrtH he rpioKoyra iyoc hiorra 
AoKihaifioyioi. (Dem. Phil, iii.) Jinrtipridrai juy yap enf hiica ^wKlc 
iireordTfitray, (Isocr. Panadi.) 

JF*. 1 . What was the aKxtdeardTti fiiy wpoifHinCf d^ytardni hi Xiryv 
of this war? 2. -What portion of it does Thucydides call d wptiroQ 
irdXcfioc ? 3. State the condition of the peace of Nicias, its duration, 
the previous obstacles which had impeded it, -and the circumstances 
which had induced eaph party to desire it. 4. On what day of 
what month (give the Athenian and Lacedaemonian names) was it 
ratified? 5. Who were most dissatisfied with it? 6. What 
genend and what particular considerations alienated the Mantineiaos 


from the Lacedsmonian alliance ? and wLat other states followed 
their example ? 

G. 1. Describe the plots of the ''Knights" and of the "Peace" 
of Aristophanes. 2. Name the Demagogues who acquired the 
lead in administration at Athens from the death of Periclea to the 
representation of the "Peace ;" how are they described by Aristo- 
phanes? Translate and explain the following passage : 

on iro\efu'i> p/MtffO' mivmv iroXXoric 

UT^vloQ Teoujvvnav' idi fiiv ol AamtfvcJCDt 

vwepfidkoiyTV fwcpov eXcyov iv ra^L 
• Nal r« <nw vvv *KmKiiay Itam ilKfiv, — 

d j* av re irpdSfiLivr dyaBov ArriKiaviKol 

K^Xdouv oi AdiMV€c €ipf|yi/c Wp< 

ikiyer ar vfuTf tvBvQ' '£{axarwficOa, 

vi| rrjv *Adrtvdy* yrj Af* ov^i vutrriov. 

rliiov<n xivdie rfv €\(Ufiev Tfjv WvKov, 
H* L Translate: rac iroXccc ^povtra^ tov ^poy rov cV 'Apitrrel' 
Iw, avrorofuivc civai. Under what circumstances and to what 
amount was this first imposed, how collected, and by whom afterwards 
augpmented ? 2. What is known of the 'EtX^mc and the Ncoda/Mi* 
2cic1 3. Who were kings of Sparta during this war? 4. Whstt 
power had the kings in war and in peace ? 5, What limitation of 
the former is recorded in this book ? does it appear to have been 
acted on afterwards ? 

/. 1. What was the prineipU of the system of discipUne in the 
Lacedaemonian army ? and 2. its subdivisions^ as stated by Thucy- 
dides and by Xoiophon ? S. State the causes of the uncertainty 
as to the numbers of the Athenians and Lacedaemonians respectively. 
4. For what rule of military practice after a victory were the 
Lacedaemonians remarkable? give examples from this book, or 
Herodotus. 5. In what part of military science were they defec- 
tive 1 6. What was the name of the melody used by the Lace- 
daemonians before a battle, to what instrument was it played, and 
what metrical feet prevailed in it ? 7. What was the daily pay of 
the army and navy in the 1st, 12th, and 20th year of the war res- 
pectively ? On what occasions are we presented with this informa- 
tion by Thucydides? 8. State the value of the iBginetan and of 
the common drachma. 


K. 1. Enumerate the principal services rendered by Brasidas to 
his country. Whose son was he ? give his character as collected firom 
Thucydides. What honours were paid to his memory ? 2. With 
what hero has he been compared by Plato ? 3. To what are he 
and Cleon humorously likened by Aristophanes? 4. ^Hf koX 
avTog (Utp^licKac) rtJpxo^'toy e( "Apyovg, Relate from Herodotus the 
establishment of this family in Macedonia : how far was this Perdic- 
cas removed in descent firom the founder ? 

L» 1. Draw a map of the Chalcidian peninsula from Potidsa to 
the Strymon, inserting all the places mentioned by Thucydides, B. v. 
and correct an error of the published maps by assigning the true 
position of the Xi/ii|v KoXo^yltav, and the probable situation of 
Galepsus taken by Cleon ; describing the military and naval opera- 
tions by which each is determined. 2. What gave to these coun- 
tries so prominent a part in the war? 3. Within what countries 
were the rd iwl O/xucpfc of Thucydides included in the time of Hero- 
dotus and Demosthenes respectively ? 4. Draw a sketch of the 
operations before Amphipolis. When and by whom was this city 
at different times founded ? By what name was the region known 
to Herodotus? 5, Where was Kopvoc ? What is related of its &te, 
and by whom 1 6. Where was 'Opeorciov ? From what tradition 
might it derive its name ? 7. What cities were contained in the 
Kvyotmvpia yfi ? Translate : ejecvac ovorepourovv npoKaXtaafiivotQ^ 
fiifre yotrov ovotis, firfrt TroXtficv, ^lafjidyttrSat Trepl rrjg yrfg rawnic 
wfnrep koI vporepov vorty ort avroliKcirepoi fi^tMnrav yuc^y. Who made 
the proposal ? What did the other party think of iti Relate firom 
Herodotus the circumstances alluded to in vftdrepoyxcre. 8. Where 
was Amyclse ? for what celebrated ? Explain the proverb " Perdi- 
dit Amyclas silentium." Quote the allusion to it in VirgiL Where 
was the Amyclae there spoken of? 9. What distinction appears to 
be observed between Sirccpny and AcucehcUfju^y in Homer, Herodo- 
tus, and Thucydides ? What was the population of the city in the 
time of Herodotus ? How is its appearance described by Thucy- 
dides ? 10. Give the modern names of Sparta, Cythera, Melas. 
For what were the Melians distinguished by Herodotus ? Who is 
said by Plutarch to have proposed the decree for their destruction ? 

M, 1. Translate : At fiey eyiavfrtoi trtrovial^uKikvyro iuj(pi IhSl^y' 
Kal iy rg iK£y(tipl^ *\drjvaioi AriXiovQ dyitrrriaayf liyffadfuyoi ov ra0a- 



povc orrat itpHaBai. Explain by dates the former sentence. 2. 
What is the earliest celebration of the Pythian games on record? 
From which celebration are the Pythiads reckoned ? Can any 
probable epoch or cause be assigned to their establishment ? 3. 
Mention any other purifications which Delos had undergone. 
What was the immediate and what the eventual fate of these 
Delians ? 

N, Translate carefully the following ; and explain the syntax 
when necessary : 

1. diroay^v rtvffopdKoyra orad/ouc fJt^ ipBdircu iXOtiy, 2» ov 
fiovXdfievos avTOvg Bid ro cV rf auryl KaBtifuvovQ (ioftwiaBau 3. ^v 
*AOrfyatoi vtlBwnv rdg wokstCf fiovKoixiyat ravrae i^iitma tntfifuixovg 
TTOitiaOtu avrdc ^ABiivcUoig, 4. €c Bei^u rdig ivayrloic to re TrXijOoc koI 
Tfjv owXiaiy dvayiMlay ovvay r^y fuff iavrovy owe dy fjyeiTo paXXoy 
irepiytyefyBai rj dytv irpomnf/etii re avniy^ xal fiij ovc dvo rov oyroc 
Kara^poyifir<wc» ^* cXca6ai AwctBaifwylovQ Trpo rfc 'ABriyaikty cx^pac 
Kol dtaXvffcwc T^iy inroySkiy *Apye/ovc (r<^tn ^cX/ovc ytyioBai* 6* 
'HXeuK rrjy vap* avroic iKt\€iplay riBri iipatray tlyat' oi 3e AouceBcufw 
vioi virekdn^yoy ov ')(p€t^v civcu cVayyelXai in ec Aaicehalfioya, ei 
oBtKiiy ye ^^i| iyofu^oy avrovc» aXX* ov\ aic yofdl^oyrai rovro Bpatrai* 
Koi SirXa ovBafiom en avroic itreviyKety, 7. dwofwaat $ /iijv 
dirotJmly r^v icara2/in/v. Give the significations of aVo, and 
examples of this . use of ^ /ii}v. 8. xpoKoKov fuOa vfids i^tXoi 
luy elvat voXEfiun Be ftriBeripotCt koX Ik rrjc yijc rif^iy dyaxfofnjffai 
(TwoyBdc voiTieafuyovs, Translate this into Latin and English. 
9. Tovc eKTtJQ vfiaov \ri<^eyTac drlfwvc iiroirnray drifjtlay roidyBe tiirre 
fiifre dpf)(eiy fii^re wptafieyovg n rj wfaXovyraQ Kvplovs elyat, 10. Tovro 
TO Sipoc, rourov rov Oepovc* cVt t{ erti. Shew the difference of time 
denoted in these cases by combining each of them with one of the 
ibilovring sentences : Qvvaoy elXov* direayoyTo /Atj orparevcai' iiri^-- 
Ufu ^(Tay avToli, 11. Tavra iireoTaXfUyoi, 12, Ov fierd rvy irXei- 
6yiMty ov2e ovtoq /3ovX£V(ra/ievoc oXX' i| evl dyBpi Koiv^ffog rQy iy rekei 
ivcrpartvofUyiy, Place the accents and explain the phrase aXX' ^. 
13^ KarairXayevrcc ry c£ ^lyov idtrtiy dvo^wp^o'ci <>{')( clxof 6, re elicd- 
awfTty' cTra iirelBri dya\iapodyrec eKtiyol re dtriKpvr^y^ Koi enpeic liffu^a-* 
(ov .... What follows dvEKpiwfHiyl 14. rov vnairtiyai irkeoy { rov fiiyoy" 
roc Tfiy BtdyoMLv eXovou 1 5. iwt&vfilq rtiv dvBpiiy iic Tfjc yijffov KoyLiaaadax* 
Shew the full meaning of cV, and explftin carefully the whole con- 




O. 1 . Shew by examples the advantages of the Greek language 
in the use of its participles. S. What is remarkable in Kapytta 
Irvyyavov ovra ? and in a/x^ rw tcoKbe 1 4. Tov icfiov upydriaav 
Jure fcij BvuVf ohK iicTelvoyreg Tffy ^licfiP* §. 49 • • . • *Ey elpif i^ piy 
ohheyos vfdKfiarog yiyyofieyov ••••§• 17. Can you detect a differ- 
ence of signification if we should read fci) iicnlvoyres and fJifhyoQ ? 
5. What are the obh'que cases of df^ in Thucydides ? 6. Uap avroif 
KoBlaravTO oi Bpavi^etoi erparuSrai .... KaBlorwray vap avrovc rove 
'Apjcc^^ac. Can you collect from these passages under what circum* 
stances irofMi may be joined with what cases ; and thence shew 
which case is preferable in vap avnwc (or avroSc) {vfifuxxoc iimy ? 
7. Translate ^uXiay tov teIxovq^ and huKofuyoi rtiy woXiy vepureix^' 
l^oy, 8. Give the tense oid^uoay (nfv dpyriy vQy irdXe»i^): ai^loQm : 
Kotpaytoynay : (What is the other form ? does it occur in Thucydi- 
des ? What Latin form is said to be derived from this ?) 9. Give 
the force of the preposition in irpoeiFaytirEiaBrif fureftiKoyro, eVe- 
ypmpayro ; and the meaning and derivation of iyrifiytiyp dywaayTf, 
ciroucoc, ^vfifjiaxiat Ewtfiaylat aVnriXi}7rroc» j(prifiaTl(€iy, iiCKapwovaBau 
10. Mention some peculiarities of the Doric dialect : what models 
of it are extant ? Translate dpyvpi^ tvXcuc^ evXdiuy into English 
and Attic Greek, and explain the proverb. 

Second Paper, 

I. Translate the following into Greek Prose : 

" The principal and proper work of history being to instruct, and 
enable men by the knowledge of actions past to bear themselves 
prudently in the present, and providendy towards the future, there 
is not extant any other merely human that doth more fully and 
naturally perform it than my author. For he is accounted the 
most politique historiographer that ever writ ; seeing that he filleth 
his narrations with that choice of matter, and ordereth them with 
that judgment, and with such perspicuity and efficacy expresseth 
himself, that, as Plutarch saith, 'he maketh his auditor a spectator.' 
For he setteth his reader in the assemblies of the people* and in the 
senates at their debating, in the streets at their seditions, and in the 
field at their battles." 


IL Translate the following into Latin : 

Haay 5c aXXot dvavetiaaaSm.' B. v. c. 43. 

1. viae. What was his age at this time? 2. wpoyovtar. To what 
hero and what distinguished family did he trace his pedigree according 
to Plutarch? 3. ov fiivroi. Explain the ellipsis. 4. irdmrov. What 
was his name, and on what occasion recorded by Herodotus ? 
in. The following passages into English : 
rote fiiy *ApytioiS koX {v/i/w^chc— — 

-o^aXXoi. c. 69—71. 

1. {v/ifioxoic* What were these? What were the arguments 
addressed to them and to the Argives respectively ? 2. djpy^ x^ofiovyret. 
Explain the pecuKarity of oonstructiony and give examples. 8. rqfc 
olrtac. How did Agis endeavour to remedy this fault : and what was 
the result ? — Where was the scene of this battle ? 

'EXtic de Ktv^vyf ■ X v/KUycrcu. c. 1 0S. 

T^C fiiy Toiyvy ro o^pov. c« 105. 

Explain and illustrate dya^limvin ; cirl powfjc /itac ovnt ; the 
tense of icaOtikt ; the voice of ^vXafcrcu ; the mood of xpary ; the 
use of irapa in vofMiXajSoircc ; and shew the difficulty of cXXe/tcc 
from the use of the word in any other part of this dialogue. 


Sine CoU, et anno. 

I. What is to be found in Thucydides's historyjespecting him- 
self and his work t 

n. Give Cicero's and Quintilian's characters of Thucydides and 
Herodotus : state the principal objections which Dionysius of Hali- 
cafnassus makes against the former, and your opinion on them. 

III. Draw a map of Sicily, marking Syracuse, Naxus, Selinus, 
Gela, Messana, Camarina ; and stating from what place each was 


IV. Give Thucydides's account of the early settlers in Sicily ; 
and state under what governments it has Mien from his time to the 

V. State briefly the event of the Sicilian expedition ; what great 
battles (with their dates and the names of the commanders) were 
fought ; and what changes were brought about at Athens up to the 
year 400. B. C. 

VI. Quote or give the substance of any passages of Aristopha- 
nes which notice any commander in the Sicilian expedition. 

VII. Grive an acc6unt of the Athenian months, whence they 
were chiefly named, and how divided. 

VIII. How many tribes were there originally at Athens ? How 
many afterwards ? Of what number did the Senate consist at dif- 
ferent periods, and how was the Presidency arranged ? 

IX. From what country, and from whom did the family of Pi- 
sistratus and the Alcmseonidas derive their origin ? Mention some 
of the most illustrious men belonging to each family. 

X. Give the diflerent senses in which fuWutj vpaoaia, ^yw are 
used ; and distinguish between Bia, Oed — frrpartd^ orpareia — irou^^a, 
ircuhidt tfoiBtla — avouif ctyvoca — oiKita, htoticiiay oiW^ftf, Karoucil^iaj iuvoi- 

XI. Translate the following into English : 

C. 34. Et ^* av ry Tayvrovyrtj — iaoKiv^vvovQ TJyovfuyoi, 

XII. Translate the following into Latin : 
C. 83. dv&Zv dlioi ivfi^ipovra. 

87. ><l>dfuy yap Ofxeiv cJ^cXcii'. 


A, 1 . Ot yap 'A6i}vatoc TpoTCf Toif^e fjiXdoy iirl rd rpdyfiara iv 
olc riv^ridriffay. Lib. i. c. 89. Trace the progress of the power of 
Athens, from the end of the Persian invasion to the beginning of 
the Peloponnesian War. 

2, Mention the most celebrated Athenian poets, philosophers, 
and artists of the same period. 


B* I . *ApyeIoc fur ov Trjt lvftH(K)(iaQ cvcica fiaXKov^ ?/ ttjc Aa«:£- 
dcufwyluy rt ixOpac^ ical rrjs irapavriica cjcaoroc Ihlaey Aupuis cV2 
Aoypiiac fc£ra ^AOtiyaitav *ltiytay tJKoKov&ovy. Lib. vii. c. 57. Whence 
were the Lacedsemonians and Argives Dorians ?^ 

2. On what occasion did the lomc migration take place; and 

3. Which of the ^olian or Dorian powers sided with the Athe- 
nians at the commencement of the war 1 

C 1. State briefly tlie pretended grounds on which war was 
declared against Athens.. 

ft. Describe the transactions in which Thucydides commanded, 
with their consequences to himself. 

S. Give the dates and particulars of the events referred to in the 
following passages : 

1. Sti ig nXaratav fXBoy Oiy/Soioi iv oxovSalc* c. 18. 

2. AlyiyrJTcUf oi rore Aiyivav elx^^' ^' ^^* 

S» 9raf>airX]}Via re itrewoyOetray koi i^patray avrol iv Hvk/a. c.71. 

4. How long did the war last ; and how did it terminate ? 

2). 1. Mention the name by which Sicily was first known 
to the Greeks ; and distinguish between Scicayol, SuceXoi, and 

2, By whom was Syracuse founded ; and at what period ? 

E, 1. voXen yap yavraiQ fAOvaig ijEtf ofwufrpowtag iweXOoyntf 
^TifioKpaToviiiyaic re titnrep icai avroL c. 55. How far did the 
Athenian constitution of this time differ from that of Solon ? 

2. Relate the circumstances under which democracy was esta- 
blished in Syracuse. 

5. On what pretext did the Athenians carry the war into Sicily? 

F, 1 . jcal ydp or ippuifiTfy, voWd iv ijyefioyiaiQ vixSlq tl iwoiriva. 
c. 15. State all you know of the previous life of Nicias. 

2. Describe his military character. 

G, 1. By whom were triremes first built; and what was their 
construction ? 

2. 01 iv roli Xcirrotc jcXoloig iciptifKioyriQ rQv JivpaxovfflwVf koI ic 
re roig raptrovg vTroviirroyrec rwy woXefdtay yedvy kouL eQ rd TrXetyca 
irapairXioyres, koI i^ adrwv ec rove vavrac dKoyrl(oyreg. c. 40. 
Explain this passage. 

3, Distinguish between irepiirXovgy ^UkwXovs^ ififioXii and IfifioXog, 


H. Explain the syntax of the foHowing passages : 

i^&aoay wapotKoioiJaiffayretj red impeXdovrcc Tfjv tQv 'AOifyoiwr 
olKoBofdav, tSare fniKeri pLrfrt avrol K^viadai wr avrHv* c. 6. 

fi Tf ix^ TTpoc xop^y rl Xlyovnt, c. 8« 

rove ovTovg i^OpovQ xal ^(Xove toIq *ABtivaiotc yofti(€ir» c 8$, 

Toit re yap irvj^etpii/Aainy Upiav ov KaropBcvvrtQ, ical rovg orpa" 
ruiroQ ajfiofuyovi rp ftovp. c 47. 

wavvavret rrjy ^\6ya^ ical ro iirj wpoaiXdeiv iyyvg nfv oXxo^. 
c. 5S« 

VTO yap Tov wtpiyapovQ Tfjg WiCf|c. c. 75. 

vofti(kiy ov TO VTOfuyuy ey rf rowirf ix&yrac clvai, leeU fid)lta6at, 
diartiplay, c. 81* 

/. Various passages to be translated. 


A, 1. Draw a plan of Syracuse, showing the situation of Orty* 
gia and the two harbours ; of the Epipolse, Temenites, Labdalum, 
Plemmyrium ; and of the walls built by both parties during the 
siege. 2. On this plan describe, (a) the night-a($ion, according 
to Thucydides, and (h) the siege by the Romans, according to 

B, I. Distinguish the SuccXol from the ^ucekikhxu, 2. Which 
were the Grecian colonies of Sicily, and from what parts of Greece? 
Which the barbarian? 3. Into what independent states was the 
island divided at the time of the Athenian invasion ? 4. How far 
were the cities of Magna Greecia engaged in this war ? 

C Give the dates of the leading events in the history of Sicily* 
for the two centuries following this war, as it is connected (1) with 
Grecian, (ft) with Carthaginian, (3) with Roman politics. ' 

D. 1 . What were the causes, what the pretences of the Sicilian 
war ? How far did the private character of Alcibiades enter into 
the former ? 2. Give instances of the great influence of individual 
character in Grecian history. Why is this more observable in 
Grecian than in any other history ? 9. Illustrate the character of 
Nicias from Aristophanes. 


E, 1. Delineate the retreat of the Athenians from Syracuse 
to their surrender. 2. What are the latitudes of Syracuse, Athens, 
and Samoa ; and what the difierence of longitude between the first 
and last? 3. What are the modem names of Rhegium, Catana, 
•Agrigas, Panormus, andEgesta? 

F, 1. Translate the foUowing : Tovrf ^i h^ rf dvipi BovkvS/^c 
'iwiliaXuy»»A^t6v nra ^o^icnypa xal wapeiapaijxvov dwain wp^roc dc 
riyv iaropuajy trpayfuxrelay iamMatnv elaayayuv* cVl fiiv lijc kkKo^ 
y9c tAv iyoitartav riiy rpcnrmiy cat yKuftfiaTUC^y ixtl d'KifpfXtuuf^y^y 
Kol ^y^y Xc{ty TrpotKdfieyo^ dyrl rifg Koiyrjc iced avy^BovQ roic Kor 
airoy dySptaxoit' cVl Sc rijc trvvdivei^ rHy r ikarroytay koI nSy 
fUii^oyiay fwpltay njv df/Mftaruaiy kqI adertipdy jca2 ortfiapdy koX 
^fitlKiuay Kol Tpaxiyovoay toIq tQw yftojipdrwy dynrvwlatg rdc 
dKodct dyrl rqc Xiyi^c koI ftaXaudis KctL ffvyeinfffiiytic tfoi firi^y 
CXOV017C dyrirvTcoy.,* ft. Mention the leading points of the general 
criticism which Dionysius passes upon Thucydides. d. In what 
respects have both Herodotus and Thucydides been truly called 
imitators of Homer ? 

0. Translate and explain the gprammar of the foUowing pas- 
sages *: 1 • dfMoiai it rag o^c KoBloraoay, ty dyrl rtixovg j. 2. Tolg 
fitnficviny if irokig i} jrifimvaa xapiyirw H^XP*^ rptOKoyra iifiep£y tnroy^ 
iwify iXdp ig rrjy voKiy nfy dxayytCXxuray fionfitiy, 3. AovXc/ay avroi 
re ifiovXoyro icoU lifiiy ro avro iinyeyKuy. 4. OvV dirthixoyro 
ro wpuroy rag Karriyoplagf fui^oy ■ ftipog yifjboyrtg r^ fci| (SovkeoBai 
dXifiij cIkcu. 

H. Translate and explain the syntax, and correct if necessary : 
1 . dwoKrelyovviy aOr^y iy ry iafidmi rovg irXelorovg' rHy rt iy roig 
wkoloigf tig ifJpuy rd iyrrj yy, opfuodyrtay c{» rov (ivyfiarog rd irXoIa. 
ft, acal Kiylvyvy oSrot inrayuararoi oi dy ekixiffra ix rov ff^aXfiyai 
pKairroyrtg wKEiara ^ui ro e^rvyijoai ti^Xovn, 3. ralg youy yawny 
i| wpirepoy Oap<ni<ni Kparjfielg- 4. eKOvaluty Ktyivytay (rcficXflro. 
5, oi fjiiy l^ ottXoic notovfAiyoif oi ^ iirl rov rtlyovg, 6. iiriarafiiyoig 
V v/iiy ypd^j Zrt fipaxeia dKfjLti irXripiifiarog, koI oKiyoi rdy yavrSy 
dippfuiyrig re vavv, koI ivvixovreg njy elpealay. 7. fuyioroy Bi ical 
iy rdig rrpHroy ixaKunre ro ffrpdrivfia riSy 'ABtiyaluy i| rov TTSjififivplou 
Xfying, 8. ^irXa TrXdia ij icard rovg yiicpovg, 

/. Translate and illustrate from other authors: 1. wapd ro- 
^ovroy fiiy ai livpaKOvwat ^Xdoy luy^vyov, ft. x^^"^'^^^ T^P ^' 


vfuripai ^vffcic ap^, 3« ivtOvfAovyro niv re ir€fii ElvXin; ^fi/^opdr, 
4. Ti}y elKomTJy viro rauroy rov ypSrov rwy Kara daXav^ay dyrl rov 
^opov rdig wnftdoiQ tTcoli^ay* 

K. Translate the following into the style and language (l)of 
HerodotuSy (2) of Xenophon. EJwdarc Btaral ftiy rvy \6yvy y/y- 
vtaOaif dxpoaral Ze rwy ipyiay^ rd liiy fiiXXoyra ipya trKOirovyrtg aVo 
r£y ev elir6yrwy tog Svyard ycyycffOcu, rd di weirpayfuya ri^ii ov ro 
BpatrSiy Triarorepoy otpei Xa/3oKr€c V ^ dxovadty dtro rwy \oyf KoX/og 
€Ttrifirfimyr(ay' ical furd Katyorrfrog fiiy XJyov airaraff^i apurroi, furd 
^€&)Ktfuurfiiyov ii fci| £vveir€(r6uc iOiKEiy' &>vXfM oyreg rwy del aroxwv, 
VTTtpifKfaM. hi rHy eUitdoriay, 

(Give this answer in Latin :) 

L. Compare the style of Thucydides with that of Tacitus. 

AT. 1. By what two principles was the federal system of 
Greece chiefly regulated? When they were opposed, which of 
them' generally prevailed ? Give such instances as occur to you. 
2. How far do forms of government in Greece appear to have been 
affected by locality ? 

N, 1. Into what different classes do you distribute the allies 
of Athens ? Give an instance of each. 2. What was the basis 
of the Spartan confederacy ? By whom and on what occasions was 
it violated ? 



A^ Mention, from Thucydides himself, 

1 . What is known of his country, profession, and life ? 
%. His motives for writing the History of the Peloponnesian 
War — and the probable accuracy of his account ? 

3. What were the real, and what the ostensible causes of that 

4. How long it lasted altogether — and how much of it is related 
by himself? 


5. How the Expedition to Sicily came to be resolved upon ? 

6. When, and by whom, Syracuse was founded ? 

B, 1. Are there any grounds for suspecting Thucydides of lu' 

ccmtm ? 
2. When, why, and for how long» was he absent from his 

country ? 
9. What was the name, nature, and origin, of the chief magistracy 

there at the time ? 

4. AftipieZc . • • *hiviav . « . Kparqaavrt^, What distinction is here 
alluded to ? and what people beloi^d to each division respec- 
tively ? 

5. Grive a short account of the civil government of Lacedaemon 
at the period of the Peloponnesian War. 

C 1. How does Thucydides divide his narration ? and why? 

2. Whatbefel the principal leaders ? and, 

S What were the more important transactions of the Pelopon- 
nesian War ? 

4. How did it end? and what were its political consequences? 
Z). 1. ij otKfirli eVXE/irci. Mention any remarkable eclipses record- 
ed in history — ^and the notions entertained of their import, from 
ancient and modem writers. 

2* avlptii yap iroXic» koX ov rdyiit ovii vrjtc dv^putr rcvo/. Do 
you know any similar sentiment in ancient or modem poets ? 

3. With what other General of antiquity has Nicias been com- 
pared ? and what are the points of comparison ? 

E» 1. Topac* - What was the Latin name of this place? by whom, 
and on what occasion was it founded, according to Horace ? 
2. Draw a map of Sicily, marking the promontories* principal 
cities, &c* 

F. 1 . Give the precise meaning of the words, avayeyvof^jcoi, cVnrXii- 
pOM, TrporylyvofuUf avriiropa^Kevot^ck), /icraire/xirw, iwiwifartap aV- 
rardyiiff dyaftdxpfiai, ayrurapardatyta^ dya)((upiiaf and distinguish 
between dfecTtixiJ^ia and irapaT€t\l(fa, 

2. Also the derivation and meaning of the following : i^wypeivp 
jcaraircirX^Oai, laoppovoCf vapayofiiifiaf ican7^/a, djrrfvrofwXti'- 
ice(rav, dp^aioKoyelr, fiorfitiy^ €incXi}ff/a« dyrlTaXot, (in its dif- 
ferent significations), wrotnroy^oc, 

3. Explain and accentuate the Scholiastic terms, TrapcK/Bamc, ra 


ibHf aiyirTtraif iraf>cXicovrwc KBtoBat^ li hnyoia, ^i?fui xpoQ T9 
(rrifiaivoftevoy, dyoKoXovdoy. 

4. Distinguish the terms* vnifKoot, ^vfifiaxpif ^opov viroreXcic, av- 
rovofwu Also distinguish between retiptov and yiiiowKou 

5. Write down the different meanings of the following words, ac- 
cording to their difference of accentuation : ayw, airXovCf ri, 
OFa, v€fiti, OcaCt Xaoc. 

Gt 1. Distinguish between irdy^ and to vav — and translate ac- 
curately the following passage, Oa iuv toKXdI rCiv ivQdlt riZii 
elprfKoriitv ciracvovflri rov TrpotrBirrg, Tf rofif Toy \oyoy rpyht, 
(B. 11. §. \£.) 
<• wpowifAiTfre cJc avrovc- §• o^. In what sense is cJc here used ? 

Witli what restrictions can it be so employed ? 
9, Distinguish between wc before a future participle generally — 
and when future participles are attended by verbs signifying ar* 
ray, or march in war. Cite an examine of each from Thucy- 

4. Specify the principal usages of dyiartifu and dydffranQ. What 
English verbs correspond a/pparently in their elements with 
dylarrifu and KaBloTfifii ? 

5. Exemplify the use of the verb cx^ ^^ ^^ participle of an 
aorist — and distinguish accurately between the force of such a 
combination and the simple aorist. 

6. Trace the verb yijua from its original meaning through its 
different usages. 

7* In what variety of significations is the verb diioia employed 

by Thucydides ? 
8» What difference of government exists between fuBlTifii and 

fuOUfiai ? Shew if the same exists in any other compounds of 

9. State what you consider to be the leading peculiarities of the 

style of Thucydides — and give a character of it from some 

ancient author. 
H, Translate literally the following passages into English — and 

mention any different reading by which, in your opinion, any 

of them may be amended. 
1 . oi yap KoplyBtoif Jq ot re vpifrPttg avrolc V«>v, icai rd iy rf 

XiKtXl^ fieKrlbt ^yyeXXoi', voplvayreQ, ovk axaipoy icat tiJf vpori^ 


|Niy wifKi^y rtiv ritip iroajwio^j itoKkf fMoXXoy iwi^tayro, ral, 
eV oKKam, iropcmrevo^ojn-o avroi re dwovrtkovrrtc oirXirac iv rp 
IiureX/^ rcU cV rqfc aXXi|c lUXoirovyif 0ov ot AacEdcu/ioyioi r|> avrf 

it, f yap inivoi rove viKaCf oi iwdfui ttniy ht wpovypmt^ rf ie 
dpdatij iwixeipovyrset Karai^o^ovin^ ml 0^c av to avro oftoli^i 
ro7s irayrloic wroa^lv, §. ica'. . 

•8* i|K {oTpartay) ovS* ay furimya^ar ot ^vpOKOvtfUHf el iiceiyoQ eMtt 
biriKitro* Uayoi yap avrol olofuyot tJyai^ dfui r ay ifjtaBoy ^a€fQV{ 
iyriCf ica2 diroircrtixioiuyoi ay ^vav* iorty iitiSt ^^ /uriirefvfHiy, 
irt ofwluc ay avrovc li^eKely* §• fifif» 

4. role T€ yap tTrtxeipiifjtaeiy ii^ptay ov xaropOovtrcC} Koi rove 0rf>a- 
rc«Jrac d^fiofiiyave rfj fiopy, yoof re yap iwuZovro tear dfu^tpat 
Tfjc re £pac rov iyutvrov rovnic ovffiycy cV ^ dodeyovmy aydpuwoi 
fidkurrat Kok ro \viploy dfia, eV ^ iorparovtMoyrOf eXwSec koI 
XaXiwoy ^y, rd re aXXa on oci^'XTuira avroii i^alyero, rf oly 
Aif/iotrOeyei ovic c2<$rei eri ^jpiiycu fUyety' aXXa, r. r. X* §• /if. 

<5. ri ^i ri koI rd r^y woKEfdiay, o^* iy circirXeoy, tj oXXoi, ^oBdyero 
ovrwv, AW2oc rl in iropcixe, ifoyvip^Tepa rHy oferipiay iotoBai^ 
^y Koprcp^m irpoencaBiifuyoi, §• ftV* 

6. iroXcflrt ravrmc ft6yaiQ ^hi oiwwrpdirme ewtkOoyree^ hifWKparov- 
lUyanQ re, iSffwep jca2 avro^i xaX vavc <^a^ ?inrovc ko^ fuyiBrf iyofi" 
muc, ov Suydfieyoi IxtyiyKtiy aire cV iroXcre/ac rl furafioXfje rd 
itdfopoy aiiroTCi ^ wpoaiiyoyro ay^ oSr* eV wapaffiawjif woXXf 
Kp€iamnfCt afoKkoiieyoi 2c rd irXe/w, rd re irpo avrwi' ijiropovyf 
ffttl, ivetiii ye roTc yovaly ei^n^OiyooFy ^ ovk ai' foyrOf miKKf ftf 
/laXXov i!f6v/iovy. §• ye* 
/• Correct the readings of the following passages, if necessary, 
and state the grounds of each alteration. 

1. Kolf ^y /if| «Jc rd^iara i} a^de furaxifiipovtriy, fj oXXovc fii} okl- 
yovc dvotrriXXkHny, ovUfday elrcu (nntfpLay. §. V. 

)S« ifttii^ Si rd ivo rti\lofiara ijXlmcoyrOt iy rovrf jcol o< Svpcueov- 
flruM Myyayoy ififi yuctifuyoif koI oi c{ avrHy ftvyoyre^ pfoy va- 
piirXnfiraym §. icy • 

5. o/i4i»c ^» ^v /ii? wpoaixm n^y yvrnfitiy^ rd fiiy, X^aowny vfidc, 

Amnp Ka\ irporipoyp rd 8e, ^Id^ooyroju §. ce'. 
4. wpofiard re xdyra dwdXiiXei ral viroCvy<a. §. icf . 


5. \oyli€&6€ ^f Sn «vro^ re itoXiq cJdvc cm, ^iroc iy raM{i|0(ley 
teal oXXif ovhfjUa vfiag rUt iv SurcXif ovr ar iirtovtaiQ Ofyuro 
p^dtui, ov^ ay l^pvBtvra^ xov i^avtumiveu. §. o^. 


1. Grive a concise geographical description of ancient and modem 
"Sicfly, and a summary of its history with the dates of the leading 
circmnstances in it. Draw a map of the island, markii^ the prin- 
cipal ancient and modem names. Mention tome eminent diarac- 
ters of antiquity who were natives of Sicily. 

2. State the principal contents of the ahridg^ement of Grecian 
history which Thucydides has prefixed to his narrative of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war. What were the ostensible and what the trae causes 
in which this war originated ? How much of it is related by Thucy- 
dides ? How did it end, and what were its political consequences ? 
What was required by Athens and Sparta from their particular 
allies ? Mention a remarkable difference between the two states in 
this respect. 

S. Mention the principal colonies sent out from the different 
states of Greece, with the time of their departure, and the cities 
founded by each respectively. 

4. Mention all that Thucydides relates concerning his country, 
profession, and life ; his motives for selecting the Peloponnesian 
war as the subject of his history ; his account of his opportunities 
and means of gaining accurate information ; how far the speeches 
are to be considered getouine. 

5. State the principal points of the comparison instituted be- 
tween Herodotus and Thucydides by Dionysius of Halicamassus. 
Give also Cicero's and Quintilian's characters of these historians. 
What are the leading peculiarities of the style of Thucydides! 

6. When does he begin, and how does he divide the year ? Who 
is said to have published his history ? 

7. Give some account of the rise and progress of the naval power 
of the Greeks, mentioning the different states which at different 


periods were superior at sea. What was the mode of naval warfare in 
the age of Thucydides 1 What were (according to Thucydides) the 
resources of Athens in troops, ships, and treasure, at different 
periods of the war ? To what terms did Athens submit after the 
siege by Lysander 1 

8. Give an account of the Athenian months, whence they were 
chiefly named, and how divided. 

9. What were the distioguishiqg names and offices of the Athenian 
archons f the constitution and authority of the /3oi;Ajy, and the cVjcXj^- 
«itt ? Give some account of the civil government of Lacedaemon at 
the period of the Peloponnesian war. Who were the Helots? 

10. What appears to have been the armour offensive and de&n- 
aive used in Greece in the heroic ages, in the time of Homer and 
of the tragedians, and the general mode of fighting ? 

11 • AiapUic — IwViiiF — Kpaniffayrts, What distinctioa is here 
alluded to ? What people belonged to each division respectively ? 

12. Mention in chronological order the principal events of the 
wars carried on by Philip of Macedon against the Grecian states, 
and set down the battles of Alexander from the invasion pf Asia to 
his death. 

13. Quote or give the substance of any passages of Aristpphanes, 
which notice any conmiander in the Sicilian expedition. 

14. Give a sketch of the principal usages of the middle voice of 
the Greek verb when its signification is strictly observed* 

15. Explain and illustrate the respective usages of the indicative, 
subjunctive, and optative moods, when following the particles Wc, 

16. What signijScatioi(i does ai' give to the different moods of a 
verb ? By what moods and tenses are the particles ov /iij, neces- 
sarily foUowed ? Shew generally the difference of construction be- 
tween 'xpn and hlg and illustrate the Attic usage of the latter word. 

17. By what limitation is the usage of neuter adjectives in an ad- 
verbial sense restricted ? What dialect adopts the termination of 
€Hiiy in optatives? To what class of words is this limited? What 
general law is observed with respect to the place of the accents ? 
What are the rules of accentuation in words of the following 
classes ; verbals in roci rcoc ; compounds of woautf ayof ; compounds 

of rfx^w, &c. when they have an active, and when a passive signifi- 

M 2 


cation ? Write down the different meanings of the following words 
according to their difierence of accentuation — aywy, ayo^ a^rXooc, 
jSioc, ii8ofuy, cvi| Xaoc, veog, 7raidca» woytipott m/ioc* Explain the 
rules for enclitics, and give a list of them and of atonies. 

18. What is the quantity of a short vowel before a soft or aspirate 
mute followed by a liquid, and before a middle mute followed by p» 
in the heroic poets, the tragedians,^ the comedians? What rule 
may be inferred for its quantity in prose writers 1 

19. Exemplify the use ofix"^ with the participle of an aorist, and 
distinguish between the force of such a combination and the simple 
aorist. What difference of government exists between fudli^fu and 

20. C« 70. xoXXii yap Sijf iy vofKuxKaunt o^' eKaripioy roig kcXcv^* 
rale iyiyviro' roig fiiy ABfivaioic fitdZcodoi ror iKrXow €iri/3o(Syr€£* 
ToTc Si ImpcLKOvalaic koXov eJyai KuXvaat avrovc ^ca^vyccv. Translate, 
and explain the construction, quoting similar passages from Thucy- 

21. C. 84. of re Uekoiroyy^tnoiiTrucaTafidvreQ rove iy rf Tcrafi^ 
juiXitna io^l^or, koI ro viiap evdvc SUfdaprog oKX' ouSev ^amy cir/- 
yiro re ofiov rf in|X^, yfiari^fuyoyf koX icepifjuixnroy fy roic iroXXoic 

Translate this passage. What is the remark of Longinus res- 
pecting it? 

22. Explain and distidgubh the following terms : — ^iceini, xaro^- 
fcetnj, wapamaw^p dyaoKtvd^tiy, dyamawiieodcUf raramcevafecrOcu, 
vap€uncival^t<rO€u — dyaorfivaif furayitrrairOcUf furoiKli^iaBai, axocr/* 
fcffOcu — fiiroucoif avoucoi, iwoucoi — StiapoQ, -wpttrfiuQ — cnrorecx^Cc^y 
7raparti\U^ia-^wir^KO0i^ £i;/i^)(pc, fopov v7roreXe7c» wuri/yoiiXH. — mv, ro 
*aK — looppvitog — cany^ca — dprj^oMjoKoytiy^^iiroairoyhoe* Also» in 
their different significations, amiraXoci a&ow, /le'NXtf, irpiaiw. 

St. John's coll. 165 



St. JOHN'S COLL. Sine anno. 

1. Of what country was Xenophon ? In what year was he bom 
A. C« and in what Olympiad? To what Master and Philosophy 
did he attach himself? What induced him to engage in the expe- 
dition of Cyrus? Had he any rank in the army before the battle 
of Cunaxa? How did he distinguish himself after the death of 

S. What was the length of the whole journey included in the 
Anabasis and Katabasis, and in what time was it completed ? How 
did Xenophon and the Cyreian Greeks afterwards dispose of them- 
selves ? What were the consequences of Xenophon's conduct with 
regard to himself? Where did he retire in the latter part of his 
life ? Where did he die, and at what age ? 

8. Give some account of the extraordinary talents, acquirements, 
and moral virtues of Xenophon in your ^enumeration and opinion 
of the works which he has composed. 

4. What is the general character of the style of Xenophon? 
What is the character given of it by Quintilian ? Quote his words. 

5. Draw a map of Asia Minor, and of the rest of Asia, as &r as is 
necessary for the illustration of the Anabasis. Trace the route of 
Cyrus from Sardis to Cimaxa. Point out the situation of the towns, 
passes, rivers, and plains, which occur in his march : If you recollect 
historical facts for which any of them are celebrated^ mention them. 

6. The genuineness of this history has been questioned by some 
of the learned. To whom has it been ascribed, and for what 
reason? How do you vindicate the claim of Xenophon to the 
compositimi ? 

7. Describe the form of the ancient Persian Government* Enu- 


merate its principal defects, and compare it with any modem system 
of polity in this respect. 

8. Who was the founder of the Persian Empire ? Give a list of 
its Monarchs from the foundation to the extinction, with their dates 
A. C. and in Olympiads. 

9. Delineate the character of Cyrus. Can you point out any 
instance in this Book, of his stooping to an act of duplicity to serve 
the purposes of his ambition ? 

10. The appellation of viog and veayitrKog is applied several times 
to Xenophon in the Anabasis ; what therefore is the limit beyond 
which the age of Xenophon cannot be placed when he was engaged 
in this expedition, and how does this affect the received accounts 
of his age ? 

1 1 . Explain the terms ovXirat, 'jreXraorai, ro^/arai^ yvfivrjrei, trfer" 
l^ovrirai, flrrpctrijyoc, Xoxayog^ trXdltrtoyt iapBucog, frt(f\og, 

12. Explain the following expressions : trapiiv irvyxaye — tiJk 
Kvpov ^OKOvyrwy iy iretp^ yeyioBai — ij fiflTrfp virripi\E rf Rvp^i — 
dyaitTvtKrtiy to icipac — rovro J* av ovtio rpet^fuyoy iKdyBayEV avrf 
ffTpaTevfia — o 5c iXnlSac \eytay ^lijyt — dfifl dyopdy irKjjdovtrav. 

IS. Explain the meaning of the middle verb. Make your 
observations on the subjoined passages. Do any active verbs 
assume the force of the middle, and vice versd ? Is the middle verb 
ever used in a passive sense, and vice versd ? Kvpov 5e fiertirifiirtro 
— i^aiTTiaafuytf avroy — iwel ^i wdyraQ xapi/Xaffc— o( 5* ^Krtipoy el 
dkiaaoivTO'-^d<^Q 3* ov^eif irianort avrov e^c^vi}. 

14. tSitylaQ 6 'Apicac rd AvKaio edvtre^ Explain the construction 
of this sentence : what is the festival here mentioned ? Give an 
account of any festival at Rome which took its origin from it. 

15. To juy fiiyitrroyf ai<r)(yy6fXiyoQf on trvyoiia ifiavrf irdyra 
iyj/EvtrfiiyoQ avroy. Translate this passage and explain accu- 
rately the construction. 

i^Kvixaiyi ri rrjc ^'aXayyoc. Whence is the metaphor here taken T 
What is the opinion of Demetrius Phalereus upon the passage ? 
What precept does he draw from thence ? 

1 6. 'Hv fuy yap i//?7^(Vbivrai iwEcrdaif k, t, X. Explain the meaning 
of the words i//i7^^ai, yprttpH^ofiaif lwi\fni^ii!ia, im\l(n^(onai, and dro" 

No/i/f£r£ iy rjh rp rjf^P^ ^V* ^^ Kara«f€«fo'^/^€cr6ai, k, r. X. What if 

ST. johk'8 coll. 167 

the peculiar force of the word mrouceroif^ffdac in this passage ? 

Tovrowc ^i (mXcvev) BiaBcu rci 6ir\a vepl nyK avrov crici|vi|y. 
What is the meaning of the phrase BetrBai rd oir\a ? Can you 
illustrate it by any parallel passages in this book ? 

17. Kai 5?i> re ^v fxitrov fifAtpac koX ovirui rara^vcic ijcrav oi 
roXe/iioi* ifvUa ^i diikri iyirero, ii^vri Kovtoproc* £fnrtp vefiXii Xcvny, 
Xpovf it ov <nr)(yf Hfrrepoy^ itnrep fuKapla ric iv rf rreil^ imiroKv' 
Ore ie iyyvrtpov iylyvovro, Td\a 8iJ koX j^oKkoq tiq tjirrpaTrrc, koX ai 
Xay\aif Koi ai ro^Eic cara^vcic iylyvovro* Translate this passage 
into Latin Verse or Prose. 

18. Do the Latins err or not in rendering the word 'xXiBpov by 
Jugeruni. Give your reasons. — t^viKumiv ficurCkuov, Hesychius 
mentions this expression^ but gives no explanation of it. What do 
you understand by it ? Does any passage in Horace seem to throw 
h'ght upon the subject ? 

19. Mird Tavra e^i},^<3 'Opovra, ttrriv o, ri <rc fjSiicritra ;— d hi 
dviKplvaro, Sri ov. ILdXiv 6 Kvpoc liptara.^OvKOvv vtrrcpov, <ac avroc 
0V OfwXoyiic, ovhi vrr ifwv dhicovfuvocy dnomdc elf Mvatovc* icaKWc 
iiroUic Tfjv ifirjv y^iapavt 5i ri iZvvta \-^'E/^ri 6 'Opdynjc.— Ow«wv, «^iy o 
KvpO^, OTTOT* av iyviac rriv ereavrov Stiva^cv, cXOwv eVl rov rfc 
*AprifiiSog (iofftoVf fierafjL€^\ri(r6al trot i^riffOa, Koi Trdtrac ifu, inard 
ToXty iitucaQ fwi, Koi eXa/3cc Trap ifwv ; Kal ravff dfioXoyei 6 ^OpdvrrfQ, 
— T/ ovv, iipri 6 KvjDoc, dhtcrfielc vw* ifwVf vvv rorplrov iirtfiovkevufv fjuu, 
ipavepoQ yiyovac ; EIttoitoc Se rov ^Opovrov Sti ovhiv dUiKifielg, i/purr- 
Jinv 6 KvpoQ avrov—O/ioXoyc ic oiv irepl ifii ASikoq elvat ; ^H ydp^ 
dvdyKTif c^i; 6 'Opovnyc— 'Eic rovrov vdXiv riptaTJiviv 6 YSipo^. "Ert ovv 
av yivou) rf ifif ddtXf^ iroXifitoc, ipoX li koX ^/Xoc koX iriaroQ ; 'O Se 
direKpivaTOi ore ovS* e2 yevoifiriVf Z Kvpe, 9ol y av in vori 8o{(u/iu 
Translate this passage accurately into English. What is the peculiar 
force of the expression iipti 6 'Opoinjc in the fourth line ? Do you 
recollect any similar passage in the Gospel of St Matthew which 
has been considered as an Hebraism, and which this serves to 
explain? Make any other remarks upon the construction that may 
occur to you. 


Sine CoU, et anno* 

1 . To what sect of philosophers did Xenophon attach himself? 
State the manner in which he was introduced to that sect Under 
whom, and in what war, did Xenophon acquire his knowledge of 
military tactics ? 

2. On what account was Xenophon banished from Athens t 
Under whose protection is it probable that he composed his Kvpov 
*Am/3a(ric? Shew that the style of Xenophon was an object of 
admiration among the ancient Greeks. 

Z, *Apfxji» alrla^ and irpo^a^ici what is the difference of these 
words when applied to the history of a war ? Illustrate this dif- 
ference by this history of the war of Cyrus. 

4. MvpUw^ Saptucoi^. What was the amount of this sum ? "Aapci- 
Koc Talebat Atticum ypnawv : sunt qui tradunt, ut quinque Sa^ucol 
facerent argenti minam." Can you shew that these values of a 
Sapcucoc agree ? 

5. Ka2 irp/offOac ovc {v, £2 /tii| iv if Avii^ ayopjf, eV rf Kvpov /3op- 
fiapiKft T^y KmrlBfiv aXevpuy rj oX^rwy, nrTop^v irlyKuy. 'O 2e 91- 
yXoc ^vyarai imrd ofioKov^ kcu lifuofiokwy 'Arrucovc* if ^ xairldti iva 
XoiyucoQ 'ArrixDuc ^*lpcil Translate this passage, and explain its 

6. In what does the difference of Hyartu and ex^* consist 1 
dXevpwv f dXi^rmy; what is the distinction between these words? 
Quote a passage to establish the truth of this distinction. What was 
the value of the ofioXie 'Aitckoc ? What the content of the x^'^^'t t 
What is there peculiar in the Attic use of the numeral ^vo ? 

7. 'EiceXevire Si tovq "EXXijvac, wc y6fioc avroic, eIq fuixfiy o(rrt# 
ra\Oiiyai koX orfvac, avyraiiou ii eKomoy rovg covrov. *Era)(Oi|0tty 
ovv iwl rerrdp^y. Translate this passage and explain its construc- 

8. Ta Atlicia idvc€. Explain the nature of this festival. By whom 
was it first instituted, and what was the prize usually given to the 
victor in the contests exhibited at it? 

9. ^Haay Si ravra Svo r€l\ri' iid fiioov Si rovriay pil mraffoc, 

Kipffog oyofia, tvpoc irXidpov, "Avay Si to fiivoy rtSy Tti\iiy v«rar 

ST. johk's coll. 169 

tnaSioi rpetc' icai iropeXOelv ovk ^v /3/^* ^v yap ^ irapo^c ffrcvii, icac ra 
rc/x^? c^ i^y BdKaTTay KadiixovTOt vTctpBtv it {erav Wrpai ijA/jSaroc* 
cr2 ^e roic Tti\ioiv dfi^^oripoie e^iort/iceflrav irvXac. Tavnyc ^veica r$c 
xafN>&)v Kvpoc TOc vavc furairifi\lwrOf oirwc orX/rac dvofii^djfftuv lierw 
ical e£w rilii' irvXiSv, rai fiiaadfuvoi rove iroXc/i/ovc ira(9£X0ocev* 
Translate this- passage accurately, and explain fiilly the movement 
here isentioned. 

10. Ilapaflroyya, irXidpoy^ araitov and opyvco. State what these 
respective measures are. What is the exact meaning of riXlfiaroQ^ 
fitrafrifi}lfaro and fitaadfieyo^ ? Explain the construction, and state 
what alterations have been introduced into the text of the passage 
cited in the last question. 

11. What is the distinction between ^poc and iroXcfuoc; ^iriy 
and oirov ; jSacr^Xeca and ^triXiia ; oXnxc and vKolov ; diroitipdtrKia 
and dirotpevyitf ; apx>7 and dpxaiov ; /id roiic Oeovg and vf| rove Oeovc ? 

12. How many Satrapies were there ? Through which did Cyrus 
direct his march? Xenophon mentions iruXac r$c KiXuc/ac icai r^c 
2vp/ac, and cirl TvXac, state where these were situated, and the 
name sometimes given to the latter. 

Id. What were the grand division in the Greek army ; What 
was the number of men in each division ? What information does 
Xenophon afibrd us in this book respecting the Xoxog'i In what 
manner was it customary for the Greeks to draw out their army in 
battle array ? 

14. Give a concise account of the significations attached to 
verbs when used in the middle voice, and quote pass^es from this 
book in illustration. 

1 5. 'Evyoucwc ex^ccv avrf. How many different constructions of 
ix» with an adverb are there ? Enumerate them. 'Orcairapa0-ic€v- 
aoTorarov : what is the original signification of this word ? How 
do you fill up the ellipses ? 

l6»Up6iieyotdi ixofuyot^ What is here understood? Explain 
how ixtaBai can mean proximum esse, TJXiiaaia has two second 
aorists; what are they, and what is the distinction between 

17. How did the Greeks divide their day ? From the account of 
Xenophon, how long do you imagine that the army of Cyrus 
marched in battle array before the action with Artaxerxes ? 

--"'■ ' !■ ' 1-__.JJ|J. . J.. I 


18. "Oirii^ ft^irort tri ierai iirl rf, ic. r. X. *Aipi|«ofiai 2^ 
o2v v/iofc* 'Bet'' ^e ful^ay i| ir|Da$c£ r^c TpoaBev ^o/nyrac* Kpea oSr 
itfO/oiTcc o* ffrpariwra* Suy/y vo>to. Ti fiavkerat lifAty ^(pfjffcurOai, 
Translate these passages, and explain the full force of ^ijxortt ^ ovr, 
^cUytiraif iuylyvovro^ and xpiferairOat ; also ofili lew^m the passage 

19. 'Oi yap ffrpariwroi ovi: efatrav iivai rov trpotnj* Y/mQ ^1 roue 
^fieripovQ ^/Xovc rovr*>v iyKpartie 7roifJ9ai» UX^pri S* Ixdvufv juydkwy 
Kid frp^iav. How has it been proposed to alter these passages ? 
State the reasons for the corrections. 

20. "OOev ovx olov t$ iarai c£eX0e7v. AXX' lovnav av. To Kord 
rovTov cTvat. Translate these passages, and fill up the ellipsis in 
each. Tavrp Be rj yvvfip t^ kolL rove oXXovc irpooOiaBai, Trans- 
late this, and supply whatever is understood. 

21. In what dialect did Xenophon write ? State the peculiarities 
of this dialect, and illustrate theni by quotations from this. book. 

22. Translate the following into English : 

Ey rovTf ct vf nnry tfy ftev ly yiy ircdiov 

'KoX Toxv dirayopevovtn* — C. v. §. 1, 2, S. 

Mention the alterations which have been made in the text: and ex- 
plain distinctly the meaning of diaBexofuyot and dirayopcvown, 
2d. Translate the following passage into Latin : 
Oc oc i| rpoirri eyevero 

wro roy o^OaX/iov fiialtag, — C. xviii, { IS, 19. 

QUEEN'S COLL. 1820. 

1 Give a short history of Xenophon, with some account of his 
character, as a general, philosopher, and historian. 

2. State the circumstances which gave rise to the expedition 
narrated in this book. 

3, •Write down the names of the Greek generals in the service of 
Cyrus, the reasons by which they were severally induced to join his 
standard, and the characters, as they are delineated by Xenophon* 
of those who were treacherously slain in Persia. 


queen's coll. 171 


4. Describe the line of inarch of the Greeks from Sardis to 
Cunaxa, the principal cities which they passed through, and the 
more remarkable events which occurred prior to the decisive 

5. Give some account of the foundation and subversion of the 
Persian monarchy, — together with a catalogue of its kings, and the 
dates when they severally commenced their reign. 

6. Describe the rise and course of the Euphrates, as also the 
countries through which it flows. Where does the Tigris unite 
with it ? What is the country situate between these rivers called by 
Xenophon, — and by the sacred writers ? At what place did Cyrus' 
army cross the Euphrates, and what was its depth there ? 

7. What event gave rise to the epoch from which the Greeks 
usually date ? how long was it prior to the building of Rome, and 
to the Nativity of our Lord ? Give an account of the parts into 
which their month and day were severally divided. 

8. Translate the following passages and explain accurately the 
construction :— o6ev ovx* oiov re eorai eSeXOecv, and ovk aJMiiray uvai 
Tov TTpoffw, Mention some of the principal peculiarities of the 
Attic dialect. 

9. What are probably the measures of distance, capacity and 
value, in English, respectively corresponding to irapa^ayyi^c* oraSioi^, 
irXeOpov ; xairiBtiy fuitfivoc ; SapetKOQf tnyXoc, o/3oXoc ? 

10. Explain the distinction of orparripoi and Xayayoi : weXra&rM 
and oirVtrcu : oXxaSec and tnrayfayai : apfia, afiaf/n and apfjtafiofyi : 
anoi^evyia and didpavKU. 

1 1 . In what cases is m used in the formation of the antepenult of 
adjectives in the comparative, and do any instances of ezeeption to 
the general rule occur in this book ? In what case do adjectives of 
three terminations form the nominative singular feminine in a ? 

12. Mention the names of the several figures, by which letters 
or syllables are added to or taken from the beginning and end of 
words, and also inserted in or taken from the middle of the same, 
with instances of each. 

IS, What portion of the Sacred History synchronises with, and is 
iDnstrated by, that of ancient Persia ? 

■^ 'J"^ T55^r^^"^^™"^^=c^"T^3?^^^^ 


ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1821. 

I. State any circumstances related of Xenophon from which an 
inference may be drawn as to the rank of life in which he was bom. 
Was he rich or poor when he was engaged in the expedition of 
Cyrus ? Give his own account of the manner in which he became 
attached to that expedition, and relate the adventure by which he 
increased his property at the dose of the retreat. 

II. What peculiar advantages did Sdllus offer to Xenophon as a 
place of residence ? State the means he adopted for improving the 
security of his property there. What circumstances induced him to 
pass the last years of his life elsewhere ? Give the date, as nearly 
as it can be ascertained, of the year in which the sentence of his 
banishment from Athens was repealed, and his probable reasons for 
not returning. 

III. It is said by some historians that Xenophon's life was saved 
by Socrates at the battle of Delium* Shew the improbability of 
this. Did he survive Agesilaus ? 

IV. Mention in order the towns through which Cyrus passed in 
the march from Sardis to Cunaxa. How nearly can the sites of any 
of them be now determined ? Account for his deviation in one or 
two instances from a direct line of march. Describe the various 
passes over the mountains near Issus. In the route from Thapsacus 
to Cunaxa, mark the point where the hilly country terminates 
towards the south. 

V. How far distant from each other are the sources of the 
Euphrates and the Tigris? Compare these rivers with regard (1) 
to.magnitude, (2) length of course, (3) their level near Cunaxa, and 
in one or two other parts of their course, (4) their measure of 
swelling. At what seasons of the year are they at their greatest 
height ? 

VI. At what period did the a&irs of Greece become connected 
with those of Persia? Give the dates of the followmg events : (1) 
the .£olic and Ionic migrations, and mark the boundaries of the 
country occupied by each body of Emigrants, (2) the peace of An* 

ST. John's coll. 173 

talcldas, (3) the battles of Marathon, Mycsile, Cnidos, Granicus : 
name the commanders on both sides, and the kings reigning in 
Persia at the respective dates. 

VII. What feelings did Plato and Xenophon entertain towards 
each other ? Were they present at the death of Socrates ? Quote 
the testimony of ancient writers to the excellence of Xenophon as 
an author. Is any reference made to him by Longinus ? 

VIII. Ainvv ffarpamiv kirolrfffe Kcu (rrpartiyor' Define the power 
of the ^arpdiriyc. In what respect did it differ from that of the 
ffrpoTtryoc ? By what arts did the Grreat King endeavour to keep 
the Satraps in subjection ? Syennesis is called King of Ciiicia. How 
do you account for this distinction ? An instance is related of 
money being supplied to an army of Greeks by one Satrap to enable 
them to attack another. State the particulars. 

IX. Mention the Countries of which the Greek Generals in the 
army of Cyrus were natives, and the side on which eadi was ranged 
in the Pdoponnesian War. What part did Cyrus take in that war 1 
Give an account of his interview with Lysander. 

X. ^apeucoQ' Was this a gold or silver coin ? Determine its 
weight and value. What was the proportionate value of gold and 
silver about the time of the expedition of Cyrus ? Was the rate of 
interest for money high or low in Greece about the same time? 
Assign the reasons. What was the whole amount of tribute levied 
annually upon the twenty Provinces ? State the various modes in 
which it was paid, and what part of it reached the Persian treasury. 

XI. Explain the terms irXoU^iov, irkivBloy, Upa^ cr^yca, iovkoQf 
ay2pairo&>v, uysdloj irXoloy, rpujpfiiQf cjc^cvyw, diro^cvyitf, fiucog, )3aXa- 
yoc. To how many uses is it said that the Persians applied the 
Palm tree ? Mention some of them. 

XII. Elc Ka^orpov ircS/ov. What birds frequented this plain ? 
Quote the lines of Homer and Virgil. AoXokoq xal Alytdvas jca2 
*0\wBlov£' 'AtfirevS/mic* Describe the situation of each of these, 
and also of the plain of Castolus. 

Xin. 2rc(Bcoc' x^*''^' Determine the value of each of these 
in English measure ; also how many Choenices made a Medimnus, 
and how many English inches are equal to a Greek foot. 

XIV. What Grecian State excelled most in cavalry? How 
many attended Cyrus, and what became of them ? What means 


did the Greeks adopt as a substitute for them during the retreat ? 
Describe the mode of paying and provisioning Gr^ek troops. By 
whom and for what reason was an important alteration in this respect 
introduced at Athens ? 

XV. Explain the following expressions : orra ro tlpoQ irKiBpw* 
o,ri r«xt^ra' cJc ovr« irepiysvoftiyoc av tQv dyrioratnon-wy' Tpos Tavra' 
«Jc c/iov oSv loyroci oiri} ay xal vfuicf ovtv r^v yy(Ofifiy ex^^* ^'^ ^^^ 
rt itrrai e$eX6€cy. Does oloc without re ever mean ' able V dfiaxd' 
explain the origin of adverbs of this form. SniXaae ircif>a roy irora/iov 
Kara tovq "EXXi^Kac Tekraerde' Trapafui^fuyoc' c^oicci avroiQ dva- 
KTVffiTety ro vcpacs icai iroitiaaffOat oviffOey roy irorafioy. Describe all 
the movements in the battle, and make a sketch of the Country, so 
far as is necessary to illustrate your meaning. 

XVL Mention the Countries in which each of the four dialects 
was chiefly prevalent What were the leading peculiarities of the 
three periods of Attic Greek ? Assign to each of the following 
words its proper dialect. rptHifia' Twvrf' KOfyriaroQ' ivoieero' fuiOtiy' 
iparl' hantiydfUQ' ^Xeyd/xc6cv* ircerov^c* "uayya, 

XVII. ETxov hi irdyrtQ Kftdyti \aXKa, koI '^^iruyag <poiyu:ovc, Kot 
KytifdhaCf KOt rdc dtririSaQ iKKeKodiipfUya^' ^c^Ocpac dg cT^ov areyde- 

TloXv yap dircirra airo^vyovera* 'SvfijiovXEvw iyw roy ayZpa rovroy 
ixiro^y irouiffOac, (Jf fxriixTi Biot Tovroy iftvXdrTEffOai' State the 
reasons of the alterations which have been proposedin these passages. 
Does Dawes's rule respecting the moods required by W, o^pa, &c. 
hold universally ? Give instances from this book which appear to 
be exceptions to it. 

XVIII. tSare ov tovto ^^uca' iart ^aiytaBai rove l^^y dyadois' 
Is Jffre joined with the Indicative and Infinitive moods indiscrimi- 
nately ? 

With what moods is irpiy joined? Explain its force in each case. 
vpiy XafifidyeC irpHy ay Xa/3oc' irpiv ay Xe^' irpiv av Xalkiy* are 
any of these phrases incorrect 1 ''A report was spread, — that 
Cyrus was pursuing them ; — that Cyrus would pursue them ; — tliat 
Cyrus would have pursued them." Turn these expressions into 

XIX. Can the limits of the three voices be accurately defined ? 
Point out what instances in this book appear to you ini 
according to any strict rule. 



8T. JOHN'S COLL. 175 

XX. Translate the foUowing passage into Greek or Latin Prose : 
" Soldiers ! we are at present under great difficulties, being 
deprived of such Generals, Captains, and Soldiers : besides, the 
forces of Arisus^ who were before our auxiliaries, have now deserted 
us. However, we ought to emerge out of our present circumstances 
like brave men, and not be cast down, but endeavour to redeem 
ourselves by a glorious victory. If that is impossible, let us die 
with honour, and never fall alive under tlie power of the enemy ; 
for, in that case, we should suffer such things, as I hope the Gods 
keep in store for them." 


L ^Apx^aiioi fiiv oiv trvyypa^'ic froXKol ral Kara iroXXovc t^ovq 
iyivovro vpo rov IlcXoirovvijercajcov iroXifwv, State what is known 
concerning these early Greek Historians. From what authors do 
we obtain our information concerning the History of Greece from 
the return of the Heracleids to the battle of Chseronea ? Mention 
the periods embraced by each. 

IL Can you exactly determine the date of the birth of Xeno- 
phon? Give an account of his life from the time the Cyreians 
passed into the service of Thimbron. What are the peculiarities 
observable in his style ? 

IIL Mention the leading events in the Persian History from the 
battle of Mycale to the death of Artaxerxes Mnemon. From what 
sources would Plutarch probably obtain the materials for his life of 
Artaxerxes ? On what points does he differ from the accounts of 
Xenophon ? 

IV. Draw a map of that part of Asia which is requisite for the 
illustration of the Anabasis. Trace the route of the army to Cunaxa : 
and mention the circumstances for which some of the towns in the 
march are celebrated. 

V. Uapatrdyytii^ trrdiiOQ. cpyvid. <rxptvoQ. trXcdpov. State the 
length of these measures of distance. How many English inches 
^e contained in a Greek foot ? Determine the distance of Cunaxa 
from Thapsacus and Babylon. 






VI. Translate and explain the construction of the following 
sentences : 

'H 2c yvvfui j^v, *>c tie rdc ra(ccc rwv 'EXXsjVw iXiuyrmr koL 

A£pa te irXecora, cTc yc dtnjp iv^ iXdftfiayt 2ca iroXXa. 

BaercXcvc frapafuiylMfuvog e2c ro avro trxijfia Kariarriaey irarrlar 
njy ^dXayyUf tSoTrep to vpwrov ^idypviuvo^ avyytt, 

Oo Kpavyp, ci\Xa myj <Jc> dyvtrroy, xal ifovx? ^'^ ^^t' '^^^ /3pa2e'«ic 

Distinguish between aty^, ^/y^, triya. 

VII. Topyiq ry AeovrcVy dpyvpiov e^uKe. What is known of 
this person ? What testimony does Cicero bear to his merits ? At 
what time did the Sophists first appear in Greece? Give an account 
of those who were most distinguished. 

VIII. What constructions are correct with ov /i^', and the pro- 
hibitive particle fciy ? Explain the expression eaff Sre, and translate 
iffrly followed by Sinact tva, Sirou^ irda^ oirdre. What remark has 
Elmsley made on the word owcovv ? 

IX. Translate 

1. Into Latin Verse : 

"H^ Te ^v fUtroy iffupac, xal oihrta icara^vccc ^erav ol iroXifuoC 
fjyUa hi heiXri iyivtro^ i^vri Koyioprdct ^mrsp vt^ikti Xcvn|, xpov^ hi 
ov tnrxyf vvripov^ Aofrtp fuXavia rcc iy rf wehif iwiiroXy, "Ore Se 
iyyvrepoy iylyyoyrot rdya &} xal xoKkoq ng riarpaim, ral al Xoy^ac 
Kal ai ra{cc£ icara^vccc iylyyovro, 

2. Into Latin and Greek Prose : 

" Now you are to depart and execute what has been determined : 
and whoever among you desires to see his family again, let him 
remember to fight bravely ; for by no other means can he effect it. 
Whoever wishes to live, let him strive to conquer ; for. it is the part 
of the conqueror to inflict death — of the conquered to receive it* 
Whoever covets wealth, let him endeavour to overcome, for it 
belongs to the victorious to preserve his own possessions, and to 
acquire those of the defeated." 



1. Give a short account of the life of Xenophon. On what 
groundbi have some writers questioned his tide to be considered as 
the author of the Anabasis ? And by what arguments may the 
genuineness of the work be defended? 

2. Give a description of the political state of Greece at the time 
of Cyrus's Expedition. What part had Cyrus taken in the previous 
war of the Greeks ? Give the date of the Expedition in Olympiads 
and B. C. 

3. What particukrs are known rebtive to Tissaphemesy prior to 
the Expedition of Cyrus ? Give a sketch of his character. 

4. Enumerate the Monarchs who successively enjoyed the Per- 
sian Empire from the first Cyrus to Artaxerxes Mnemon. And 
give a description of the Government, Manners, and Reh'gion of the 

5. Give an account of the Ionic Migration ; and specify the dates 
assigned to it by Newton and by Blair. Enumerate the names of 
the Ionian cities. By whom were they reduced under the Persian 

6. Describe the courses of the Euphrates and the Tigris ; and 
the times of their periodical swellings and highest floods. In what 
particular is the account of Xenophon relative to the canals of coun 
munication between the two rivers at variance with that of other 

7. Enumerate the countries through which Cyrus successively 
passed in his march, and the principal towns at which he halted. 

8. Describe the geographical situation of the Parrhasii, the Dolo- 
pes, and the .^inianes. And that of the following places z Ambra- 
da. Amphipolis. Megara. Olynthus. Syracuse. Aspendus. 

9. State the relative proportions of the Roman and the British 
mile, and of the Greek Itinerary Stade. How many Stades is the 
Paraaang represented to have contained; and to how many British 



miles would this computation make it equivalent? What reasons are 
there for assuming the Parasang in the Anabasis to be equivalent 
to three Roman miles ? 

10. Express the value of the following coins in English money: 
roXayrov. /ij/d. oj3oXoc« ^aptucoc. trlyXo^. From whom do different 
writers suppose the Dane to have derived its name T 

11. Explain the distinction between the oirMrai, the veKraortdt 
and the iftfXoL 

1 2. Passages to be translated. 

CLARE HALL, 1824. 

1. At what time did the expedition of Cyrus take place! What 
space of time did it occupy ? In what capacity was Xenophon con- 
cerned in it ? Give a short account of the life of Xenophon subse- 
quently to it. 

£• What was the state of Grecian affairs which gave rise to the 
connection of Persia, and particularly of Cyrus, with Lacedsemon, 
about the time of the Anabasis? 

9« Kvpor ^e fieraireftTreTat duv nyc apx>7c> VQ ovroy aarpamfv 
Miroirftre* roc trrparriyov Se aurov a7rcSci{c xavroiv, otroi eig KatmaXou 
Ttitov dOpoiZoprai. Translate this passage ; and explain the latter 
clause. What districts did the Satrapy of Cyrus include ? 

4. Give an account of the origin, and subsequent history of the 
'IwMrai iroX£t£. To whom were they subject at this time? 

5. Describe the situation of Cilicia ; and of the portae Cilicis?, 
Syrise, and Amanicee. 

6. Translate the following passages, and point out the force of 
the particle av in each of them. 

' alru avTOv tig StoytkuiVQ {evovc, vq ovrta trtfuytvoiuvog aV 

riav dvTunavitarmv, 
— ^- vofu^at avy v^iy fuy dy elyat rtfjuog' v^iay ^* rpi|^«^eic, 

oi/r dy tjcavoc slvai oc^ac, ovV* dy ^cXov w^Xiyffvu, ovr dy 

ijfipoy aXe^curdou. 
' ol fitv ovoc, Circe nc JuMCot, ^po^pafwvrtc dy eiarfiKteay. 


7. ovc i|6cXf irpoioOvu rove fevyovrac* 

alff)(pov im-i rtav rawiayt tiv Kvptoi iyeveBii^v, tpaivgcBai 

ExplaiD the meaning of the verb wpoufiat io these two constructions. 
Translate 6 te Kvpoc 2ecrac aifrov, fitf v^aOtv KVToKvoai vpoc tqvq 

— olffda Se OTt dyayKri Xiyeffdai iy m 'EXXaSc^ o aV ffVfifiovKeumit' 

8. Why is the optative used in the sentence ni^ev dyyeKoQ X£ywv, 
in XcXiMirwc e^f? 2vei^£dic ra ojqfHK. 

— — — cuv^Xecro, ii»c eitfcroy— ^SfMOS ra dyipmroha^ ijy irov ofrvy^i^- 
viiifftv, duroXaftfiayeiy, 
By what rule is the use of an optative or subjunctive after a past 
tense regulated 3 

9. Point out the peculiarities of the constructioa of idiom of the 
following passages, exfdain them, and adduce sinular ones in Greek 
or Latin. 

— wavnc & ovroc Kara ra i$y^ iy rXoiMy ^Xiiywt dyQ^kurwy 

eKaaroy to idyoc i'teopevtro, 

■ eUrareovy rorcpa ftevclrc, irau awoviai tlffty* 

■ ocoXa^^c Iffx^^C, <^ac opT? iyiorep tSare k€u avrf ficrayifiXsiy, 
ctf^* dftd 

■ voKiy iS^voy eic x^^^*^ dyvpoy* 

«Jc fupari Scoi rovroy ^vXarrc^Ocu, oXXa 0XdXi| c«f ly/icv, to 

icara rovrov cImu, rove McXovrae ^iXovc rovrove ev irotecK. 

■ ov yaf> rpavyp, aXXa ercyp, «c dworoy, rpo^cMii'. 
direixen}v r« ^oXayyc. 

. £6ero ra oirXa— rora ^wpav iBtyro Ta orX^. 

— — eTaydfiaay eiri Terrap^y* 

— jSaeriXcve ^e, ica« oi ovv avr|i, ra rcdXXa roXXa hapwa^ovint 

icai Tfiy ^wcac^a Xa^jfiayeu 

10. Kw^i Ilapvoorc^c cic Cwn?v ^Sofuycu* Explain the custom 
here intimated. 

— ^— ['OpoiTifc] eXdwv iwi Toy nyc *Af>rep&c (htfioy. Give some 
account of the religion of the Persians. 

— n|v cVi rp ire^oXp riapau (iaffikst fwyf cjcorii' dp^v c^^ecv* 
Explain this custom as it existed in Persia more fully. How is it 
mentioned or alluded to in any other writers ? 



11. State the value of the following measures, &c. — jrapcumyya, 

12, Explain the formation of vpotrgtirayf h^uac^ irarcjcave, dpfny, 
a^oriT^ei, xXciovci ifrunrwvfjuOa, And give the English and deriva- 
tion of dftaiiro^f cVcppvrov, yiyXo^, huapvx^Ct ^o2i7pi|c, evuyvfiocy 
fMrciXf}, SopKa^€Ci cJriSec, aV^pairo^v, cv6vciipov, lyXijSaroc, Tpayri/wra^ 

Id. Translate 
"Eyw /ici^ ovr ficuriKEa, f jroXKa ovrwc cort ra aviLiiayay tWfjp 
irpo6vfuiTai lifjiac amoXcffai, ovic ol^a ori ^ei avroy o/iowaif icai ^£^y 
^ovvacy ecu 0COVC cViopn^^acv icac ra eavrov irt^ra avurra Troaivai 

'EirccSi| Zt mu ijpf/avTO vtxqy wv avr^ rove iroXc/iiovc, ^yaXa 
4^ ^v ra xpflfftfwvs fTOuvyra civat rove <rvt^ avr^ arparuaraQ^ to re 
yap irpoc tovc froXifjuovs OoppoXctfc ^X^^'' vapviy, kcu ro rt|y xap* ixeiymt 
rifjMpiay fofieiodcUf avrovs tvraxrovs iiFouu 

14. lyBv^Vy ovc ot Svpoi Oeovc ivoixiJ^oy^ kcul aiuxiv ovk cuay, ovie 

rat xepioTcpac. 
What is the mythological account of this ? What is the history of 

15. Explain the terms oirXirac, TreXraarcUf yv/iviyrec^ 

16. Translate 

Kvp«c de> ofHiiiiv rove *'£XXf|vac yuMvrac 

— — — Jta^ {oo6ai avroc ro rpavfid fffcru — C. viii. 



1 . Why is the Expedition of Cyrus termed an avd/3a<nc ? To 
which gradation of the Attic Dialect is this work to be referred t 
Give a concise table of the principal contents of Books I. and II. 
Does the opening of the second book correspond with the des- 


X^M ^ ~. 





cription which Diogenes Laertiiu in his life of Xenophon gives of 
the Anabasis? Do you discover any traces of Athenian political 
prejudice in either of these two books ? Is it probable that Xeno- 
phon would be swayed by such prejudice in any material degree ? 
Shew that his narrative possesses an unusual degree of credibility. 

2. "tBioy ^i tBlevo^yTOc teal rd Kara Totrd dicumjfiara j(fnjadai 
xoci^iKacc ^(^s \dif(n, Hermog. Tars, de farmd Diet, Xen. Do 
you recollect any instances of such peculiarity in these two books? 
What is Cicero's opinion of Xenophon's style ? 

3. Describe the arms and accoutrements of the oirXZrai, ircX- 
raaral, yvfiyifrai : and determine the number of men which 
(according to Book I.) composed a Xo'xoc. 

4. Distinguish dmyiywriM — dyaytviaeKu — diayiyuaKia — tfura* 
yiy%ieKt*, Also iliiafu — dirohl^fiL — wapailhvfu — wpoBl^ia/Ai — vpotr^ 
^^M/u: and shew the force of the prepositions in dyrnroiovfiat t. m. 
irpomrotovfuu v. m. — eircopjcew — vpoKaTaXafAfidyut — (rvyKaratrrpi^ — 

5. Oa $€ (Barbari sc.) vapiiXavyoy TtrayfUyot icar iXac Kal icard 
rofecc. Translate ; and give the meaning of the following military 
phrases: OioOai ra ovXa — TpopdKkaOai rd iwKa — raxOrjyai iicl 
TtrrdfMy — iy ickeucrl^ irXjj|pet iropev€oBai, What was the (yvyOrifial 

6. Give approximate English values of the following metro- 
logical terms : — vapawiyyriQ — irXidpoy — ardiioy — dpy vcd — Kairidfi 
— X^^'''^* ^^ ®^ /iwpMM AofictKoi — virre dpyupiov fiyai — fflyXo^ — 
o/3oAoc — rdXayroy. Of what metal was the Aapeixoc, and whence 
its appellation ? Was the rdXayroy a coin ? 

7. What was the origin of the disagreement between Cyrus and 
Artaxerxes? Mention the circumstances upon which the former 
chiefly relied for success in his enterprise. 

8. Where were Peirinthus, Leontini, Tralles, Aspendus, Par- 
rhasii, Olynthus, Stymphalus? Enumerate the 'Iwyucal ttoXeiq 
mentioned Book I. 

9. Assign in Olympiads, years B. C, and years A* U. C, the 
date of Cyrus's death. 

10. '£c ^ riya op^tf Sctvov ovra olKOT^iwy Ik rov iucalov, Kal Kara- 
(TKtvdiioyrd re ^c ^PX^*- X"^^' "^ vpoem^vc vowvyra, oviiya av 
wvirore d^iKaro, dXXd koX irXc/w Trpoaedl^v, Why is x*^ '^ ^^ 
genitive? Is the sense affected by the variation of tense in 
d^c/Xaro and irpotreSlhov ? 


11. 'H/ucic MfuBof €l fiiy ^cot PatrtXti ^iXovc dvatf vXilopoc aw 
aljun Aval ^Xm, iywrt^ rd oirXa, if xc^mdoirec aXXjji* ti hi hioi 
iroXcficiK, afuivov av vokefuiy, i^avre^ rd 5irXa, if aXX^ Topadoyr^c 
Why is the adjective ^tXoc in the accusative in one instance, and 
in the nominative in the other ? Express wKdovoc av Siun cTmu 
^Am in Latin. 

12. Oi fdvhii arparffyw ovr%i Xiy^Ocvrcc dvi^fiiioav mc PamKeOf 
KoX dirorfirfierrtt roc xe^akdc erektvniiray* cTc fiir airmv^ KKiapxoc, 
o/wKoyovfiiykfc Ik irdrr^r tUv ifjorelpt^ avrov iyprrmr ZofiOQ ytyi^Oai 
dvijp KoX woke'fiiKOQ xal ^tXtnrokBfws ia\dTi0c. Ka2 yap dif cmc fiev 
(a) iroktpOQ ^y roi^ AanhaifMcyioit irpot nwc 'AOifvaiovcy wapifiunr* 
ItteI ^ eiptiyfi eycycro, xe/voc riiv avrov moXiy iJc oc Gpjuecc dhucoSai 
TO^C 'EXXi/yaC) Ktt^ (6) hiaurpaioifieyoQ wc ih^Paro wapd rQy (e) £^- 
fMtfv, e{(TXei ftfc xoXc/fi^ffwy focc v^r^ (i^) Xe^^oy^mnf koI Hupiydtm 
Bpql^y, EiteI ^ furayyoyree mtc cl 'E^^opoty lihf Hiu Syrot amVf 
dvocrpe^ty aOroy itfttpHyro e£ (e) *iadp»v^ iyrawda ovxiri wtlBeraiy 
dXX ^ero rXcW els {f) *£XXi|WoKroy. *£i: rovn»v Kcd cOavar«09 
vTo Tfliliy ev 2irapr{r reXwy, «c nfiretMy' ^Sif he fvydc my IpxeroM. 
TpOQ Kvpoy^ Kol oToloiQ fiiy Xoyocc hretffe Kvpoy aXXa^ov yiypatrrmu 

Translate this passage : 

(a) What was the immediate origin of the vmx alluded to? 
When did it begin 1 What were the most remarkable events which 
occurred during its continuance ? When did it terminatef and ia 
favour of which of the conflicting parties ? 

(h) Would hutiepdiiac have equaUy expressed die author's 

(c) Describe the manner in which the Ephori were elected; their 
number; the nature of their ofBce ; and its duration. 

(d) What is the old Attic orthography of this word ? 

(e) What Isthmus is meant t 

(/) What is the derivation of this term ? 

IS. Give the derivations of the following words : 

d<ji^X]7c(Btabilis); dyiJKearoQ (insanabilis); f|^/3p(im>c (semesus); 

fiylaxps (ai^iga); ax"'^^ (canalis); rpayi^/iara (mensae secunde); 

Tvpos (caseus). 

JUNIOR sophs' examination. 188 


I. By whom, and when, was the office of Satraps instituted ? 
What was the nature of the office ? and how many were there 
of them ? 

II. Draw an outline of a map extending from the JSgean, and 
marking the rektive positions of the principal places mentioned hy 
Xenophon in his first two Books. 

III. By what other name was Lydia called? What difierent 
families successively reigned in it? Enumerate in order the Kings 
of the last family ; and mention, with dates, the events by which 
that family acquired the throne, and by which their empire was 

IV. Grive the English values of the dapeucoc, ofioXo^f WyXoc, 
Kavldrif x^^'^^' irfMpawLyytic, ord^toy, irKiOpoyt opyvid, 

V. Explain the following phrases: diadat rd ovXa — e^cpe col 
iy€y — dfifl dyopdy irXijOouffay — evWucwc «X***' — ird)fifitrav iirl rer^ 

VI. Translate and explain ififidXXu elc roy Malayipoy. Also, 
oirtiic fAii iorai M rf dSek^, What other senses has eirl with a 
dative case? 

VII. Distinguish accurately the oirXircu, if^tXot, and rtKraerai^ 
V9}uLt Grecian nations excelled in difierent kinds of military force ? 
which of them^ are mentioned in these two Books with their 
characteristic excellence ? 

VIII. What were the dialects of the Greek language ? In which 
did Xenophon write ? Mention some particulars in which his style 
difiers from other stages of the same dialect. 

IX. tSip^s lirrrfitis jj fMixg* What battle was this ? Give its 
date in years B. C. and Olympiads. Do the same with the battle 
of Issus, and describe its geographical situation. 

* The practice of giving a paper of queationa at the Liiik Go ia now 
entirely laid aaide, and thu part of the examination ia conducted vkm voct. 
The few papers of this kind that were set, we have annexed to the College 


X. Explain the foUowing aasertion of Tissaj^ernes : cy« ydrmy 

XI. Different pasaAges for Trandation. 



1. Relate the circumstances which are said to have ocpasioned 
the expedition of the younger Cyrus. When did he set out upon 
that expedition ; what interval of time elapsed hetween his leaving 
Sardis and the battle of Cunaxa; and what interval between the 
battle of Cunaxa and the arrival of the Greeks at Trapezus ? 

2. Give some account of the expedition up to the death of Cyrus, 
mentioning the principal places noticed by Xenophon in his narra- 

3. Who were the Grecian Generals seized upon and put to death 
by Tissaphemes, and what is the character which Xenophon has 
given of each of them ? Mention the circumstances which led to 
their seizure and death. 

4. Of what length was the "Parasanga" in Grecian, Roman» 
and English measure, and how much did it differ from the modem 
"Farsang" of Persia? 

What distance did the Greeks, in most cases, pass over in each 
day's march during their retreat ? 

5. Trace, as accurately as you can, the route of the Grecian 
force from the villages in which they were quartered after the battle 
of Cunaxa to the Euxine Sea : and mention such places as have 
been ascertained by modern travellers to have been points in their 
line of march. 

6. Various passages to be translated. 

7. AeSoiica /if}, ay dira^ fiddwfuy dfyycH ^py, xal eV d^Boyotc /Siorev- 
ciy, /ii|, tStnrep oi Xbiro^ayoi, iwiKaOwfuBa r^c oiicaie oiov. iii. 2. 
Translate these words, and explain the allusion. Of what verb is 


^ioixa the perfect tense, and what is the other perfect of the same 
verb ? Write down that perfect in the several persons of the singu- 
lar and plural numbers. Explain the form and government of cVi- 
XaMfifBa, and the use ofXayddvu with a participle. State also the 
difference of signification between olica^e, oiKodeVf and dtKodu Grive 
some instances of the last being used. 

8. 'Eircl ^e o^ot iyivovro vvip ruiv iiFoiuvmv irdkEfjUiav, ovxiri /r-i- 
TiBeyro ol irokifuoi roic Korafialvmnrif ScSouddtec /W d7cory.ifitlfifraVf 
Kol dftJ^cripiaBty avr£y yivoivro ol iroXc/iioc iii. 4. Translate these 
wordsi and state why the particle /xi? is followed by the verb in the 
optative mood in this instance, and in the preceding one by the sub- 

What does the preposition inrep signify when followed by the ac- 
cusative case 1 

9. Translate the following sentences into English : 

(1 ) Svyw^cXovvi Zt ciZtVy fArt tl^ to fid^eoOai^ our* clf to ra eVi- 

r^ituz ixtiy* iii* 2, 

(2) "EyOa hri iyiyviaffK€To, ori vTroKefAttrog Cii|. iii, 3. 

(S) Ov vore fuloy direaTpaTOfreitvovTO ol fidpfi(ipoi tov 'EXXifvueov 
€&|fcoiTa arahiiav, iii. 4« * 

(4) Tofiriar hi ovSivaf tfaaaVf dieoyotniiffai Sid nfv Svirxjuplav* 
o^ort fuvroi tov aarpdmiy tov iv Tf irtil^ ovehaiyTOy ical 
iTi/iiywoBai v^v re irpoQ iKelvov^f xal iKtlvtav vpO£ avTOtic* 
m. 0. 

(5) Ovii Tovi\dvOpwirovc iSiiaicoVf vro^tZofUvoi^ tl Tiag iBeXifereiav 

01 Kaphov\oi ZCuvax avrov£ wq Sid ^iX/a£ t^q X^paq, tTtiirtp 
fiaaiKei voKifiioi ^aay, iv. i. 

(6) 'O Si IStvo^yf exiav ofria&w^vkwcaSf <as {jtrSeTOf iSuTO avrHy 

Tttffp rtxyy ical firiyaygf fi^ dTokelireaOaif Xeywy, oTi SiroyTCU 
ToXXdt iroKifiioi ffvyeiKiyfuyoC xal TeKtvTiiy e^^aXcVacvey. 
iv. 5. 

(7) 'Ororc Si TIC fiKot^yovfuyocTf /SovXoiro Tpvicuiy^ ttSxty eirl 

Tdy Kpariipa' iyOty vtroKurpavTa eStt pofovyra vuiy tSavep 
fiovy* iv. 5. 

(8) *Eptira Toiwy avrovc, f^, tI dyTiTerdxoraif xal xpjJCovvty 

lifAiy iroKi/uoi eTycu ; 01 2* dTiKptyavTO' "On ical Vfieis eVl 
Tijy yfAtripay tpxiEodt. iv. 8. 

(9) 'Bay iirl 6XIyw Ttrayfiiifoi tw/icv, ovSiy ay eiri Oav^atrToy, el 


Zuucowtlii ijfi^y ij ^dkayi iwo ddpomv ti| koa fliktip rac 

dvBpwiPiav avfiweaorrtiy' el hi ni rovro earaif rp oXjy ^oXay- 

yt KOKoy iarau !▼• 8» 

Point out the force of the prepositions used in compositioii in 

these passages respectively ; and mention the mood, tense, and voice 

oftnnlinuyro, ainreraxarai and ^uuooirc/ii. In the last sentence why 

is €t followed in one instance by the optative mood, and in the other 

by the future indicative ? 

10. *Eyrtv$ey iwopviBiiffay Std XoXvjSMr eraBpoig cvra. iv. 7. 
It has been proposed to read XaX&i/My instead of XoXv/Bwi^. Why 
does this reading seem to be inadmissible ? 


Sine CoiL et ofino. 

1. Give a short history of the life and writings of Xenophon, and 
shew what are the peculiar excellencies of his style. 

2. Give a full account of the circumstances which procured 
Xenophon the command of the Grecian army, and of the situation 
which he held in it before that event. 

9* Give an account of the circumstances which occasioned the 
Peloponnesian War ; of the time it lasted ; and of the change which 
it produced in the government and influence of the Athenians : also 
mention, in order, the principal events which took place in the 
course of it. 

4. Of how many men did a Xo^oc consist? and what were the 
respective offices of the trrparriyos and Xo^^ayoc ? 

5. Describe the xpayos, viXni^ and dw(n^ ; and esq^lain the dif- 
ferences between the otrXcrcu, TcXra^rcut and ipiXoc 

6. Explain the meaning of the word x^^ in the passage xapa rny 
X'yXiyt' rov reiXGVt vrepfiaXXovm, 


7. Crive an accurate geographical description of Byzantium, as 
what country it is in, what seas it is upon, &c. ; and also mention its 
modem name. 

8. Give a geographical description of Thrace ; mention its 
modem name, and point out the part of it which was inhabited by 
the Odrysse. 

9. Draw a sketch of the map of Asia, from the Mgenn Sea to 
Babylon ; and mark out die route of Cyrus and of the Greeks in 
their retreat. 

1 0. Explain the force of the middle voice ; and apply your ob« 
servations to the word iicraiaoOatf in the following passage : ToSe 
^tofHov olop KoXXiorov eKraiavBcu tan ro Optuctov KoiKovfMeyoy' and 
shew how the active verb fatvi^ signifying * to shew,' the middle 
verb ^vo/juu expresses * to appear.' 

11. Menti<m the characteristic marks of the Attic dialect : shew 
how the Attics form the Optative Present of the three conjugations 
of contracted Verbs, the Optative of the first Aorist Active, and the 
fint Future Indicative of the fourth and sixth conjugations ending 
in affw, cW| o^nr, and urmf and conjugate the first Future Indicative 
of xa{^v Attiofc through all its Dumbers and persons ; also give 
the Attic words corresponding to trvr, irpoci Oapntvt and vqoq ; and 
decline the last Attic^ through all its numbers and cases. 

12« Translate the following passage into elegant English : 
Ovhiy QTain^Wv, i 2ev0if, irapeifju—^'-^ 

' ' rj ci SXKoi iraf>a5(p^jua8t3oyr£c«''— cap.7. §.21—24. 


Sine CoU, ei annOn 

• * 

1 . Give some account of Xenophon, particularly of the latter part of 
his Hfe. Assign the dates of the Anabasis, and the expedition of 
Thimbron m Olympiads, and yean B. C. Assign also the most 
probable dates of the birth and death of Xenophon, and give some 
explanation of the terms wocj wavf ^koc as used by him and other 



2* rcU Sou cff rov Hovrov irc(ol iiforreQ koX vKeovres i^aLjuaaVf 
fte^^ptg {{m tov arofMaros iyivmrro iv X^ntommSjEi r^C *Aif/ac. ^Ex- 
plain this passage. What is the primary sense of m/ua? ^Give 
other instances of the rnetajAorical application of words of a like 
meaning by Greek authors, or the inspired writers. 

3. '08* lidXevnv ovrw touiv koX riiv Ta\lirTfiv e{tf vac avvtmxvav* 
ftiy€vc, Koi wpoffavuwtivy Sc ay fiij 'trapf tic nfy if/iramv ical eis rov 
dpiOfwy^ on avrdc avroy alridtnrau Translate this passage. What 

is the derivation and exact meaning of the word if/Eraatc ? e£mi* 

triy Swkuy cVocifffarro has been translated arma butrdrtuU. Why is 
this translation not improper? 

4. 'H/icic yop 0( 'AOi|vauM €lin(^dofuy elc roy woXifMoy roy wpoQ rove 
AoKeiaifioyiovc koL roic intfAfui')(ovQt — ^What war is here alluded to? 
When did it commence, and how long did it continue ? Give an ac- 
count of the principal changes of fortune of the contending parties, 
of the Generab on both sides, and a narrative of the event which 
decided the fate of the war. 

5. "EyiJ fjtiv Tolyvy eixofuu irply ravra eriieip v^ vfiSy yeyofuyop 
fivplac ifU yt Kara r$c T^C opyvwic yiyioBau Kal v/uy 8e mffiPofH 
Xevam, "EXXifvac ovrac, rolQ^EiXkiiy^ty 7rpoeoniK6at miBofuyovc iritpda^ 
0ac ritfK ^tKoltir rvyxdyeiy* *Edy ^ /ii} ivytiaOi roirra, i|fiac ^l 
diueovfuyovc rijc yovy 'EkXdSoc f^v arifuvBai, Give an accurate 
translation of this passage. What is the construction of the latter 
ravra ? Is arepeodai the regular form ? 

6. Explain the expression roic oixot TiXtn as applied to the 
Lacedaemonian magistrates. Distinguish between dveiy and Mcffdac, 
Tpoirifiireiy and irpoirifitriodaif ^j/fiffdZeiy and ij/iy^Cc^o^ irouiy and 
^rouiaStUf ^nipo^offeZK and ^wpo^KtioOaif i^XdrrEiy and ipvXdrreo&au 

7. *Air<MrXcoiTi 2c 'Aya{i/3/f» Ik Bv^air/ov ovvayrq, Apiaraf»^ot iy 
Kv^/icf», Sia&>)(oc KKtdy^pff Bv(ayriov Se dpfwimii' cXcye 2e ical, 8ri 
vavajpypQ itdSoxpg 11£\oq o9oy ov iraptlri ^^ tic ^EXkfimroyroy. 

'Ek tovtcv St| 'Ava&/3iO£, caXcvac tBityo^yra^ iccXevci xoo^ ^X*!' 
KoX fir/yayy trXevmn cVl to arpdrtviui wc rax^ora, koI 9vyi\€iy n to 
trrpaTevfULfKol cvyaOpoi^Eiy Tmy Zutnrapiuymy tic ay irkilirrovc ivytfrat^ 
Kol trapayayiyra tic UipiyBoyf 2ta/3i/3a^eii' tic Tfjy *Atrlay 8ti raxcimiy 
■■■ ■ . What were the situations of Cyzicus and Perinthus 1 Give a 
translation of these passages. How do you resolve the expressioa 
on raxt^a, considering cln as a pronoun ? How do you account 

"^•■^^9^«^^^" ' ' U I III. 


fer the change of tense (nota irXevmic and avyixftty)^ or for dissyllables 
in ew forming their futures in tvata ? What is Dawes's rule with 
regard to the mood of the verb following -W, o^po, or like words ? 
Can you supply examples of it from these passages ? 

8. To what different times of the day is the term heCkti applied ? 
Mention the five divisions of the day in use among the Greeks. 

9. ical ei rls trot ivri Ovyanip, tan^voiiai Op^lf v6fi^' Can 
you give other author^jty for this being the Thracian custom? What 
was the practice of the Athenians and Lacedsemonians in this 
respect ? 

10. *EXB6vr4ay ^ eXsU Xapfiivos* El /icV rt irv ex^^if <S Mi|2offa2cCf 
Tpo^ lifjtas \dy€ty' d Si fAtjf ly/icic ifpoe ire Sxofuy. What is the con- 
struction of iXBoyruty t What name do Grammarians give to the 
ellipsis in this passage ? How is it to be supplied ? 

11. ov yap itu >H^^ avrf iir^KTO ^Adiiyytn irepi ^vy^c* 
Describe the mode of giving sentence used by the public courts at 
Athens. What is the literal . meaning of if/^^c ? What was the 
distinction between the punishments ^vyi} and 'OarpaKurfwsl In 
what year was Xenophon banished ? 

22. ccgXcvc Si fidXtara (uy avrm ikdiiy rw Awcuyt Topa 

Zevdrfy ire(A rov fAurOoVf kcH oUffBai ay JUvdiiv ireUfaC el Si fivj^ 
iSeyo^yra triy avrf» trdfiweiyf Kal ffVfAirpaftty virc0)(vicro* iSiiro Si 
rac K(afjuig fiii c^ecv. Translate this passage. What is the peculiar 
force of ay here ? ftiv is not in the common editions, why has it 
been inserted ? Ov yap dp^d/jtoc iarty 6 6pl(o>yt k, r. X. The common 
reading is Ov yap tipdBfioe opiiwy iarl — • Does the alteration make 
the sense of the passage different ? ISwy ra Upeia 6 EvVXciSiic elTty 
^ra Upd is another readmg. How does it alter the sense ? 

IS. Give some account of the Grsecian custom and mode of 
entertaining strangers, and of their great reverence for the alliances 
of hospitality. Under the charge of what Deities were strangers 
supposed peculiarly to be? What was the Greek term for the 
alliance contracted by hospitality. 

14. What name was applied to the festival celebrated at Athens 
in honour of d Zevc 6 MccX/x'oCy and what was its object? Where 
was Ihe Lyceum situated ? To what God was it dedicated, and 
what was its use ? 


15. Give a description and the value, in our money, of the coins 
KviiKtiydc and ^apeucog. Explain the terms nikni, otfoySoviii X'M* 
Xorni and Xoxayoct And the expressions Biadt ra OTrkOf exetTO rd SwKa. 

16. Draw a chart of the Thracian coast of the Euxine, and of 
the coasts of the Propontisi and of the Hellespont, marking the 
Towns whose situations you may recollect, particularly those which 
occur in this book* 

17. How do you reconcile the assertion of Heradides being a 
Greek with the former one that he was a native of Maronea ? — Give 
some account of the colonization and founding of Byzantium. 

18. Turn the following passage into Latin prose and English : 
Kac yap ovy vvv vfiiy i^tariy weirtkiwnaQ wopaieadaif troi arlXtiaOtf 

Kol Kara yjv ical Kara ddKarrav, *Yf(eIc ^e» ori iroXXij vfiiy tvnopla 
^a/v£rai, xal irXeire, iyOa hrj iirtOvfiEiTe iraXai, ^oyrai Si vfuiy ol to 
^yurroy hvydfuva^ fxiffOoc ^ ^aiyerai, liyefbortQ hi ^Kovtn Aaccdcu- 
fAoyuM., 01 Kftartaroi yofAii6fuyoi clvac, yvy dif icaipog ioKei vfuy tlraif ^ 
Tdy(i€rro ifjti KoraKrayEiy ; ov fxrjy, ore ye iy rolg diropoic ^/i€V, Z wrrwy 
fiyrifwrtKaTOTOi. dXXa koI iraripa ifii cKoXflre, ical del wg evepyirov 
fUfiyrjoBai vmer^yeioBe. Ov fuyroi dyyiifwyec ov^ oSroi clo'tv, oc yvr 
i$KoyT€Q if* v/iac, iStm, wc iyii olfACUf oiiii rovrois ^iTre jSeXr/ovec 
tlyaif roiovToi ovrec trepl ifxL Tovra clirwv ciraimro* 

Sine CM. 1817. 

1. What evidence is there for the opinion that Xenophon was the 
writer of this history? About what period are the events related 
in it supposed to have happened ? 

2. Give an epitome of the 7th book, noticing particulariy the 
circumstances which induced the Greeks to enter into the service of 
Seuthes. What became of Xenophon after the expedition ? 

8. Sketch an outline of the countries connected with the history of 
this treatise, pointing out particularly ^e situation of Ephesus. 
Smyrna, Tarsus, Byzantium, Mons Sacer, Perinthus, Pariam, 
Bisanthe, and Delta. 


4. What were the peculiar difficulties with which the army had 
to contend in its retreat 1 What induced them to prefer the route 
they took, to that by which they entered Persia ? Do you recollect 
any General in the after times, who in the same country being 
surrounded with similar dif&culties» is reported to have uttered an 
exclamation, alluding to the better fate of the Greeks ? 

5. What is the exact force of dvd and xard with ficUvu 1 Are there 
any similar expressions in common use among ourselves ? 

6. Give a general account of the Greek Calendar. Into how 
many portions was the month divided, and what was the mode of 
reckoning in each ? What were the f({v£c irXiypecc and firive^ koiXoi ? 
Enumerate the popular terms expressing the successive parts of 
the day and night. 

7. What wiis nearly the value in English money of the following 
coins : So^cjcoc, icv^uciivdcy /iva, rdkayrov drrucoy ? 

8. What are the positives of the following comparatives, lirToy, 
Bdrroy, X^toy, irXiiffloy ? And by what rule is the antepenult long in 
such words as dca^ofMJraroc, ivyartiraTosy voKefUKwraroi: ? 

9. Expliun the nature of^ the middle verb by pointing out the 
distinction between rpireta and Tpiiroftaif <rwl^%i and (n^Zofiat^ axaXXarrai 
and dwaXKdrrofMiUf fiovXivta and (JovXevofJuu* 

10. What is the quantity of the penultimate of the comparatives 
tdaxliay, fidKriiay^ &c. in Attic Greek and in other dialects ? Also 
what is the quantity of the future and first aorists of verbs in om, such 
as trxjEMtnt, iyikam^ &c. and what are the exceptions to the rule ? 
Further, what is the quantity of the penult in the present tense of 
verbs in vyw and ayw, such as jiriKvyia, XavOava», &c. 

1 1 . Translate and explain the idiomatic phrases 6^y eaacu, Myxr 
4ivt lx^^» ^^ xalpeiy, iy dwo^iivf TOiriffdfuyoQ. Also point out the 
usages of wdo\ia and Xayddyw, 

12. Derive the following words : w/uo/JocVacci ^(/<o<f>^oy, aV^iro&i, 
iravovpy^a, oo^^oXia, datbdXaa, «Jiri90o^vXairovy, rporaia. 

1 9. Point out the distinction between the following words : (^vyorra 
and dwo^iiSpdffKoyTa, KKLfmiy and Xi^imiV, Kipa^ and oakinyl^ itrXirat 
and ircXroora^, vo/iioc and Oiiriwc, Trpo^ovXevfia and ^^li^aiia, 

14. 'O It SevOiyc riptTO^^^ koX idiXoisay^ i 'ETloBeytt, vrip rwirau 
uwodayeiy ; What is the force of virip in this passage ? Is it the 
same as in Rom. v« 6. Xpirroc* • • • virip dee^y dirtSaye, 


1 5. Translate into Latin Prose the following passage : 

-diroSf &»vc*— Cap. 4. §• 4 — 10. 

16. What advantage may be expected to result from an accurate 
knowledge of the ancient classics. 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1819. 

1. Give an account of the life and writings of Xenophon. Who 
was his instructor? What authors of note flourished in the same 
period ? What is the peculiarity of his style, and what appellations 
has it procured him ? To whom, and for what probable reason 
does he ascribe the Anabasis in his Hellenics ? Give Plutarch's 
explanation of the passage in question. 

2. On what custom of ancient Persia did Cyrus ground his claim 
to the throne of Artaxerxes 1 Can you produce from modem 
history, a similar instance of disputed succession ; and can you dis- 
cover any points of resemblance between the policy practised by 
Artaxerxes in Asia, and that which is still familiar with the Turk- 
ish government in that country ? 

S. In what year firom the first invasion of Chreece by the Persians, 
firom the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, from the institution of 
Olympiads, and from the Christian sera, was the expedition of 
Cyrus undertaken ? What government was arbiter of Greece at 
this period 7 Trace the line of retreat of the Cyreian army firom 
the river Zabatus till their arrival in Europe. Point out the situa- 
tions of Sinope^ Heradeia, Byzantium, Perinthus, and Bisanthe. 
What town was subsequently built on the site of Perinthus ? and 
what are the modem names of Byzantium, Bisanthe, the Euxine, 
and the Propontis ? 

4. Give an account of the nature, constitution, and discipline, of 
a Grecian army, corroborating your remarks by references to dif- 
ferent parts of the Anabasis. Of what class of men were the 
individuals who composed the Grecian armies in general, and par- 


ticularly that of Cyrus ? At what age were they qualified to serve 

5. Hofitvia&e eic ri|y (I) Xeppovi|9oy, eirei ^e KvytffKOQ vfxiy (2) 

(1) Point out the respective situations of the peninsulas which 
were distinguished by the term Chersonesus, and give their 
names in modem geography. 

(2) What people first served in Greece for pay ? By whom 
among the Athenians was the custom of paying the soldiers 
first introduced, and with what view ? Explain the terms 
rtrpttfioKov /Stoc* and rvrpw/SoXiCeiK. 

6. Ov fuu>v x*^'^^ roKavrwy. Reduce this sum into English 
money, and give the value and derivation of a Cyzicene and Daric. 

7. El ric ayriKeyeif Xeyena' ei ie firif ciri^^^crc ravra. Give 
the meaning of the word twt}fni^i(u in its active and middle senses. 
Distinguish between the words ^nit^urfia and ^po/SovXcv^a, Oetrfioc 
and yofUKf and explain the terms irtXTtit xriKri, and xoivii, 

8. Mora rovro oi fuv aXkoi Kara (1 ) ra{c£C etncrivtiaav, {i) orpa^ 
TfjyovQ Se icat Xo)(ayovc iwi ^uwvov SevOi^c cKoXe^e, irXjietoy KWfiriy 

(1) What are the Latin words corresponding to ra{tc and 1X17? 

(2) Derive arparnyoQ andXoxayoc. What do you understand 
by the term Toktiiapxp^ ? What terms in the cavalry corres- 
pond to arparnyoQ and ra{capxoc in the infantry? What 
does the term \oxoq imply in its general acceptation ? Is 
the Xo^oc of Thucydides (referring particularly to the date 
of the battle of Mantinea 422. B. C.) applicable to the sub- 
ject of the Anabasis? And does Xenophon employ the 
word to express the same number of men throughout his 
work ? 

9. What was the name and object of the Athenian festival insti- 
tuted in honour of o Zevc MeiXixu>c? At what time of the year 
was it celebrated ? 

10. Explain the various uses of the verbs /ieXXii», rvyx^yfa^ \av^ 
Bavta^ and the different governments o£xpn(€iy, 

11. Give the difference of signification arising from the changes 
of accentuation in vd/ioct iroytfpoQt Xcvicii, fivptot, raXoiCi vc/^, and 
accent the followin^<passage : 


O 8r 2cvOi|c> aKOVd^ttc ifrovra iraXiy Xevo^vrOi wtfu^j/aic 
TpoQ avTOr Kara BaXairiTav MrfioeaSiiVf eSctro rrir trrpartav 
ayctv irpoc eavroi^» vwia\vovfuyot aw^t o n fwro Xeymv 

lis. Evravda oi ircpi tSEitvo^vra €rvfAtrtptTVY)(ayovtriy avrf, 

jcai Xafifiavcvtnyavrov, xat yvyauca^ vac xcu&iCi iccurovc cviravCi 
jcac Trarra ra oyra' kcu ovrbt ra T/Dorepa ccpa airep^, Eirecnz 
iraXcy a^ucvovrrac £cc lUpyafwy, EyravSa toy deoy cvk 
ifnatraro o tBSeyo^y awerfKoray yap ecu oi AcumryeCf iccu m 
Xoxoyocmu ot aXXoc (rrpanyTot, irac oc arpanwai^ wert efaipcra 
Xafifiayeiy^icai ittttovu koc ^cvyi|, mc raXXa* laore uaiyov etyai 
KCU, aXKoy i|di| cv ^rotccv. 
Translate this passage into Latin* and quote the Iliad in allusion to 
the practice here mentioned. Virgil has described a similar custom 
in the iEneid, and given a Ikeral translation of t^ term ef/uperoc* 
Quote the passage. What do you understand by the term oKpoOiria, 
^axd what is the word corresponding to it in Latin ? 
IS. Translate into English the following passage: 
Kairoi yt HpaicXci2i| Xijpoc raira hoKU ccyo* 

■ oioy ir£p cai irapcXajSec. — ^C. vii. §• 24— 27- 

(1) Distinguish between avi^p and ay^pwKo^, Derive the latter 
word, and give Ovid's allusion to its etymology. 

(2) What is the general rule with regard to the quantity of the 
penultima of comparatives in e«v ? Write down the genitive 
case of /3affiXa;£ in the Attic, Ionic, and Doric dialects. 

{3) What is the distinction between ^<Xoc and eraipoc> frv^fuiy^ 
and ticvBaiipo^f ^ovXoc and ayZptm^ov* Also between mifuioy 
and ovfA^Xoy, orpartui and orparca, x^^ '^^ d^excu 
(4) How is the Attic future of yofuiu formed ? What are the 
terminations of the Ionic futures from which the Attics 
vary? Qow do you account for the exceptions in the case 
of the antepenultima being long? What are the prevailing 
features of the Attic dialect? 
14. State the cause, independently of the natural obstacles in an 
enemy's country, to which you would attribute the length of time 
that elapsed from the commencement of the retreat of the Grecian 
army till their arrival on the shores of the Euxine. 




St. JOHN'S COLL. 1828. 

1. What were the most remarkable sects of Philosophers which 
flourished in Greece 1 GKve an account of the tenets, and of the 
most distinguished followers, of each sect* To what sect did 
Xenophon attach himself? Where is he supposed to have lived 
when he composed his works ? Where did he die ? 

2. In what political events was Socrates engaged? How may 
the hostility of the people against him be accounted for ? What 
was the state of parties in Athens during this period? 

S. In what Court did the trial of Socrates take place ? Whence 
has it been inferred that it was not the Areopagus? Give some 
account of the constitution of this Court. Was the accused allowed 
to plead in person before it ? 

4. Aristophanes is generally supposed to have been unfriendly 
to Socrates* State the grounds of this opinion. What do you 
suppq/se to have been the real design of the play of the Clouds ? 
When was it represented ? What success did it meet with ? 

5. In what parts of Greece was the Attic dialect spoken ? State» 
and illustrate by quotations, the di&rence between the Old and 
New Attic. ** Xenophon voces phrasesque tum poeticas tum Dori- 
cas non aspernatur." Can you produce examples ? 

6. Chiqp. i. 18. BovXEvaag yap irore, ical roy jSovXcvruooV opxoy 
Sfwtra^f iv ^ ^y Kord rove yofuw^ jSovXcvo'civ, iTriardrri^ iy rf ^^fif 
yeyofuyoct irtBufniaayrog rov Ztjfjifiv iropa tWc yofiovg iyyia orpa- 
myovc fit4 ^^ dwoKreiyai iraKra;, ovk ifOcXiyaev eirci//i2^<rai« 
Translate this, and explain the allusions. Give the meaning of 
^i|^f», ^ni^iofiaif ixt^lnf^iiaf iin^ni^(oiJMi, and dinnlnf^iofAiu. 



7. Chap. ii. 24. Kptrlac fuv ^ytav elc Oaraklay* Grive some 
account of this person, iv Oerrakl^ hifWKparlav KarwrKivavtl^v 
Kol Tov^ ireyiffra/Q khrXiCtv erl rovg dcoirorac* Translate this, and 
explain the circumstances alluded to. 

8. Chap. ii. 38. role vioic aireixerifv fjoj ZiaXiyta&ai. 

Give the terminations of the second and third persons of dual 
verbs in the present and past tenses. 

Explain the principle on which verbs of prohibiting, &c. are 
followed by a negative. 

9. Chap. ii. 42. ot^c (rdfiovc) to irX^Ooc tntvtKBov Ka\ doKifidffuy 

(1) Should you have expected iypdyj/aro ? Explain the precise 
meaning of tbe middle verb. 

(2) Describe the regular method of enacting a law at Athens. 

10. Chap. ii. 55. Translate the following: 

Koi irap€icdket iwifjLiKiiaBax rov mg ^poyifHararov itvcu ral iJ^eXi/i- 
tirarovp Sirwc, idv n viro Torpos idv re vxo d^iK^ov idv rt vv aXXov 
TivoQ povKfirai rtfidaBaif /tiif, Tf olKtiog elvcu martvtav^ cJ/ieXp, aXXo 
irei^roi, v^* iv av jSovXotro TifMoBaif tovtoiq w^cXi/ioc elvac. 

{!) In the last line, another reading is jSovXtp-oi. Distinguish 
between the two readings; and state to which you give 
the preference. 
(2) Explain, and frame instances to illustrate the different 
uses of the conjunctive and optative moods after die in- 
junctions oirwc and fuj. Apply your remarks to die con- 
structions in the following passages : 
fvXdrToVf oirwc fti? iral trv iXdrrovg rag fiovg inHf|<rpc> V ^7. 
f^o^lrOf fiii 6 yerofuvoQ koKoq K^yaBot rf rd fiiyiara tvtpyt- 
Ttftrayn fitj njv fuylimiv "Xppiv {{tM. J. 7. 
1 1 • Translate into Grreek Prose : ^ 

" This action happened contrary to the expectation of all men ; 
for most part of Greece being got together, and drawn up in 
Battalia, every one believed that if there were a fight, the victors 
would rule, and the vanquished obey. But Providence so ordered, 
that both sides as Victors set up trophies, and neither side hindei^ 
ed Che other from erecting them: bodi as conquerors delivered 
the slain upon truce, and both as conquered received them upon 




1 . Translate Eira Ai|Xioy, Sirov ftayji Xci^^En-ec ^Adiiyaloi irporpo- 
ira^iji' iipvyoy' iv 2e rf fvy^ irea6yra of* tinrov tSeyo^yra roy FpvXkov 
l^tay Kelfuyoy ISwicpanjc o ^cXooo^oc trrpanviay vi^dg, rov tmrov ytyo- 
v6roc iicwoSiiyf dytXafit tois ifioiQ avroS^ ra^ ia^trty eVl xoXXovc ^ra- 
liou^y ewe cVavffaro i| ^vyi/. (Strabo ix. 2. 7. p» 403.) Where was 
Delium ? Between whom^ under what generals, and in what year, 
was the battle there fought ? What may we infer from this story 
as to the time of Xenophon's birth ? How far does it agree pr dis- 
agree with what may be collected from the Anabasis and other 
sources ? What is reUtted of Socrates at the same battle by Plato 
(Sympos. p. 221. Lach. p. 181), by Plutarch (Aldbiad. cap. vii.), 
and by Cicero (Divin. i. 54) ? In what other battles does Xenophon 
speak of having been present 1 

8. What inducement led Xenophon into Asia? What part did 
Socrates take connected with his going thither (Anab. iii. 1.5.)? 
In what capacity did he at first appear in the army ? how, and from 
what causes was it altered ? What was the course of his life after 
the return of the Ten Thousand ? What were the political grounds 
of his banishment ? 

3. How is Xenophon led to mention his abode at Scillus (Anab. 
V. 3. 7-) ? and what account does he give of his life there ? Where 
was Scillus ? how came Xenophon to settle there ? Translate and 
explain Oc Zi ^Wul^y ifnvfral KOfUoaa^cU re avriQ SnXXm/ira *HXe/ovc 
iXeyoy^ ical tSeyo^yraf Sri eXajSe xapd AtuuSiUfioyitfy n}v y^v, Kptdij'' 
yat fiiy iy rpf 'OXv/iXicuc^ fiovkft rvxpyra ii rapd HXe/w crvyyytifoit^ 
ciSecSc iy SkiXXovvtc olirf ocU. Pausanias, v. 6« 

4. What evidence is there in Xenophon's writings of his having 
been reconciled to the Athenians, and returned to Athens ? 

5. How long may we suppose Xenophon to have lived on terms 
of intimacy with Socrates ? Does he relate any anecdotes in the 


Memorabilia on hearsay evidence 7 Athenaeus says of Xenophon 
and Plato, ftKoreUiac elxov wpds iavrovgt aloSofuyoi rqc Hiac iKortpo^ 
dpaiiSf Kol C9WC Ktu irepl wpun-tlwv dtc^epoiro* ov fi6yov c{ ir ircpl Rvpov 
fcpijircunt rcKfiatpofiiyoig f|fi<v, ctXXa icaic rwy avnSy vwodiatiavm Sv^ 
wona fur yap yeypafatriy dfju^repoit ica2 tV avrocc o /icv rdc avXtirpt" 
3ac iK^aXXUf 6 2e dmiycc* Ka2 o /icv, cJc trpOKtiraif wapaireircu vlvuv 
fuydXoig vonfplois, 6 H roy ^Kpdrriy xapdyei rf ijnnenipi wlyorra 
fiixpi Trie ew* Kay rf wepH yj/vjfrjc ^ 6 HKdrtay, KaTaXey6fuyog tKaaroy 
Tbiy JcapiLTvypyTiay^ ovU ixtrd fwcpdy tw Xtyo^yro^ fufiyiiraji. 
(zi. p. 504.) Translate this, explain the allusions, and shew the 
groundlessness of the last charge. 

6. What other representations of Socrates by his contemporaries 
remain to us ? What are the main points in which they differ from 
Xenophon's, or from each other? Can you reconcile them? or 
account for the same body ^'casting such strangely different sha- 
dows ?** Do you know of any similar cases ? In characterizing 
the philosophy of Socrates, Aristotle says ZuKpdrrig w€pi rag ijOuac 
dperac irpayfiarevofuyoSf irepi 2c tijqoXiis ^vtretag ov^iy^ xat irep2 TOVTkty 
opliioBai KodoXov (rfkiy trpwroCt €v\6yuc iiiJTei ro ri iari. ffvXXoy/f e<r- 
Bat yap i^ifrei' dp^ 2e ruiy avXXoyi<rfiiSy to tI €<m* Avo ydp itmy 
d TiQ ay diroB^ri Saic^rci ^txaiuct tovq t ifroKriKouc Xoyovc ical to 
opliittrBcu caOoXov* ravra ydp iariy ifju^ irEpl dp^ijy iwiorriiifiQ. 
(Metaphys. i. 6. xiii. 4.) Translate and explain this, and point 
out in what respects it confirms or contradicts any of the other 
representations. ' 

7. In what other works does Xenophon introduce Socrates? 
and what are the topics discussed in them ? What reason is 
there for supposing that one of them was connected with the 
Memorabilia ? 

8. What is the purpose of the Memorabilia ? Give the heads 
of the argument. Are any of Plato's dialogues written with a similar 

9« *Axo Swxparovc n> i{6ucoy, oJ ytyoyamy alpitniQ ^xa, (Diog. 
Laert i. 18.) What were these tei> sects ? of which of them are 
the founders mentioned in the Memorabilia? and what were their 
peculiar doctrines ? Who among the personages spoken of by Xe- 
nophon appear in Plato*8 dialogues ? 


10. What were the grounds of the acciuatioii against Socrates ? 
Shew the &Uacy of the story that Aristophanes acted in concert 
with the accusers. What other illustrious persons were subjected 
Co simikr charges at Athens? Before what court is it probable 
that he was tried? what means have we of ascertaining this 1 
^Kpaniy McXifroc fur iypdtparOf "Amnvs ii elffijyayCf Avffwv ie 
iilvKSf KareUKOimp ii 'AOifyaiocy Hrfvav ii ol evSem, arcKrccye Si o 
vwfipinig. Maximus Tyrius ix. Explain iypdilwro (what is the 
force of the middle voice in this verb ? in what other verbs has it a 
like voice ?) ciorifyaye, iiUiKe, ol c vSoco, (what was the nature of their 
office ?) o vmipims' 

11. L 1. 2. Aicrc6p«Xi|ro »c ^oiii SMxpanfc ro iaifMoyiov iawf 
fn^Mlytivm What is the et3rmology and original meaning of ialfu^r 
and 2aifK>vioc ; What did Meletus mean by the charge, ^LtHcpdniy 
Kotyd icuftoyta da^ipeir ; How does Socrates in the Apology (p« 97 •) 
refute one charge by the other ? What is the nature of the admoni- 
tion he describes himself to have received from this Oiiov n ral 
iaift6vtoy in the Apology (p. dl)» the Pheedrus (p. 242), the These- 
tetus (p*.i6) ? Shew the di^erence between these representations^ 
and that in the Theages (p. ISO), and in the treatise ascribed to 

12* Translate 'Oooi fmyruajy yofU^oyrt^ oU^yoit re ypmrrai ical 
^fuuc rai 0Vftfi^iK[M£ Kok OvWcuc* I* 1-3. Explain the nature of 
these different kinds of divination* citing instances to illustrate 
them, and mentioning what nations were especially addicted to 
any one of them. 

1 S. Translate Ovii wepi, rqic Tmy ircivrw^ fvoti^ SicXiycro, ovom f 
OTi#€ o KoXov/ieyoc vwo rtiy wt^unHy Kiafioc ex^u I. 1. IS. How 
fiur does this assertion appear to have been borne, out by the fiu;t ? 
Trace the word tfo^onjc through its various meanings : to whom is 
it applied by Herodotus ? Who is said to have first given the name 
jcD^yioc to the world 1 and for what reason ? To what classes of 
Greek writers is this use of the word confined! What is the 
primitive meaning of the corresponding Latin and English words ? 

14. Translate To<c fiiy iomy ey fwypy to oy elyac, roic ii aiceipa t6 
wk^doc* KoX roic fiiy dtl KiyeitrScu Tayra, roic ii oviiy ay irore iccvi|0 j- 
rot* col role fuy rayra ylyytoOai md diroXXiMjOoc, roic ii ovr ay ye- 
yieSai wort oviiy ovre dtroKiaSai. I. 1. 14. Point out why the 


author uses the present tense in the former instances, and the aorist 
in the ktter ; and explain the general principle which regulates the 
use of the present or aorist in the oblique moods. Who are the 
philosophers here referred to ? Translate and explain 2vyt')3i| 2c i 
wipa T^y tl^y 2o{a rocc tltrovmy 2ia rS TeioBijyai wept r^t dKifidac 
TOic 'HpOicXeirc/oic Xoyocc, cJc irayrtfy rtSy aloBfinSy del ^oyruV dor* 
Airtp ewumiftfi riyog iarai Kid ^pOKtymc, iripat ieiy TiyuQ ^vm^ elyai 
irapd rds aioBffrdc fieyovaac* Aristot. Metaph. xiii. 4. 

1 5. Translate BovXcvooc v'ore, icak eVi^rdnyc iv rf liii^f yeyofuyoct 
iwidvjjLiiffayroe tov hffiov Tapd rave yofunt^iyyia arparviyoic fU^ ^9^ 
rove dfufH OpdtrvXKoy dtroKreiyaif ovk ijBiKfiffiv iwi^/tffimu, L 1. 18. 
Explain the nature of the office held by Socrates, the authority with 
which it invested him, and the subject of the charge brought against 
the nine generals. Who were the accusers ? What constituted the 
illegality of the trial ? What was its result ? To what age does it 
appear from another passage in the Memorabilia (L 2. 35.), that the 
privilege roi; fiovXevtiy was restricted ? 

16. Translate ZaiicpanyC) e^l o jcanyyopoc, rove irarepaQ wporniKaxl'- 
(tiy tSl^ffKe, velOuy /uv rove (vi^irae avrf vo^ioTipovq avrovt wou7P 
rQy Taripiay, iftdmctiy 2e xard yoftoy e^elvac wapayola^ cXovrc mU ror 
iraripa ^<rai. What shape has Aristophanes given to this chan;e ? 

17. Who was Prodicus? How is he described by Plato in the 
Protagoras ? What effect does Socrates in the Axioehus describe 
as having been produced on himself by his teaching ? Do you re- 
member any imitation of his fable, in Aristophanes, or elsewhere? 
if you do, point out how it has been modified. How fiir does this 
fable redeem Prodicus from the charge brought against the sophists 
of inculcating a lax morality? 

18. In what case do we learn from the Memorabilia that the 
Athenian laws punished ingratitude ? and how? Did they embrace 
any other cases? In what other countries has the same crime 
been made a subject of legislation ? 

19. Translate Nuc/ac Xiyerai iiaaTdrriy elc rdpyvpia wpiairBai ra« 
Xavrov. II. 5. 2. Where were the Athenian dpyvpia ? What use 
did Themistocles make of them ? .(Herod, vii. 144.) What was the 
nature of the tenure under which they were held ? and of the pro- 
fit derived by the state from them ? Nik/oc emfffaro cV role cipyv* 
ploit xcXfovc dydptinovct ovq Xwtrl^ i^jinioBiaatv^ iif ^olioKoy fuy arc- 


X9 eKaarov rnt lifufMc dir(M6vai, Xenoph. De VeCtig. iv. 14. 
Translate this, and calculate what sum Nicias at this rate must have 
received annually. 

20. II. 7* 2. '£jrec iaravlatrey if iroXic* ^o\Xuy ^vyovruv clc roy 
TUtptuOf Xafilidyofur ovre eV r^c yf £ ovdcv> 01 yap iydvrun Kparovaiy 
ayrijQf oiri aVo ruv oImmf, oKtyarBptinrla yap iy rf aartt yiyoyt. 
Explain the historical allusions: to what period do they refer? who 
fled to the Piraeus ? who are 01 iyayrtoi ? what was the cause of the 
oXiyayQpwirla ? What period and what circumstance is referred to 
in the words iirtiSri cupypiBfifuy rd iy ij virtpopi^ Knifiara, II. 8. 1 7 

21. I. 5. 5. Nij niy''Upay. What is there peculiar in this ex- 
pression as used hy Socrates ? Can you refer to any other pas- 
sages in support of it ? Translate and illustrate ov vapdltolfly d 
icara rrjg Kpdfijiric rivcc afiyvoyf owore col Zijytay 6 Kiruv^ 6 rf c arodg 
Krlarktp fiifjujvfuyoQ roy tcard rjc Kvyds opKoy ^xparovt koI avro^ 
wfiyvt nyv Kamropiy. Atheuseus ix. p. 370. 

22. How are ical and dc used in the same clause hy Homer? or 
by later writers ? Explain the idioms oific ai^ ^dvoic \iyiay — ov- 
^€yl ay fifj Sri TpoUa hfltiCf aXX' ov^ eXarrov rrjg d^ac Xafitiy^'^i" 
Souca fjLvi ovK cx^* iQ what cases, and with what force, are /a?) 01) com- 
bined ?— *H<woSow TO — -Epyoy 2' ovhiy ovet&>c — iXsyey «c ictkevoi iirf- 
Ziyo^ ipyov dirixeaBai, Explain the difierence between ov and /117, 
and shew why Xenophon has substituted fiifityog for Hesiod's ovSiy. 

23. Give the etymology, the primary, and the derivative senses 
of ijklBtoSf dKdi(ayp Xlxyocy irXij/i^cXciv, imiptditiyy TponyXcucifcii^, 
Xitfiro^civ, ficiXayrtorofjLiiy, dyatpeiy (1} Ilvdla dyoupci), Kufiiardy^ Xc- 
titpyog, fakdyyufyf orocxeiov, exinf Scioc, hvtrknreiaBaiy ttKiKplyriQf vjtoko' ' 
pi(eoOai^ Translate oi e^Bpoi inroxopi^o/icvoi 6yofid(ovffi jue Kaxlaym 

24. Point out any coincidences you may have observed between 
the precepts inculcated in the Memorabilia and in the New Testa- 
ment* How far may Socrates be said to deserve the name of the 
" heathen prophet of Christianity." 


Second Paper, 

Translate the following passage into English Prose : 
OvKovv ioKtl aoi 6 €*{ dp^i^Q 

rl 5c ijtvKoy SXXo tj ol ayBpunrot Oeovc OepairEvovtri, — 

I. 4, 5—13. 

1 . Translate 'AXXa firiy iv ye race romiyoplaig ical ^taypcu^l^ ovk 
aXXo Ti oUtw KaraarifiayTiKoy uq oi wye^tis Kal eVoXXijXoi rpowoi* 
Ac* Jy Kal irapd tSleyo^yri rj rdyBpiinrlyov trinjyovg dvaroji^ irofiirtKtis, 
Kol ere fJtaWoy dyaiutypcu^eirai delu£ irafid rf UXdrtayi* Longinus, 
xxxiii. What passage of Plato is here referred to t 

2. Enumerate the various meanings of diifuovpyos, 

S, Translate *Ayaiay6pag fiiy friffi, ^id to x^V^C ^X^^*'' ^poyifuira-' 
Tov civoc Tuiy (iittfy roy ayOpiairoy* evXoyoy 5e, 5ia to ^poyifJMToroy 
eJyai TtSy i^^iay, \tifiaQ €XEty, i| yap t^vviQ aei diayifxeif u<nrep ayOpw- 
TTOQ ^pdvt/Lioc* r^ ivyafxiy^ ')^rjtr6cu etcaaroy* cjc ydp Ttiy^ iK^e^pfUyiify 
woul TO (iiXTioy. (Aristot. De Part. Anim. iv. 10.) What other 
opinion of Anaxagor&s does Socrates ohject to in the Memorahilia? 
Do you remember any passage of Greek poetry founded on that 
same opinion ? 

4. By whom was the teleological argument for the being of a €rod 
first brought forward 1 By whom has it been subsequently de- 
veloped ? How far is it logically complete or incomplete ? 

Translate the following passage into Attic Greek : 
" The contemplation of universal nature rather bewilders the mind 
than affects it. There is always a bright spot in the prospect^ upon 
which the eye rests ; a single example perhaps by which each man 
finds himself more convinced than by all others put together. I 
seem for my own part to see the benevolence of the Deity more 
clearly in the pleasures of very young children, than in any thing in 
the world. The pleasures of grown persons may be reckoned partly 
of their own procuring; especially if there has been any industry, or 
contrivance, or pursuit, to come at them ; or if they are founded, 
like music, and painting, upon any qualification of their own ac- 
quiring. But the pleasures of a healthy infant are so mam'festly 
provided for it by another, and the benevolence of the provision is 
so unquestionable, that every child I see at its sport affords to roy 


nund a kind of sensible evidence of the finger of God, and of the 
disposition which directs it. But the example which strikes each 
man most strongly, is the true example for him : and hardly two 
minds hit upon the same; which shews the abundance of such ex- 
amples about us." 


1. Mention the principal Grecian Philosophers and Sophists who 
flourished before the time of Socrates. Were any distinguished 
Sophists natives of Athens ? 

2. In what sense is 9o^/a used in Homer ? Is it of frequent 
occurrence ? What is the meaning of the term oo^conjc as used by 

3. Mention the public events in which Socrates was engaged. 
How long did he continue in the character of a moral teacher ? In 
what b'ght is he represented in the Clouds of Aristophanes ? How 
many years before his death was that play written? Does it 
contain any serious charges against his moral conduct? Do they 
correspond with those given by Xenophon ? 

4. Zpc yovv oi^wc, tag ovS* av elc ^ovXoc viro ^cffiron^ Biatriafiiyog 
fulveu, airia re cirjf ical vara wlvtiQ rd ^vkorara^ koX ifmriov 
ijfjupliffat ov fiovov ^vXov, aXXa to avro Oipovg rt koX xtiiMvog^ 
dwjTo^TOC re ical d\iTiav ZiartKeig, koI firiv )(pi//Liard ye ov XaiifidvtiQ^ 
d Kol KTWfuvovQ tv^^lvti Koi K€KnifiivovQ iXeuSepiiuTEpoy rt koI {jiiov 
wouj (i^. el oZvp dmrEp ical twv aW/ar ipyiay ol Bi^aoKoiXoi rove 
ftoBrfrdcf fufiifrdc iawiSr dwoSeucvvovoiVf ovrw xal tri rove trvvoyrat 
dm^oetiQ, vofu^e Kcucd^aifioviac hi^affKoXog elvcu. 

Translate this passage, and also the following one from Aristo- 
phanes, in which the same sentiment occurs : 

41. elol Si rivtg ; ovk tSS dxpifitis rovvofia. 
2rrP£n. fnpifivo^yTiaral icaXoi re icdyaOol' 
41. alpoi, Trovnpol y\ olSa' rove oXajovac, 
rove tixpwyratf rove awiro2fpt>ve Xeyecei 
Jv o KOKoiaifuav SuMcpanye kcu Xtupefay, 

5. 2iaKpdrfiy irepi rove Oiovg fiif ota^yuy. Give some account 
of the religious opinions of Socrates as given by Plato in the 
'AiroXoyca, or by Xenophon in these Memoirs. What was the fom|i 
of the inditement as stated by Xenophon and Plato ? 


6. Mention the most eminent followers and discipl^es of Soeratesi. 
What great revolution in philosophy was effected by him 1 What 
does Cicero say respecting it ? Mention the chief sects of philosophy 
which sprang up after the death of Socrates. By whom were they 
severally founded ? 

7. Plato's name occurs once in the Memotahtlia, Is he men> 
tioned elsewhere in the works of Xenophon ? In what terms 
does Plato speak of Xenophon ? To which of these two writers 
are we to trust for the real sentiments and conversations of 
Socrates ? 

8. i ^KpanCf iyti rol tn fiiy hUanov yofilSu^ tro^y de oi)^* oirtMr' 
riovy.— Why does Antipho acknowledge the integrity but deny the 
wisdom of Socrates ? By what arguments does Xenophon defend 
Socrates in the alleged misconduct of Cridas and Alcibiades 1 

9. cTCidii yap dtf/ppeOrifuy rd iy rp vwepopl^ Knifiora, iy H rgf 
'Amxp o wanjp fwv ov^iy KariXiirey, What do you imderstand by 
ihrepopla ? Describe accurately the situation of Athens by map or 

10. irapd TO ZUatoy Kord-^^yafuy. Explain the usual sense 

of irapa in composition with verbs. Give the derivations of the 
following words : ^eXsa^ofuya, hffftairovfjL€ya, cLpfioyla, ervyrofuararoc, 

IK Explain the formation of the second persons singular, rvrqh 
ervnrov, irvyp^ ; what were the words originally ; and how were 
they brought into their present form ? 

12. Distinct classes of Greek substantives are formed from the 
first, the second, and the third persons of the perfect passive of the 
verb. Explain their significations in each case respectively. From 
what other parts of the verb are substantives derived 1 Give in- 
stances in every case. 

13. Translate the following into Greek : 

'*Men of Assyria, it now behoves you to be brave men. 
For now the contest will be for your lives, and for the land in which 
ye were bom, and for the houses in which ye were bred up, and for 
your wives also and children, and for all the valuable things which 
ye possess. For, indeed, if conquerors, you as before will be masters 
of all these things: but, if conquered, be assured that you will 
surrender all these things to the enemy : standing firm, therefore^ 
fight as men desirous of victory." 




Sine ColL 1811. 

!• When was Demosthenes born? At what age did his political 
life commenoe? How long, nearly, did he direct the politics of 
Athens? Who were his chief political adversaries? Relate the 
occasion and nuumer of his death. 

£• Mention briefly the peculiar excellence and defects of De- 
mosthenes as an Orator, according to QuintiUan or Longinu^. 

S. Mention the time of Philip's birth; also the time and manner 
of his death. Describe his character. Note briefly the most 
remarkable transactions of his reign, with their dates. 

4. Draw a map of Macedonia, including Amphipolis, and the 
.Chalcidic region* Point out the country occupied by the founders 
of the Macedonian kingdom ; the territories which had been subse- 
quently acquired in the time of Thucydides ; and the acquisitions 

5. Mention the dates and occasions of the Olynthiacs. In what 
Assembly were they pronounced ? State the amount of the force of 
Olynthus ; also, of the aid voted by Athens in consequence of these 

6. Give a short historical account of Amphipolis and, Olynthus, 
with the dates of the principal events: and shew the importance 
and value of these places to Philip. 

7. When did the age of Military Service commence and cease at 
Athens? what were the penalties of neglecting it? When, and by 
whom* was the practice of raising mercenary troops first introduced? 

8. Olynth. ii. 5. No/io6erac Kadiarart. What was the office of 
the Nofii^deroi ? State the process observed in the repeal or altera- 
tion of laws. 


9. State the sources of the public revenues at Athens. Explain 
the terms ^/mk, elofopal, reXif, rifnifuiraf furoixtoy. What was the 
amount of the contributions levied on the confederates of Athens 
according to the assessment of Aristides? what was it in the time 
of Pericles ; and of Demosthenes ? 

10. Olynth. ii. 5. \eyw 5c rovg irepl r«v Betapuciiy irlovQ 

(vofwvc BC.) What were the Laws here alluded to? By whom 
were they introduced, and on what occasion repealed 1 

11. Olynth. ii. 6. ov fidpfiapos{if[KiTiro{:) ; For what reason 

is Philip thus denominated? Is similar language respecting him 
used by Demosthenes on any other occasion ? Whence were the 
Royal family of Macedon derived ? Was their claim to the privi- 
leges of Greeks ever solemnly acknowledged before the time of 
Philip? By what event was Philip placed at the head of the 
Hellenic body? 

12. What was the capital defect of the Athenian constitution as 
settled by Solon 1 In what respects principally* had it declined 
from his model in the time of Demosthenes ? 

18. Explain the terms ^OKifiaala* irfM>/3ovX£v/Aa* /SovXcvnic 
Xaxcoy, — iiriXa^wv. Also, Xeirovpylat* ffvfifxoplai' dyrlioaig, 

1 4. Into how many gradations is the Attic Dialect usually divided? 
To which dass do the Speeches of Demosthenes belong ? Enume- 
rate some of the distinctions between the old and new Attic ; and 
explain the meaning of the term Koivrj {laXcrroc. 

15. *Eyia yap, w ay^peg 'A6]|ya7oi, ai^^pa ay tiyovfifir Kal 

avTOQ 0o/3€po V elyaif Kal Oavfiaaroy roy <&/Xcinro»', cl ra ^Ixaia irpdmy" 
ra itipiay avToy i]vl,rifjiyoy' yvy 5e QvopiSy kox mcoirwy ivpLvKhiy rriy fiiy 
fjfuripay itfiiBeiay roKarap^de, 8t€ *0\vyBiovc dmiXavyoy Tiyec lyQiyht 
j3ovXo/i£ vovc ijfiiv ZiaKt^fifiyaiy rf rrjy 'A/k^/xoXiv i^tTKtiy trapaZtofniy, 
KoX Tf TO BpvXXovfuyoy wore dir6^rfroy tKiiyo KaravKtwiaai, ruvTf 
irpotrayofuyoy' rrjy ^ *0\vyditay ^iKlay fjterd ravra, rf Tlorlhaiay, 
olaay fjfurepayt ii/E^iiy, Kai rove f^^y Tporipoy trvfifuixovQ ij/iac 
d^iKfjaai, ircLpalovyai Si ixelyoiQ' GcrraXovc Si yvy rd TiXevrma tf 
Mayyrifflay TopaZwtreiy vvoaytaBai^ koX roy ^utKiKoy irokEfioy vwip 
*avrctf V TToXe/iii^fiv dyaSiiiaoOaC SKuc Si ovStlc iariy, iyriy ov wtftpd^ 
fOKtv tKziyoQ ray avrf ^priaafiiyuy. Translate this passage into 
English ; and give a short account of the circumstances alluded to 
in the former part of it* vis. from Srt *0\vvBlovs .... to vomrf 



16. Translate into EngliBh this passage : el fUp yap wf 

4fuiy wnffdivreg drdKorro rov iroXe/ioy* ff^oXcpol trvfifiaypiy koI fuxpi 
rov ravT av cyyiMCorec Jifrav Xv^t^' iireiSri ^ Ik tuv xpoc avrovg cyicXij- 
fuirufv yiioovm, /Se/Bcuav thoig njv iyOfiav avrovc v^cp <3v (^^ovrroL 
Kol imrovSatnv ix'^^» 

vponeworai r^c ^apavrlKa ff Sov^c «wi X*V*'*ff '^ '^ff "^* 
Xcwcxpdy/4arcu-~Translate this. Explain the force of T/90«reirorai| 
and illustrate it from Pindar ; and from another passage of Demos- 
thenes where it is similarly used. 

— ^-^- if wptini vpo^nt Kol fwcpov irraiafia aratra dvexcU- 
rim Kal htikvaey. Translate this, and explain the force of dyexairive. 

Sine ColL et atmo, 

1. In what year, of the life of Demosthenes, and of the reign of 
Philip ; in what Olympiad ; and in what year before Christ ; were 
these orations spoken ? What was the state of Greece at that 

S. Give a short history of Olynthus. State from Demosthenes 
its force, when at war with Sparta, and when besieged by Philip. 
Explain the motives of the siege, and the immediate cause of its 
event; and translate the following passage: "Yir^pxov 'OXvv6ioc 
Zvvaiilv Ttva KtKrrifjiivoi, kcU ^uKeiff ovrta rd irpdy/iara' ovte i^iXvtnrog 
iBd^ei rovTOVQ, ovff ovroi $/Xt?nrov. 

S. Draw a sketch of the coast from Athens to Thrace, marking 
the position of Amphipolis, Magnesia, Methone, Olynthus, Pagasa, 
Pherae, Potidsea, Pydna, &c. Add an account of such among the 
above places as were Athenian settlements ; and explain the con- 
nection between a Greek colony and its mother state. 

4. Give a summary, accompanied with dates, of the events by 
which the Athenians, Lacedaemonians, Thebans, and Macedoniansi 
acquired in succession the sovereignty of Ghreece. And reconcile 
the statements given in different passages of Demosthenes respecting 
the durafticm of the Athenian power. 


5. Explain the ongm and extent of the appellation "EXXiyi^ec ; 
and shew from history that the Macedonians were long accounted 
fidpfiapou Mention the most distinguished Kings of Macedon before 
Philip; and relate briefly the principal incidents of his reign. 

6. Oia ii^ w€pl avrov orret Hvoif koI xcj^ercupoc^ 2o£ay fuv ij(p»etyi 
tic ^Ivi BavfmoToi iral ffvyxeKpanifMiroi rd rov iroXi/iov. Translate and 
explain this passage. Describe briefly the Macedonian Phalanx ; 
quote the lines of Homer supposed to have suggested its fonnatioo ; 
and compare it with the Roman Legion. 

7. Who were the first mercenaries ? When did the Athenian 
citisens first receive pay» and at whose suggestion? What were the 
fiinds for this purpose ? How and by whom were these funds 
misapplied? and what were the laws respecting them to which 
Demosthenes alludes ? 

8. Describe the origin and division of the Athenian laws ; the 
precautions taken in revising and repealing them ; and the regular 
method of proposing a new law, with the danger attending it. 

9. Mijv fiiv fy McupucqipWy r. r. X. Explain the methods of 
computing time, in use among the Greeks ; and state the Attic 
divisions of the year and month. 

10. Describe the nature of the offices eia^opat and rpirffHMft)(lai ; 
the manner of procuring exemption firom them, the methods of sup- 
plying them, particularly the division into avfifwpiai ; and specify 
the improvements suggested by Demosthenes. 

11. Give an account of the early studies, the preceptors, and 
the rivals of Demosthenes. Describe his style, and compare it 
with that of Cicero, quoting the sentiments of the ancient critics. 

1st, Give 'the derivation and import of irapiiKpovofieyoct irc^va- 
mice, dye\alruret ^t^fpdrai, irporcirorac, vvoanikaaBaif dinifniKOTuy, 
mOcXxccv, dwxippKirroCf dyrlfi^oiroy, dXvnreXicf d^opfiii, eVicoci^c* 
n|yaXXwc» KOfAi^pf 7rapa')(fnjfuu — Point out the effect of the preposi- 
tions in dmyyoyraQf ivtyiyyofxeyoif iy^th Tpovhel, waptararai, xopa- 
iovyai, ficraXajSecy, Trep/ecrrc, iripiypvifUyoi, virtpeKTtirkrfyfiivoi, And 
shew the force of the middle verb in ^y€i(oftai» yl^ii^ltraoOai^ diaSat 
yofwyt and Xoyovc irouiaBcu, 

18. Translate accurately the following passages, and explain 
their grammatical construction : 

UoKiwy Kol roiroiy, iy ^fuy ttoti icvpioi, falyeadat TpoU^yovc^ 


iloXXiyv ^ Tijy ixirdaratnv koI fuydkriy hikriov n}v fieTafioXrjv, ii<r- 
^ipoyraCf k. r. X. 

'Excc^dv ^e Sfiopot iroKeftOQ ffVfiirXcurp, irovra ivoiiiny iichriKa. 

OvK £ VI 8* avrJv dftyovvra^ omit toTc ^Xocc itrirdTTUv iwrcp awov r« 
irotecv, fii/ tI yt Itj toIq BeoIc, 

E« 2e, role /i€K, fc^cnrcp cV rvpavv/2oc» v/n3v c^irarrcii' dwoBia<r£Te, 
TOic ^c, K. r. X. 

"AXXwc t£ Kal Tovrov fwvov irtpiyiyyetrSai ^eXXoiTOc- 

Ov yap dXXorpioig vfuv ')(p^fuvoiQ TtipahlyfiaffiVf aXX' oeirecotCi — 
ivliilfwmv e&ffrc yeriadai. 

*Av y aVaXwffOc X«6ff, ffwavaXwonE koI to ^fiyijffBtu rp rwxj? "?•' 


T«v aTtwrwTorwv /icvr' av ctii, €« o vwi», avoiav otfXurKdytay, BfiiaQ 

iicKoLKEif ravra IvyfiBtls ftij vpditu 

14. Translate the annexed passage into English or Latin : 
Tore /Licv lij Tovro y • 

Kol Xiipovc* Olynth. ii. (iii.) c. 8, 9. 

Sine CoU. et anno. 

1. Give an account of the origin and principal events of the 
Sacred War. Point out particularly the time when Philip engaged 
in it, and the reasons which he'assigned for his interference! Men- 
tion also what force the Athenians sent to this war ; and give the 
date of the several eventsl 

2. What was the Athenian fohn of government in the time of 
Demosthenes ? Trace the several changes which took place in the 
government of this State» from the time of its foundation, until it 
became subject to the Romans. ' 

S, How was the council of Amphictyons formed ? By whom was 
it instituted ? How often did it meet, and where ? What descrip* 
tion of offences came under its cognizance ? When did the au- 
thority of this assembly decline ? and when did it whoDy cease ? 

4. What date does Dionysius of Halicamassus assign to the 

first Philippic ? and from what facts in the Oration does it appear 

that he is not correct in his opinion ? When is it probable that it 

was spoken ? 



5. Ti rpoc Tovrmg trt ; rax^iac tfHiipuc Biica* Set yap* exomg ixtivov 
vavrixov koI raxeuSy rpuiptay iffiiv» Sir^ dfft^oXJc «y ivya^ '^'p* 
Supply the ellipsis in this passage, and state from whence Philip 
obtained a naral force. Mention some of the various uses of the 
conjunction of amongst the Grreek Orators; and illustrate your 
remarks by examples. 

6* Ttav d* virep rwF rijfc irciXfwc tcrfifidr^y ayftfri^o/icvwv McyeXoo*^ 
imrapx^'iy. Where is it most probable that the troops here referred 
to were stationed ? Give your reasons for your opinion. What 
was the difierence between rciiapxp^t ^Xopxo^i ^'^ iwwofiXpQ f 
How many were there of each? What were their respective 
offices ? and by whom were they elected ? 

7. Give an account of the ILzFaO^raia and Atorvwia majora. 

8. What were the duties of the.xopirWc« yvfiwaeiapxpc and rpi4p^ 
apxo^ ? From what rank of men in the state were these officers 
chosen ? What was the qualification requisite for a Trierarch 1 and 
who were excused from serving the office ? Give an account of the 
Sacred Gallies. 

9. Xpfifiora rolyoy^ iari /icv ij rpo^if , {tnrtipiirioy nnc trrparevofuyoiQ 
IJtivov) rjj hiydfui ravrp rdXayra iyyeyifKOKra ical fuxpoy ri irpoc* ^xa 
ftiy vavoi ra\£laiQ rerrcLpdicoyTa roXavra* iiKony dc nfv yaSy ftvai 
TO¥ i^ivit o ffrparitirmt Bi ^TXJ^Kiots rotravff ercpa, tva Hica roO /tij|rac 
6 crrporuJnfc BpaxpaQ mnf^ctov Xufifidvfi, 

TVanslate this passage, and mention the respective vahies of a 
drachma, mina, and talent 

10. What were the privileges of UoXirtfQ, Mirouco^f Mvo^ and 
AovKo^'i Does it appear that the SUves in Athens had greater 
privileges than those of the other Grecian States ? if so, enumerate 

11. Sketch a map of Macedon, and of so much of ancient Greece 
as comprehends Thessaly, Phocis, Boeotia, and Attica. Particularly 
determine the situation of Methone, Pydna, Olynthus, PotidsBs, 
Pagasae, and Thermopylae ; insert also the islands Lemnos, Hak>- 
nesus, and Tenedos. 

12. On what occasion did Dismosthenes pronounce the first 
Olynthiac oration? and what consequences resulted from it 
respect to the Ol3mthians ? 


IS, Nvi' Zi AcwyMV kuI tnunrmw evfdmu n|v fur ^furipar tvnOtiap 
ro Kor* of^c Ste *0\ov6lo»t dinikam^ ni^cc itSirit /SovXa/uiyovc <f ftly 

rofc dtrS^Ufpotf ixiuvo KartuncsvaatUi rovrf wpomyofuvop, Tltaslate 
this senteiioe, and mention bn what oecaaion the Olynthiana sent 
the embassy to whn^h Demosthenes alludes^ and what was tl^ cause 
of the bad reception with which the embassadors met 

14. ExpUdn the meaning of the word ittiircupog^ and giv^ an 
account of the dbnathiction of the Macedonian Phalanx. 

15. *Eiifi i' avrd ctiO* avhx rd (evota vjjuv orparevermf rwg ^iXout 
vtK^ fful tovc bffif»^ixpvSi Of f i')fipol fid(ov£ Tov Eeoyroc yeyovatu 
Quote the passage from Plutarch (in Vitft Phocian.) that relates to 
this cifCttBitftatice : also that from Demosthenes' oration vcpi, <rviTa{eii)Cf 
where he makes a similar complaint against a mercenary force. 

16. *AXX* inlpo Octvfia j^w ■ * 

-^Spyoy Tovr {^.^-^Olynth. i. (ti.) c. 9. 

Translate the above passage^ and mention to what circumstances 
Demosthenes alhides in the beginning of it. 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1822. 

1. Translate and explain the following passage : 

Ssevus et ilium 

Exitus eripuitt quern mirabantur Athenss 
Torrentem, et pleni moderantem frena theatri. 
Diis ille adversis genitus &toque sinistro^ 
Quem pater ardentis masssB fuligine lippus 
A carbone, et forcipibuSi gladibsque parant^ 
Incude, et luteo Vulcano ad Rhetora misit. 
In what respect does the latter part difier from the commonly 
received account, and from that which Demosthenes has given of 
himself? tVho was the pfeceptor of Demosthenes in oratory? 
With what dther orators of note was he contemporary t What 
character does Cicero give of him and of the orators ot his age ^ 

2. What are the three different styles of composition according to 
Dionysius Halicamassensis ? What poetical and prose writers does 


he mention as examples, of each ? What is his opinion of the style 
of Demosthenes? What are the principal points of diflPerence be- 
tween the style of Demosthenes and that of Cicero ? 

$• Give a brief account of the transactidns of Philip's reign which 
preceded and led to these orations. What were the views of the 
two political parties at this time existing at Athens, and who were 
the leading men in each ? 

4. What are the different opinions concerning the chronol<^;ical 
order in which these orations ought to stand ? What reasons are 
there for placing them as they stand in Mounteney's edidon? 
What are the reasons for supposing the latter part of the first 
Philippic to be a separate oration ? 

5. What changes did the Attic dialect undergo ? Who were the 
principal writers in each ? What additions were made to the Al- 
phabet after the time of Solon ? At what period were the additional 
letters first used in the public records ? Lysias states diat the 
fdlowing words which occur in Solon's lawis were obsolete in his 
time : ^fKurKoieiyf iriopictiv (to swear,) dtrCXXiiyf m^fffUvt^^ irvXci- 
ffdai (to walk). What words were then in use instead of these ? 

6. What was the difference between the fUffSwol and Uvoil 
Where did the former principally come firom ? When did the age 
for military service begin, and when end ? What was the daily pay 
of those who served in the navy ? 

7. What were the names of the two sacred Triremes, and for 
what particular purposes were they used ? Were there ever any 

8. 01 irpoeXifXvOcv dmXyelaQ avOptawot- Explain the construction 
of this passage. 

MifiimioBt or dirriyyiXBii ^/XiTnroc. 

What does or stand for here ? Give the reasons of yodr opinion. 

In each case quote instances of similar constructions from Greek 
and Latin writers. 

^ Explain the following phrases : aio^vriy iJ^Xifjrarc, iviaroXifAaiovc 
^vydfuitf dyamiffac rocc irtirpayfuyoigf ^olytaBai KpoUjU^ovc, ^alyi" 
oBcu wpote<yd(u» 

Give the meanings and derivations of the foUowing words: 
ntpiaroixliofJUUf ^yaxlfw, Xiairo^vrriCt dya')(air(iiwf vapaKpovofiaif 
ntZiratpoip ffvyKCicporrifuyoi, 


9. 01. II. §. 6. TTEpl iy ay ypo^, al. irepl iy ay ypdfrf. " 
Translate it each way. 

§.8. ri vfiiy \apieoiiaii al. 'j^apltKufAOi. 
§. 10. ro«c lii/fiiy ifwoveiy^ rd rwy voiriaoyruty vifuiy^ al. 

In each case which reading is best, and why ? 

10. Translate literally the following passages into English. 

Kairoi ri Sijworc, i avZptQ AOi^vaioi, yofjd(tre 

TrpoairoXjuXiy i^ a ay iiarXeiafiey, Phil. i. c. 11. 

£1 /i€v yap rcc dyijp ioriv iy avroiQ (a) oToc ifATretpos voXifunf ical 

dywy^y, * Xotirovc ^rj ircpi avroy elyai Xgerrdc ical K^Kcuiag Kal 

rotovrovc dydptirovQ (6) oiovc fAeBvoBivrag 6p)((uoBai rouivTa ola cyw 

yvy OKVU irpoc Vfiac oyoftdaai, ^rovrovc dyair^, ical TripH avroy 

£Xei. Olynth. i. (ii.) c. 7. 

(1) rwi' IlayaOvyi'a/afFr Give an account of the institution and 
celebration of these festivals. 

(2) MeOiayriy—llayaadt'^Uori^atay, Descnbe accurately the 
position of these places. 

(d) XoprryoQ i TvfiyafflapxoQ. Explain the duties of these 

What was the nature of the dyriioeeis as established by 
Solon T What alteration was afterwards made res- 
pecting them ? Who were the furoucot, and what 
were their privileges and duties ? 
(a) and (6.) Explain the construction of oloc in the two 
passages referred to. 
1 1 . Accentuate, and translate accurately into Latin, the following 

£c ie ric vfuv exj^t acou ra Btrnptxa i^y icai mpovc crepovc Xfyccv 
arparikn'tKOVc ov\ ovroc lepecTTWv tiTOi nc ^y ^fU eywye airep iony w 
av^pec Adrivatoi aXKa 6ixvfia(t0 ec rf irore ayBpt^ww if y€yov€y if 
ytytltrtTOx ay ra wapoyra ayaXtiferfi irpoQ a fiti Sec niy ancoyt^y cinro- 
pfioai irpo^ a 2ei. 


CLARE HALL, 1892. 

1. Into what three kinds are speeches in general distinguished? 
Of which kind is the fin^t Philippic ? What is the rule conceming 
the prosmiiun of this (ort of speech ? What is the date of the first 
Philippic ? Oa what o^caa^on yr^ >t spoken ? What are the ob- 
jeotiona agws^ caw^^pog it 9 single oration ? 

ft^ Who w^re th^ chi^f atat^fp^ at Athens at the time when fhe 
fir^t Philippic WM sppkei^ luid what were their respective views in 

9* M ^*bi^ time» apd on what occasion was the first Olynthiac 
oration made ? 

4. Give an accouat of the origin and conduct of the Sacred War. 

5. What part had Macedonia taken in the general affairs of 
Greece previously to the time of PhiVp ? How was Philip situated 
on his first accession to the throne ? 

6. Give an account of the city of Olynthuf ; explain ficra Aoure- 
hoiiioviiuy OcXiinrDv irparreiv n|v nay Qtifiauav caraXvoriv, koX rag toXi- 

7* ^plaiD rovrocv cutc^/ti^ nHovficO(^--cl«rc^cf»crc Kara wfifio-' 
f^flc• When waa pay first givei^ (o the Athenian troops ? What 
was fjuoBog eWeXiyc? Wbat was ike value of the talent, mina, 
draff lffi|i 1 WIh> F^re the ra£«^o^ ^rpornyoh fvKofxoi, imrapxoi ? 

S, Describe the situadona of Pydna« Potidaea, Methone, Olyn- 
ihun, Aropkipoliii Py]«^. 

9. Give the life of Demosthenes. 

la Tr«|aila|e and e^phip Iff parallel qcpressions, or otl^rwise : 

d fwv wy ^eoErq*^ k«u wore ry ^vq^ut^ aropa ror xaipov 6 rowrvy 
Kvptoe mnwroiQ vf* v/Mny /Soiri^vecr^ — orf fii|y <iXX' cenoc ovj^ li^ea 
aV-ottEi>^— ovSfy ay my v¥r% iw^e^Vfv, iwpafyp — wufQ ravr idiXjimrt 
wouiy ; — VTopx** ^ ^f^^ x^^H^^ /"*' XP^** H^ ^»^|«« A^/ty^ «u 
GaflTfi— roic Tyeufuun ro iroXXa wpokafifiayiay havparrerai 6 ^tXtrwot 
— iravra hni/^hikuBtP oic wportpov ira^HUcpovoiuvog fuyag yvy tnif^ — 
Koipov fuy iff irpoc itwro jraptem OcXiinry ra irpayfrnra — raXaviriapov- 
tnv ovr iVi ToiQ ipyoiQ, ovr cVi roig avrtay ihotg eutfityoi ^larpi^iy — 
ycXwc itrff, wc XP^^A**^^ ''^ic irpayfiatnv^ 


11. Put into Greek ''opes impenditift, ut obtineant — opes im- 
pendistis, ut obtinerent ;'* and explain iVa oi aXXoc ryf^wn nav 
hiKmmv^ ra vfurepa avrtiv tiyrfKuncere ; also put into Greek ''Si 
Philippus banc mentem babuisset, niliil egisset." Put into Latin ov 
yap iariy aprj^iy, ftri hhtrra fMUfBoy^ and ov yapifrriv <jpxc4v,'oJ It^vra 

19. Point out and explain the peculiarities in the following con- 
structions, and give similar ones : 

tivirip rove irefovc» rov avTOr rpoftrov orpareyofuwovQ — up re ietvoi 
Xax^vtv, dp n I^c*rrac ol rovmty ewifMMkiiaofuyoi'-^T a^ifXiMc ovVc rocc 
oiro rovruy ifiavrf yeyrfWffuvoiQ-'^y vfiun^ avmy iOek/ffftire y§yte6ai 
'^woKXiiy hf niy fieraaramy mtc fuyaXr/y itticrtoy fuwaf^Xiiy^ elfr^epoy- 
rac» — c{io»mci oiravra irocovvrac croi/i4v» elirtp nf vfuy trponJijEi row 
Vfiw^il riQ dyifp ifniy oloc iftiretpo^ woXifAOv. 

Id. Give the derivations of elpMyaa, KanppadvfiTiiuya^ vVepi|^* 
n»vc, wpooTtptfiaKXiTiUf wtpiaroixi^erai, ^trifpcviOK, wpoairoiovfudat 
aadpaf irapaKpovofuvotf Xtnra^vrvy. 

14. Passages to be translated. 


(EzplslD throughout all hiftoricsl aUatioiii, idioiBt sod l«w Urms.) 

A. Translate (a) Kai Xvtiy ye rove yopuovq 6ti rovrovg avrovc 
diuniy oivip Kal rtddKOffC ov yap im-i iixawy rrjy piy xapty, if waaay 
ifiikayj^e rfjy icoKiy, role roVe dueiy vrapx^iy* rrjy ^ dwiyBuay, ^i ^ 
axairec ay ofuiyay vpdiaifuy, rf rvy rd fiikrurra iMyri iiifday 

(6) Nvv It Bevp^y xal trmwAy evplmm, nqy liiy lifuripay ewiOttayTo 
KOT* dpxP^Q Sre *OXwO(ove dmiXavyoy rwit iyOiyh fiovXofiiyovs rifiiy 
ZiaXi^^y^h ^f Wi^ *\fifiiro\iy ^(rttty wapahaetiy ceU rf dpvXXovfU" 
vw wort TO dvo^ip-oy eVcivo KaratrKevd^atf rovrf wpoaayofuyoy njv 
f 'OXvyBltty ^iXJay lurd ravra, rf Uorliatay ovaay vfitiipay c^cXeik 
KoX rove ficv wporepoy ^vfifuixo^ v/uae dSgr^mxc, wapa^vvtu ^ ixtiyoiQ, 

1. What at this time were the sources of the Athenian revenue ? 

2. Point out the relative situations of Olynthus, Potideua, Pydna, 
and Amphipolis. 


3. What is the latitude of AmphipoliSf of Byaantium, Sparta, 
Corindi, and Syracuse ? 

B. Trace concisely the history of Amphipolis, during the hundred 
years following its colonization. 

C WJiat is the Constitution which Mitford has given to the 
Macedonians? What are his authorities? How far do they 
support him? To what conclusion respecting the government of 
Macedon are you conducted hy its history? 

i). Trace the connection between the Athenian philosophers 
and the kings of Macedon. Does it appear to have influenced the 
Macedonian policy ? On what occasions* and to what extent ? 

E. About what year before Christ, did Demosthenes take the 
lead in the Republic ? What public oration did he deliver nearly at 
that time ? and what afVerwards, and on what occasions ? By whom 
was he usually supported ? and by whom opposed 1 

F. (a) In what order do you believe the Olynthiacs to have 
been delivered ? On what occasions ? Give your reasons. (6) 
What is the distinguishing character of each of them 1 Is there 
internal evidence that any of them produced any practical effect, 
(c) In what year were they delivered? What was the fate of 
Olynthus ? (d) What public orations had Demosthenes delivered 
before them ? 

G. Explain and illustrate (a) rivos irtxa yofjU(er€ rouroy fiiv 
^vyuv TOY vokefwv wdvras oaovc iv ixTiftylnfre trrpaniyovQp i^iq, 5* 
€vpl<rK€iy iroXtfwvg ; 

(6) yofwOirag KaBLvTort^ iv le rovroiQ rocc yofwOirait ^ij BfjffSe 
yofwy iiffiiva, 

(c) Tf Tfjy tKtiyov \Apay kukAq iroictv Kiii rpnipem koI OTparuariut 

(d) oiraiQ iyBey^e ^rfiriotrtm , 

(e) TovTov hi jreaoyroQf ^/Ximroc d oScX^c ^M^pdi eV rqfc ofiripelaQ 
irapiKafie njv PaofKuay. 

H. ' wemiyiyai. (a) Is it true that this tense has never a middle 
signification) Which of the middle tenses is most properly so 
called ? What is the usual sense of the future middle ? Is the 
perfect passive ever used in the middle sense ? What is the proper 
sense of the paulo post futurum ? Give instances. 


(6) 1. 0( pifrop€g Xafifidytiy fUy ovk tiwyf diroXa/3ciF ^£ 
IvytliovXevoy. 2. Ovt iitl roig avniy Ihiouc ififuyoi itarpijieiyt 
W& oa aywopltnun ravr iypvrt^ iiadivdai, d. £i yap avrdpni 
rd ^ni^afiora ^y, i/ v/iac dyayKaieiy d wpoaiiK€i wpdrreiy, ^ inpl 
iy ypdi^i ^lawpd^affSaif ovt ay, &c. 4. Acicaffrac ^e fieraiv 
rovrtay Kad'^trdai' ovg cttciS^ ^laiucdfreiay roig fiiy Succdcvc 
iceXcvetv iropevc06ai Trjy c2c Sc^cav r€ xal dyia &a rov oi/pavov. 
In construing the above, account in each case for the use of the past 
and present infinitives. 

(c) 1. no y4p Tovc iroXc/xifffovrac ^cX/inry yeyeyrjoSai hvufwyl^ 
Ttyl ioiK€y citpytalq,. Give instances of a similar use of the article. 
S. To rov 6c/ic(rr(McX£ovc.. • •, oq rf Z€pi^/|> Xoc^opov/icvy. &e» 
Why does Cicero translate this — Seriphio cuidam ? 

K. Translate and explain (a) ovKovy hriKXiipiav Ktd Sp^ywy ical 
Tuy TOKiiav vpoffriraicrai rf ap\oyri iirifiiKuffBai. *AXXa ytj Ata mpd 
rf jSaffiXcI ; aXX* ovk itrfiiy yv^yiurltipxpi ovS* dtrtfiilaQ ov^iya ypa^ 
^da. 'AXX* 6 woXifuipxpc eloofec ; Airoarturiov ye koX dirpofn-aaiov, 
OvKovy vvoXoaroyitrrtyol arpaniyol' aXXa rove rpiripapxcv^ KaSurrdtnr 
oShvi £i<rdyovT€g cic ro iiKaanipioy* ifAjropuajy 2e ^licrfy ov^efUay ay 

(6) "Eri rolyvy iwi ro niy ^tafunprvpovynay fitpo^ oirt ^uccumipia 
^y ay, ovr oywvcc iyiyyoyro* KkiXvei ydp wdyra ravra ro rHv haftap' 
Tvpovyrwy yeVoc Ka\ dwoxkiUi cl ^aywy^c CKatrra rfjc elc r6 ^iMurrt/pioy^ 
Kara ye r^y rov ^lafMprvpovyroQ fiov\ti<ny. 

(c) KoXet rovg ftdprvpaf trv S* iwCKape rS ^8»p» 

£. Translate ^^iy H rcc elire»^, i dylipcg 'AOi^yoIo^, mv Xeyorv, ovx 
vfttiy rvy iroXXiSv, ciXXa rvy ita^fiffyyvfiiyt^y, el ravra yiy^trai' 
T/ f vfiiy dtrd'Tdy ^rifioaOiyovc Xoyc^v ayaOor irore yiyovey; Bs 
wapekdiiy vfiMy^ 6ray aVry ^^f iyhckriire rd ira Xiy^y koI hiovpt rd 
wapovra rovs irpoydvovc ivatyioat, ical fiere«i»p^oac koc ^v^^oc vfiac 
Kartell. What were the material points of change in the Athenian 
character from the time of Pericles to that of Demosthenes ? Give 
two or three of the leading causes of that change. 

M. What events immediately preceded the treaty of Antalcidas ? 
What were (a) its hasis, (V) its object, (c) its date ? 


St. JOHN'S COLL. 1828. 

1. Describe the character of Philip as we can coUect it from the 
implied confessions of Demosthenes himself in these orations, the 
express testimony of Isocrates, and his own acknowledged actions. 

2. Demosthenes speaking of Philip asks ov fiap^apoQ ; answer 
this questioiif mentioning from whom the Royal Family of Mace- 
donia derived its origin, and upon whose authority its daim to 
high antiquity of descent rests. Can you allege any fair grounds 
for the belief that the question was intended to refer to his conduct 
and characters rather than his birth? 

d« Give the character of the democratical party at this time in 
Athens, and describe the means whereby it endeavoured to excite 
the hostility of the people against Philip. With what party did 
Demosthenes coH>perate when delivering these orations ? Give from 
his owA works a ihori sketch of his character as a statesman, an 
orator, and a man. 

4. State the general principle acted upon by the Greek states in 
their dealing with each other, and mention under what circumstances 
they deemed it necessary to have respect to justice. How does 
Demosthenes exhort the Athenian people to act in this particular, 
and on what grounds does he justify his advice ? Explain his ex** 
pression ri £Mi|yaca S^xato, and state upon what he asserts them to 

6t i»aAinucniplm¥y iKorofsfialtay, ficrayecrWwv, fioviSpofUiar. 

Giy« tbfi namea of the Roman months in the time of Demosthenes 
which conespond to the Athenian months here mentioned. Were 
theset taken in the order in which Demosthenes places them, parts 
of the same year ? If not^ point out those which were consecutive, 
and the whole time comprehended by them all. 

6. Ufionpop fiiv Kara cvfi^uiplaQ iive^perCf vvr ii iraXirrvcd^c 
Kara irvfifwplaQ, ^^ ijyefuiy Kal orparriyos viro rovrf, koI d 
porfoofuvoi fuO" iKariptav rpiaKoetoi. 

Translate this passage. What were the ^v/iz/iopeac, and how many 
in number 1 Give the explanation of pijrwp rtytfuiv ra2 arparnyoi 


vttS TovTf, and state the cause which gave occasion to this arrange- 
ment, and the person by whom it appears first to have been adopted. 
Who are meant by the oi rptaxoauHf and how were they selected ? 

7. oJ liffv dXX* iwutxHc <S iyifnc Adifvaloi rovfff S hwiux^ioTaroy 
ion Twv ^iXlinrov irpaypirwy, col fieKrurror ttftly, 

IVanshite this, and explain the expression ov fvijv oXXcJ, illus- 
trating it by similar combinations of particles. 

8. No(^ovc dwoarivmc waptoniffayro [oi ABtfrdtoi], 
Ao{a fUH irap€(rralBfi, 

Translate these expressions, confirming the sense of the verb in 
each case by corresponding passages from the Olyndiiacs. 

Give also its meaning in the phrase raploraadai o^yjj, 

9« XO. Tolov ypSvov H koX Wiw6p0iirai iroXic « 

KA. rjfc y^i^ rcjcovffiic ^C Tof ei^povriQ Xiyv, 

Translate these lines, and explain the meaning of the word Xiyw, 
producing a correspondmg usage of it from Olynth. I. 

10. Translate into Greek Prose : 
^ It would be unjust, as well as imprudent, to lay it down as a 
principle, that those who honestly and bravely risk their Hves and 
fortunes in opposition to an invasion, and have suftred severely on 
account of that opposition, should meet with no relief from the 
public, especially when their preservation* or ruin depends upon 
that relief.** 




1. Compare the style and oratorical merits of ^schines and 

2* Mention the principal circumstances of the battles of Mara- 
thon, Chaeronea, and the Granicus, the situation of the places, and 
dates in Olympiads and years B. C. 

S. What was the duration of Philip's reign, the state of Mace- 
don at his accession, and the causes of the contests between him 
and the Athenians ? 


4. What were the chief circumstances of Demosthenes's life 
subsequent to the speaking of this oration ? 

5. In what respect does iEschines blame Demosthenes about the 
origin of the Phocian War ? How does the latter defend it ; and 
what b your opinion on the case 1 

6« What was the nature of the Amphictyonic Council ; and its 
influence and effect on the contest between Macedon and Athens ? 

7. To what cause can the slight resistance of Sparta to Phihp 
be attributed ? 

8. Give a short account of the legislative power at Athens, as 
established by Solon, the chief peculiarity, or restraint in the ex- 
ercise of it, and the probable reason thereof. 

9. What were the principal disadvantages of the Athenian 
government? Can its subjugation be wholly or in part attributed 
to them ? 

10. What was the effect of the Athenian form of government 
on the wealth and administration of the finances of the State ? 

11. Distinguish accurately between iliai and ypa^ii — r(|ii| and 
8o(a — yofiotf ^^fffia and wpofiovkEVfia, 

12« Uorepoy vfAiy fuoSfitros AiaxlniSt V ^£N02 tiyai 'AX££dv2pov 
^ofCEi — Hostis apud majores is dicebatur, quern nunc peregrmum 
didmus. Ctc. Cff. I. 12. What was the original meaning of Uroc ? 
can its secondary signification and that of ** hostis*' in Latin be at- 
tributed to any peculiarity in the state and situation of Crreece, and 
of Rome ? 

18, Give the precise meaning, and explain the peculiar construc- 
tion of the foUpwing passages : 

Kal ydp, ti fur O/Xnnroc ^X^* ^^ dwu^y. 

'H yap Cftif roXcrc/a, ^c oiroQ canyyopci, dvrl fUv rov Gi|j3a/iwp 
furd ^tkinrov ovytfiPdKuy tic r^y xa^payg fMsff vfMy (nffuraparaf/afU'' 
rovQ tttiyoy Kmkiay hrotiftrty, 

14. Passages to translate. 

ST. John's coll.. 221 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1821. 

1. At what time, and under what circumstances, was this suit 
instituted? What period ehipsed before it was brought to a 
decision ? What was the issue of it ; and how were the fortunes 
of JEschiaes affected by it ? Before what court was it tried ? At 
what age, and on what occasion did Demosthenes enter upon his 
political life ? Relate the circumstances of his death, and give the 
date of it ? What circumstance in the life of iBschines is alluded 
■to in the words irpayf^ei and vmoxfuvcrxu ? 

S. State briefly the important changes which took place in the 
Athenian form of government, from the time of Theseus to the 
expulsion of the thirty tyrants ; with the date of each. 

d« What was die arrangement of the defence proposed by ^s- 
chines ? And what was that which Demosthenes adopted 7 What 
probable reasons may be assigned for the former insisting upon, and 
the latter rejecting that proposed by iEschines? 

4. '£irl Mni^i^^v ap)^o>TOc, . ffiiyicXifrov e«KXj|(r/ac viro arparriywy 
YtvofuvfiCp icaX Upivrdyttitr icai BovX^c yvcJfui, MmimicniptiSroc iexdrff 
durloyros, ILdXKioOiyfic *lE(rtoylKov OaXijpevc elirc.. Translate this 

Grive an account of the annual Archons, their number, names, 
and several departments : of the ^paniyol : of the Pry tanes : and 
of the Senate here mentioned. 

Mention the different kinds of Athenian 'EKKKriolai ; and at what 
periods diey were assembled. 

How were the Athenian ;nonths divided ? What days of the 
month do you understand by the terms ^erarp dirloyros and evji kqI 
yea? What month in our calendar corresponds to the month 
Maimacterion? Explain the terms /ii}v vXi/pi^c and fAtjy iroiXoc. 
When did the Athenian year commence ? 

What was the original number of ^Xtd ? by whom and at what 
time were they increased? What were the A9/101 ? 

5. Translate accurately 

Kol ypo^c tit Toy dyQya roHroy wofKiyofAiayf ug vfudc eltriikdoyf 
Koi, dwi^yoy, xai to trkfnrroy fUpoQ r^y \l/^^y 6 ^uMkiy ovk cXa/3c» 


Kalroi wotra j(piifMara roric t/ye/idt^ac r<tf v avfifiopikirf vj rov^ ^vripovc, 
Kal rplrcvg oieaOi fwi ii^yai, wtrrt fidKiara ftiy |ify deiyai tov yofwy 
rovroy^ cl Si ftri, jcam/SdXoiTct ify iy vltyfiotHq. ; 

Explain the method of a judicial process at Athens, and the 
terms icXifropcCi trvyiiyopoit dytiyes, rifiriroi and drlfirfftxn. To which 
class did the action against Ktesiphon belong ? 

What is implied in the clause to irifiirroy fupoc, &c. 

Give an account of the trvfifwplcu. What alteration did Demos- 
thenes make in the law respecting them ? 

Explain accurately KarafiaXoyra ify iy vit^fWfflif. 

6. What are the peculiar significations of the middle voice ? In 
what tenses are these pecaliarides tnost evident; and in what 
tenses do they never appear? Illustrate yoUr remarks, by ex- 
plaining the following terms, wavut^, vavevBai — ^ctf^i^^fcv, hnyf/vf^ 
^Ze<ydat — detvac y6fwy, BlaBat yofwv — ypa^cy, ypdpioSai. 

7. Define accurately the meaning of the following tenses, 
'perfectum,' Mmperfectum,' 'plusquam perfectum,' and 'aoHstus,* 
'futunim activum,' 'fbturum pasdvum,' aild 'paulo post futn- 

iriyafilayf itoXtttlay^ Knotty ydc, <ca2 dnlay irpoiS(Uay iy toIq dyH&i 
iror2 ray f^oKoy^ irorl ray PtAdy koX tSy iafwy itapd tote H-cfic rd Itpdf 
Ka\ roic caroucciv idiXovm ray iroXtF oXccrovpyifroic ifi€y iro9dr irfioc 
ray Xttravpylay. Translate this passage. 

What emendations have been received here into the textt How 
do they aflect the sense ? What is the dialect of tliis dectee ; and 
in what respects does it differ from the Attic? Who were the 
principal writers in it ; and in what countries was it used ? 

9. Give the meaning and derivations of the fbllowiflg wotdsz 
HofXTnla^ wpowrjXaxitrfJLos, iiiXoKpaffta, irvrlfuoyf irirtfjda, orvco^ayr/a, 

State die distinctk>ns between irpofiovXevfjM, ipif^afia^ and vSfjioc^ 
iwirBlx^wfjM rifc Tokum and iinrtlx^fffia rp ilt^Xci, — Sia^iptiy n, and 
iiajf^piiy riyotm 

10. Translate into Latin the following passage : 

'O yap rort iyardc iroXf/ioci ay€v ro^ raXf|V iof,ay evrycciy, iy 
warn rott Kara roy filoy dtpBoywripoiCf koI viiayoTipOiQ ft^yayty ^fiac 
rrjf yyy ilpifyriCt ^y oiroi xard rfis xarplSog rtfpov&iy ol 'Xpflifrok^ iwl 


raic ficXXovtfOic ikritriyf iv hofidprouv, ml fvlj iMeraaypuVy iv vfitic^ 
ci rd (UXriara povXafteroif rove Beovg alrelrc, firi^i furaSdUy vfity, iv 
avrol irpo^pffiyrcu* 

11. Translate into English the following passage : 

"Ore yip ireptWv 6 ^(kimroCi IXXtipimJc fctd TptfiaXKouc 

Tnyr dnnkmnv, c. 14. 
Make any remarks upon the construction that may occur to you. 


L Translate into English : 

*0 ^ t>^r iXiiv roy fuyaiKo^iytaTdToy rcU cV oKpoy dperds irvvrerE' 
XeeftivaQf vrlniyopias rovov^ ifiifnfjQOL irddrit wepunufflav^ dyyivouiv^ 
TOXOCf ivBty ^f S K¥pwVf njt^ aramy dwfMrtTOy itiyoTffra Kal 
^yofuvm "EiretSii rovra» ff^ *ic Btawtfiwrd nya 3wpi|^ara, (et? 
yap €lir€iy deiurov dyBptimya) dBpoa ec iavroy ctfravc, hid rovro olc 
iX€t KoXoic ^hravrac «ul vucff icou wrip Jy avK e xeif tSofrcp tl icarafipoy^ 
rf KoL xara^cyyct rove dw* alwroc p^ropa^* Koi ddrroy &y rec txpowoiQ 
^cfN>/i(yotc dvravoiiiu rd SfifMora SvVcuro, rj dyro^OaXfirjaai roic c'lraX- 
Aif^otc itdpov wdBteiy* 

LoKo* De Svbl. 

'Eceird fioc Iokw /of wapuiotiy appifiroy on /liifWoOinic fuy elc ro 
fiiiropuDoy iyirtivE ira v 6aoy tlytv eV ^vocwc f a(r)^9ewc Xoycoy, vxcp- 
fioKkofuyot iytpytl^ fiiy koX &tyori|ri» rove M rwy dyiyt^y xal rAy 
tucHy ovveiera^OfWyovCf oyKf li cat fuyaXowpewil^ rave m&arrucoiiCf 
uKptfid^ Kol rex*7 ^^ oo^orae. 

Plut. ra. Cic. 

(1) Mention any passages in the Orations of Demosthenes 
which particularly strike you as instances of the above- 
mentioned exceUencies. 

(2) What Athenian Orators were contemporary with Demos- 
thenes ? By whom was he usually supported ; by whom 

(S) What Orations of Demosthenes and Machines are 
extant ; and on what occasions were they delivered ? 


(4) Give the deriyations aiid exact meaning of ayx^Voia and 


2. About what year before Christ did Demosthenes first enter on 

public business ? Is it aUuded to in this Oration ? When did 

.£schines first commence his suit against Ctesiphon ? When was 

tlie cause heard ? What were the grounds of his accusation ? 

9, What were the principal sources of the Athenian revenue at 
this time ? 

4. Give a short account of the situation of the principal Grecian 
States at the commencement of the " Sacred War." State briefly 
the causes,' chief events, and result of that war. What States sided 
with the Athenians against Philip ? 

5. What was the Macedonian Constitution according to Mitford ? 
Do you draw any inference respecting it from any passage in these 
Orations ? Were the Macedonians considered " fidpfiapoi' by the 
Athenians? Did the Greek historians use " rvpayviiet;** and *'/3a- 
trtkiiai* indifferently ? Give an instance from Thucydides, esta- 
blishing your opinion on this point. How did the orators use these 
words ? 

6. Give an account of the origin and influence of the Amphic- 
tyonic Council. What states sent deputies to it ? 

7. Draw a map of Greece, including Macedonia and Thrace, 
marking the boundaries of the several states. Give the geographi- 
cal situations of Thebes, Byzantium, Corinth, and Pella. What was 
the distance of Thebes from Athens ? 

8. 'Ex^iSiJ 6 lafiot 6 ^ABevaltav iv ti rdig npoyivofiiyotc Kotpdic 
evyoitity ^lareXii hvi^avrlott Kai roig ffv/ifiaxotg Kal trvyytvitn IIepcv6/bic, 
ifoi ff-oXXac KoX fuyaXas ')(ptlat ica^ayjirait iv re rf irtipttrrcLKOTi 
Katpff ^iX/mrw nJ Mairc^dvoc ifriorpaTevfravrog M rdv \iapav Ka\ 
ray ToKiy cV* uyaardtrti ^v^ayrtuty ical TLcpiySliay^ Kal ray xtapay hal- 
oyroQ kqX ZtylpoKonrioyroQ^ ^rfiifiras irXoloitriy eVarov Koi elkovi Kai mr^ 
Kol ptXcffi, ra^ owXlratg, c^E/Xero cf^/ic cV rHy fjeyaXtoy Kiy&jyuy, Kal 
airoKantrratrt ray vdrptoy iroXiTeiay ca^ twc yofitog Kal Tug ro^wc* 
hSox&ai rf hdfif Tf Bv^ayrlwy Kal IlcpivOtaiv, *A6cvototc lofuy, cVtya- 
fiioyy woKiTtiay^ £Kra<ny ydc Kal ocrcav, 'wpoe^play iy toic ayJmv, 
iroBo^y worl ray jSofXav Kal roy ^dfioy wpdrotf ^urd rd itpd^ Kal toIq 
KaroiK^y iBiXovtri ray xoXcv dXetTOvpyrJTOig 5/xci/ natrdy TpotnaKray 


(1) Translate the above into EngUsh. 
(i) What dialect is it written in ? 

(3) To what countries were the four principal dialects respec- 
tively peculiar ? 

(4^ Express from "HflXiro dfifu** to the end in Attic Greek. 
9. Translate and explain fully the following passages : 

(1) OvKOvv roc fiiy Tpuiptig koI rriy irc^ijv arpartdv koL Trjv irav- 
mXfivov KOA rove ovvt^povc Xoyt* iJcovVarf, rac 2c avrraisis rQy avfi* 
fMy^uy, rd ^ixa roXarra, cpyy dirwXeVarc. 

(2) £i hi rcc avTf rHv arpaniy^y dvriliroLy Koraj^Xovfuyoc rovg 
oft^orraQ Kikl ovveO/^wv firfiiy avrf dynXiyuy^ hiaiiKovlay Ifri yftd^tty 
Tf (iijfian wpOQ TO orpaTfiyeioy. 

(8) 'AfitreXavfyyovfrl riyiQ rrjyToXiy ctvarcr/iiycaaci riyec rd cXiy/iara 
rd rov hijfiov vworirfiiirat rd ysvpa rQy irpayfidmiy^ i^fwfipaiipovfu9a 
iiri rd artvd rivec irpmroy Aaxtp rdf jSeXovoc hulpowi. 

State the various readings of this passage. Which do you 

(4) Oc ydp dyaBol arpantyol vfuSy mu rfSy rdc mni^Eig riyic cvpiy- 
fUyiiiy iy rf wpvraytlf e^airovyrai rdg ypo^c T-wy wapay6fjLwy oi^c 
v/iccc oxap/ffrouc eJyai hucalkfc ay wroXafi^yoirs, 

(5) Ovx fuy riiy ypa^y fevykfy iori Kn|9i^F, o ^ dywv ovk 


(6) £ic rplu ftifni iujupiirai if lifupa iray cl^/p ypa^ irapayofiwy 
els ro hucaanipioy, iyxeirai ydp ro fdy irpwroy vhwp rf xarriyopf ical 
roic yofunc mi ij hifWKparl^ ro 2e htvrepoy HBnp rf n)y ypa^y 0€v- 
yorri Kal roiQ tie avro rS wpdyfia Xiyovaiy. 'Eireihdy 5c rjf 'trptiir^ 
^^ij0f»/iijXv6pf r6 irapdyofwy, ffhri ro rplroy v^p iyx^vnu rp n/iifVci koI 
rf fuyiSti rqc opyijs r$c vfjieripac, Saric ftiy ovy iy rp rifirjtni njy 
iffti^y oirci, rfjy opyrjy n^y vfiinpay wapairiirai* Sorts 2* iy rf irptirf 
Xiyf rt/y ^jf^^oy alrei, Spicoy alrtit yofwy olrcii ^fWKparlay olrci, Jy ovt* 
ttlr^ftfac oviiy oau>y ovhevl oir alrffiirra iripf BovyaC KeXivcarE oiy 
avrovc idaayras vfidc rriy wptaniy ^jni^y Kard rove yo^iove huytytcuy^ 
twttr dirayrfy els rriv rlftrioiy, 

(7) Tpaupdsf evdvyasi cl^ayycX/ocy irdvra ravr iirayiyrwy ftoi. 

(8) Xv ^ 6 otfivos dyijp ml dtonrvwv rovs oXXovc ■ 

-roi nfv airov TvyrH^ > ^ Cor» c 79. 

(1) Explain fully the ceremonies alluded to in the above passage. 



Ov rolrvy fioyoi ot rfMi|pofix<u- 

-CMC iy ^yoy anco^in rp iroXcf • 

(1) o yofioBinii:. Who is mJeant? iEschin. in Ctesiph. c. 9. 

(2) rrjy jSowXiiv, rowc iri vraico<r/owc. What was the jurisdiction 
of this assemhiy, and how were its members elected ? 

(8) Give the etymology and force o£ iKwolnroy. 


1. What is the date of the commencement of the Athenian 
empire ? What are the computations of its duration, and how do 
they agree together ? 

ft. What changes were at different times made in the government 
of Athens ? 

5. Who were the principal orators contemporary with Demos- 
thenes, and what were their respective characters ? 

4. Give a short account of the kingdom of Macedonia firom the 
accession of Philip II. to the battle of Pydna. What particulars 
are recorded of the early life of Philip ? Describe the campaigns 
of Alexander in their chronological arrangement. 

5. What date of the birth, and what particulars of the private 
life and public conduct of Demosthenes can be obtained from bia 

6. Examine the difficulties in the date of the oration xepi mv 
cre^oyev. Give a distinct account of the proceedings from the 
institution of the suit to the pleading of the cause. 

7. How many tribes were there originally at Athens ? When 
was the senate of the Five Hundred established, and how was the 
presidency arranged 1 

8. How was the commencement of the Attic year regulated 1 
Write down the Attic months in order. How were the days of the 
month computed and distinguished? 

9. 6 fuy wpvroQ eiirw koH fiyiiaduQ vmp nfc cifn^i^c 'ApioroSiffioc 
ify 6 vrcNCpcnic, 6 8* itsB^fuyog xai ypmlfag icai iavrov fura rcvrov 
fuoBwaaQ circ rovra ^iXojcpanic o 'AyFov^ioc, oc it ffvptiwoyrEQ inv 


^iprore eVcra £v/9ovXoc icai Ki^cao^tfr* ey^ ^ ov^cv ovSa^ov. Relate 
the occasion and particulars of this negotiation. 

10. 'AXXarc c^piyv fA€ itvttiv ; Bear fitf KaravEifiat rov dpr^vnicrova 
TOiQ trptaPtirtv KtXtvtrai ; dKX* ir roiy htoiy ofioXoiv idEwpovv aV, ei firi 
TOVT eypaijiri' 

Translate. What was the office of the apxTticrwy ; What was 
the BttiptKoy ? 

] I . iay fill ifi/ityrirt roic tifiokoyiifuyoiCi avSey Tpcrepvivere iiiu rov 
i^aKeyai dZiKovvn^* 

rmytipoyy ix rovnav fxero imyovs Xa^y ilg ro /nyi* ortovv 
^poopay Twy fura ravra fiii^ aloBayeffOat, a'XX' iatmi xavra ra ' 
xpay/iora ixetyoy vf* iawy iroififfatrBat* e{ iJy rate rapownuc wfn^ 
pcuc 01 roXcuirwpoc Ktypvpnrcu. 

Translate, and quote instances of the usage of ^dayu and of 
olxo/ioi with participles. Describe the condition of the Thebans 
here alluded to. 

12. 9cdox|9oi rp )3ovXp kcu rf ^ly/iy rwv 'A6iyvai<iiv ciracvcffai 
^flfioaOtyriy Xp^vir^ ortfayf koa dyayopeveai top me^yov iy Tf Oearpf 
Aiowacoic TOtg fuyaiXoiQ rpaytit^c xaiyoic* nfc ^^ dyayopevtnt^ iirt» 
fukffiriyai rqy Tpvrayevcvffay ^Xiyv Kai rov dytayoderriy. 

Describe each of the festivals called Dionysia ; and tramdale the 
following passage : 

*Hyc)(* Vfutc ^cvp* dipopfiaoBtu ^apuncewurfuBat 
If 2eXf|m vwmtYP^ff tffuy iireariiKe ^poflrcu, 
wptnu fuy xatpiiy 'ABfiyatoivi icoi mc ivfAfiaxoig* 
clra Bvfimytiy ifaaiCEy' 3ccva yap mwoyStyaif 
flJ^eXovff* ifjMc dwayrac, ov Xoyotc dXX ift^yiac, 
xp«#ra fuy rav.firiyoc elc ^^ ovk ikarroy if dpajQXiiy^ 
tioTt iCai Xeytty dravrac i^unrrac imrepag 
" fofi Tpifjif irai, 2^i*, ^ff-cc^ ^c ZeXi^vaoic ffaXoy." 
432XXa r cv ipay ftitriy^ iftac f o^k dytiy rac ^fJ^tpag 
e^y ipB^^f dXX* ayii» re mc xarti Kvioiiow^y. 
mJot* dtreikity ffjmy ttifny rove Ot€vc iKoarort, 
jfvic ay if/evoOwfft dlEcirvov, MnriMO'tv olraSe 
Tiyc ioprrig fni rvxprrec Kara Xoyov rwv ijfuptty* 
«^, oray Ovccv 8qy orpepkovre iccu 2cica^ere. 
15. Toe dxo3ec{ecc er rovrtm^ htcatog €lju irocecoOac. Ulustrale 
tlie phrase &icacoc cl/u by quotation from Euripides. 



r4* ' Tovc rpoipafyxovc aipeioBai ciri nyv rpciffni dm n^ oiMriac icanr 
rifOiviVf dwo raXaiTwv ^cjca* cav It xXccovwy if ovvia airorcrifii|ftevif p 
j(p9ifULTwyt Kara rov dvdXoynrfWV ew£ rpiMv irXocMv kcu inn}pcriicov if 
XiiTOvpyia iffriii. Kara rtiv avniv it draXoyiay imiii nu «cc ikarrmy 
ovfna itrri nay ZtKa raXairwi^, tl^ uwrtKtiay wyayofuytH^ etc ra itxa 

Translate this law of assessment. How does Demosthenes pro- 
ceed to describe the consequences of its enactment? 

15. o fjLty yofwBtrrit KtXkvti iy r^ iflf*f iv VLvkvi qi itxhivuf 
dyoKfipviTtiy Toy vm rov ^/liov art^yovfuyoyf dKKoOt it laf^fwy^ 
Krifiruptay it iy Tf Btarpf^ ov rove yofWVQ fwyoy virtpfiajQ dXXa ecu toy 
TOfwoy lUTtytyK^Vt ovit ciCKXiyvca^ovrwy 'Adriyatmy aXXa rpayfimy 
dyvyiiofityiiiy xaiykfy^ ov2* iyarrioy rov iiifunf aXX* iyayrtov rmy 
'EXKtiviay, iy 4fny avvtiZwiy oloy dyipa riyiuiuy. 

Translate. How does Demosthenes evade the charge here made ? 

16. iirtira roiavra Touay Xcyccc d iti wpotrtiyai rf itffMortKf^ 
iiairtp dyipiayra eV&Swm^ Kara trvyypa^yf Ar trvKt^yra d xpwniKty 
tK rtig ovyypa^t KOfU^ofuyoCf if Xoy^i rove ^/lorucovc <AX' ov roic 
iTfHiyfiaoi Ktu rote' 'troXirtvfiatrt yiyyt^MncofityovQ, 

Translate, and explain the construction. 

1 7. iawtpa fkty yap i|V» ic. r. X. What lieauties has Longinus 
observed in this report of the capture of Elatea ? 

1 8. rovro ro if/if^io/ia rev rore rp iroXec tctpufrrayra Kwiwoy iraptKr 
dtiy ifTOifiaty latnftp yt^OQ* 

Translate the following remarks of Longinus : 

Ovjc olofuBa ^ d(KL rr^y frvyOtviy^ dpfjeoyiay riya ovvay Xoyty 
dydfHawoiQ i/jb^vrtiyf Kai nyc ^hoCIQ avri|c ov)(i nis axofie fioyiie i^wro* 
fuym^^ TouciKag Kiyovoay Utae oyofianiiyf yori(rttnf$ Tpayfjuirwy, koXXovc, 
€v/i£Xeuic» iraiTwv lifiiy irrpo^y cat ffvyyevwv, cat dfUL qi /iijec koi 
woXvfjbop^i/^ rktr cavnic ^doyyt^y ro irapeoroe rf Xtyoyri roOoc tic roc 
^X^^ rwi' ircXac xapttaayavaayf mu tit furowrtay aurou rave cmovok- 
rac dti KaBiaramiy^ rjf rt rmy Xe{ewy iwoiKoiofiiimi ra fuytdti ovyop- 
fjtolfOvvayf it avrwy rovnfy KfiKtiy rt ofiov^ kcu irpoc oyKoy rt, rat 
d^kffia, cat vif«oc» Kai way, 6 iy avrjf TtptXafifiaytip i|ftac tKornvrt 
ovyhanBtyax, irayroii^ lifJMy nyc dtayotac eirti^Mirovoov ; *AXX' tl^ 
Kai ftayuL ro irept rwy ovrwc ofwXoyovfuytiy iiaroptiy' diroypmtra yap 
t| treipa rtortc. *Yif^Xoy ye ry ioKtiy yofifia^ Kai ion rf dyri Oavfta^ 
oioy, 6 rf }lfff^fiari 6 AfffwoBtyiie im^tptu " Tovro ro \lfn^of*a ror 


TOTt rp iroXcc wtpioravra Kirivyov irof»fiXOe«v ciroct|<rcy, umrep ve^og" 
AXX* whiis 1^ dcayocac ovk iKarrov ry dpfioytg ire^nirot* okov re 
yap iwi r^y dcucrvXucw elfnirtu fiyBfiMV^ evyevcffraroi d* ovrot cac 
fieycdoiroioi* ^ icai ro lipfoyp tiy lafity Kakkioroy, furpoy frvyierramy' 
• • •• ..eirfcnMye ix nfc l&ac avro X^'P^^ /iero6cc» omH ^ri iBiXtiCf 
'* Toirro no tfnf^tfyAo, i^ainp ve^ocs eVony^c ror rore nv^i^ov TOpeX0eiv»** 
^ yri Am pay cfiroKm^y avXXa/Si^v fioyoyj "iToifin vapdKBuy <Jc 
yf^oc" Kai clcrp ro<n»v i| dpfwyia rf v^i avyrf)(€i< Avino yap to, 
** wairep ye^" in fiOKpov rov irp^nw ^vOfiOv jSc/Si^ rtrpairt .cara- 
furpcvfuyw xpo*^C* c£a^Bc^9i|c h n|c f^ac ^uMa/SiiC) " wc vc^»" 
cv9uc oxjpcM-iipca^cc qi miy«Dirp ro fuytBoc* 'Pc e/iiraXcv, cav eircKrcii^Ct 
" iro^XOccv iwoainyf fJoxc/oci ye^og" ro avro wiifMuyei, cv ro avro dc 
in «rp09«ri«TCc * or< ii|» /iiytfei rtty wcp^y j(poyty ovyei^verai cac ^ufxaX^' 
Toi rov infuovc ro dworofMoy. 

1 9. What is known of the origin and constitution of the Amphic- 
tyonic Council ? What were the proper objects of its jurisdiction ? 

Give such an account of the origin and circumstances of the 
Amphissian war, as may be collected from iBschines and Demos- 
thenes, arrangmg the principal occurrences consistently with your 



(N. £• The pmisages ar« iw/ to be translated, except where specified]. 

1. Connect by a brief sketch of the principal events, with dates, 
the history of Greece from the close of |the Peloponnesian war, to 
the time of Demosthenes. Explain the nature of the peace of An- 
talcidas; and state the circumstances of {the first battle in which 
Philip came into contact with the Athenians. 

IL Give a brief account of the state of {parties at Athens in the 
time of Demosthenes, with their respective leaders. Mention the 


chaaget of administntion whieh took place, with the circumsUiioes 
that led to thenu 

III. How» when, and where did Demosthenes diel By what 
circumstance was that place distinguished in the earlier history of 

IV. What speeches of fschines are esLtant, and on what suh- 
jects ? In which of them is Demosthenes concerned, directly or 
indirectly ? 

V. Translate the following passage : 

Kai fiot rAy ircrpayiuv^v dytifipiioBtfnf ifWca iliffioa^'yiic koI Av- 
nSftytK Tf idv X0711 iropararroficfoc rove Mujcc^OFttc iyixmr iv TfK- 
fid\Xoi£f fi6yov 2* ov)( ipaaroy evl rov /}i|fMirpc V€Kp6y top 'AXc{ay2ipor 
wpoi&ifKarf iv rf ii/t/f 2* dkd^lfarrt^ Xiyotg eiwpmiri Qnfioimv rvic 
xapovruQ ^vyd^y Ov/u/ug iv eXir/2c rrjg c\cv6cp/ac iJAJy^oar, ifii 2e 
OTvyyov ca2 npCkmnr ifoffKoy clrcu /ii| awevioKoSynu 

Dbmadbs vrip r$c AmSoc. 

To what party did Demades belong ? How many of his speeches 
are extant ? and what is the subject of that above quoted f Define 
clearly the period referred to in this extract, and explain the " iri- 
Kwy iy Tpi^3aXXoi£." 

VI. 1. Translate the following : 

'O 2c [Atifioffdinic], iySey iXuy to luyaXo^ifnuTOv koX er* aiqpor 
df€ra4, m/yTtre\€fffUy€LQf vy^tiyoplag rovoy^ l/i^o^a 11x1617, vepunKrlay^ 
dyxlyoiay^ raxoc" iyOev 8*, S Kvpiov^ njv jiro^iv drpoaiToy ^lyontra 
Kcu Svyafuy eirci2i} ravra, ^fffd^ Jc Btorgfnrra Tiya 2wpi}fiara, (ov y^p 
tUruy Befjuroy dyB(mwtyd)f ddpia ic iavroy ioTraat, hd tovto oIc ix^i 
tfoXoic awayroQ dd vucff col vwip Sy ovk iyti, ^tnct^l Karafipoyrf, sak 
KOTO/^yyti rove dv almyoQ pviTopac, LoNO. de SubUm, §. 34. 

2. ovV ix€i. Mention some of the qualities which Longinus says 
he does not possess. 3. Give briefly the substance of Longinus's 
comparison between Demosthenes and Cicero; and mention any 
passages in this speech which he quotes, and the particular excel- 
lence for which he quotes them. 

VII. What was the event of this speech against Midias ? How 
old was Demosthenes at the time ? Give a particuhur account of 
the «po/3oXv}, with the substance of the hw relating to it, provisions 
about time and place, &c. 


VIII. Translate : 

'BrOvfuioBef i avSpec iuataralf Sri iv vf wpotipf voftf card rtir 
mpk Tifv ioprir dBuawvrmw ovffiyc rijc vpo/3oX^t iy rovrf koX rard rJy 
rove vwtpnfiipovt thnrparroyrw if rai aXX* oruniy rcvoc XafijSavoiTwv 
If /3ca^o/i€f My eiroiif 9arc m^ irpo/SoXoc- ov ydp ftrwc to vwfia v/3p/- 
(eadal rcvoc eV ravroic raic iifup€U£^ f rrjv iropoffKcviyv {v dv cV r*»v 
Uiwi' irop/tfxuro rcc efe Xccrovfiy^ai's ^e^ XPV'^*'^* ciXXd cal rd ^icp jca^ 
^of^ T^y iXiynay yiyyofuyar^riaXkm^m^KalKucr^vtiyiidp^C 
rijyycvy iopniy drtiwcare clfac. $• I69 17. 

Fixplaln the aeoentiialioii of wpofioKdg* What is the irofKunxvn 
lefened to? What is the English of crdo/Aac and Keicrriftm ? Is the 
fonn ixTTifMi ever used ? If so, by whom ? 

IX. jfv o rqfc pKafifig vfiiy yofioc irdXai, ^y 6 rf c ah:/ac> iy 6 rijs v- 
^i#c* §• 44. Distinguish between these three words, d roiovroc irdrcpa 
fuf 2f» did roirro 2/ffif v if fui(ia ioiii Suco/wc ; Md, Translate this accu- 
rately. The above is the reading of Bekker's text. If any error* 
point it out and correct it. 

X. icpHroy fuy yap 6 OcffyioMnfc ovx wrip vfiiy ov3e niy yofjmy 
fpoyrlvac ovS* dyaywcnim^ faviinTcu^ dXX* Ul^ mtoBelc 6w69f ^ifirorc 
dpyvpif caOv^cc rdy dyiSvo. iiraff 6 irXifyflc iKtiyoQ viro rov IloXvfif • 
Xov, ravTO rtwro, l^l^ itaXvadfuyosp ifi^oBai woXKd roic yofUH^ tUttiy 
Kot vfuyf ovS* thnfyayt toy llo\v(ri\ov» §. 48. 

Explain defffwdirrfc, KoBvftlcf ip^aBox^ and clffifyaye. 

XL Translate* ovScv ydp oIof dxoitiy avrov rov yofwUf §• 59, and 
produce examples of the same usage. In the sentence, yvy 2e pot 
ioKtif K&y dffi^iay el rarayiyj^wacoc, rd irpo0i|«ovra rottif , §. 65, how 
is the concurrence of Kay—il accounted for ? Translate Kviaafy 
dytMtQf ibid* Which is the right reading, dyvcdc or dyvtcic» and why ? 
Quote examples of the phrase from other writers. 

XII. owe oiy iuydyf i ayipic ^aeoffroi, teal ayirXiov rtiy fiey yucfy 
ay ravrl rapd rovr olo/iiyt^y XOpfiyAvt rHy dyiikMCormy toXXokiq wdy^ 
ra rd ovra iIq rde XctrovpycaC) pvl^yo, roXft^^m ^throre pfi^ iy ol ro- 
fun hioaoiy A^hu/Ooi, ctXX', r. r. f . §. 79. Translate this. Produce 
from this speech examples of other uses of irapd, which are at all 
uncommon. In what sense does Demosthenes frequently use M 
voXXwy, M irdtTWF, &c. in this speech ? Mention one or two of the 
more recondite uses of eirlf with examples. 

XIII. In the last extract explain the Xtirovpylai, 1 . What du- 


ties they comprehended 1 2. How ihey were provided for ? 3. What 
was the lawof ciir^Soffic, referred to in §. 100 ? 

XIV. x*^^^ ^paxfiAy. (. 144. What was a drachma composed 
ofl What did a thousand drachmae amount to? What is the 
meaning oUpajQiiiy r$c ifft^xtc \a,xuy 1 Why has iffupa^ the ar- 

XV. ly iKKtoiTO irpo rHy iwwyvimy ical iroyr£c opfey " Evcn|/i«y 
AovatevQ iypA^ro AiifMoadivfiy Ilcuavcea Xitrcrafjiov. Translate thb* 
and expUdn the practice, particularly the expression, nSy iirtayvfuty* 
Explain Aov^ievc, and the difference hetween ypo^w, ypai^fuu — 
ypaffiif ^cni— ovvi/yopoct ovv^tKoc — tcplykt, icpiyoiMU' the last with ex- 

XVL Translate : 

alffOofuyoc H ravra Mec^ac o yvy KptyofieyoQ vwo ArifioaBiyovQt ^ 
fjLOprvpovfuy, ewetOey ij/idc di3ov£ idpfiara roy fiey *AplaTafr)(py oBfor 
d^lyaif ArifwaBiyei ^e njy ypa^y rov ^yav trapaypdyj/tiaOai, §. 138. 

Explain apfmrat dSfOQ, trapaypdylKtaBait and produce instances of 
a similar force of xofxi in composition. 

XVII. ^Xf}, TO BcKoroy ftipoc* §• 163. What was the original 
number of the Athenian tribes? When, by whom, and from what 
circumstances, was it afterwards augmented 1 

XVIIL 2v, d firiZi \a,\uy tvypiuyoc riSy Hjioyriayy ot€ eicXi/pov, nr 
dtapaxa is ovdeviiivori. iy^vc, iir darpdfitig hi d\ovfi€yoc c{ *ApyovfNic> 
yXayihiQ dc, koI icufifila, Kal ffo&wc ix"^^* ^^ iirekiifilidyoyTO oi^irei^- 
KOffToKoyot, §. 172. Translate this. Where was Argura, and what was 
the circumstance referred to ? What were the veyrriKOorokoyoi ? 

XIX. Kara nfy irdSaudy iiuiyriy ev^fwvlay 'AXjci^caSiyc yeyioBai" 
f> mtf/affde, riyiay viepyEvwy vicapypufniy koX iroUtv riymy irpoc roy 
Brjfioy, ir£s exfiijaayff vimy oi xfwyoyot. §. 183. 1. Illustrate 
briefly the evhufwyla spoken of. 2. Mention the chief of the 
evepytvim* 3. Answer the iriSc ixpi^ayro^ mentioning the oc- 
casion of it, and the consequences it led to. 

XX. ovTOQ ii rov wpdyfjuiroc »/irrai, ore wpiroy fuy haxwrlov£ roi 
X^Xiovc vBwoifiKari ffvyreKut vfulc, irap* liy elmrparrofuyoi raXayroF, 
rdXdyrcv fAiarBowi rdc rpiripapxiac oirou §. 198. 

Explain the circumstance alluded to in ^uvrcXcZc, and the time of 
its introduction. Explain also the raXdyrov fjuffOovffi, and who are 
intended by odroi. 


XXI. Translate : 

Tpiiv col Tpocdpovc KadliioBm^ irapcXOiJv eire2<iiiccv. vf (al, leeL tf) 
iijkoyf Aart fitji^ dmiireiy avroy cx^^^> ^^^ ^^ rrfHiTilav ^cvyi^v, ov 
ftXorifjU^j rovr iirolrfinv ; §. 205. 

What was the office and number of the irpUlpoi^ and how 
appointed? Explain irpo^Spovc KoJdlJ^iaBai, How many Prytanet 
were there at a time, and how long did they continue in office ? 
Which is the proper reading, r^ or rfl and why ? 

}tXII. rqfc fiir irapakov ra/ic£v<rac Kv(iKriyQiy fjpfwatn irXecbv ^ 
ircin-£ raXovra, vtrip Jy tya fiij df 8/ici|f, wdyra rpoiroy TtpuaOHy koI 
iKuvykty tovq dyOpAirovQf Koird avfipoKa vvyxikfy, k> r, i, §J|S18. 

What was the Paralus, and what the office expressed in ra/itevecv ? 
How were the neglects afterwards mentioned by Demosthenes 
chargeable upon that office ? Explain rd tri^fioKa vyyy^^y* 

XXIII. aXXii nvfSpov, d av^c 'AOiyraloc, rov ^rto^avTdh\Vy £y- 
i^iyfiivra ^ucdZety afiCkoyra rf hifwvl^, daydr^ (rffiuHtral rtyec vfiiSy 
fOVTO ^(pijyai' kcUtoi tovto to XijfjLfia di iy^Eiay, ov Bt vppiy Xafifidyeiy 
iiTiyelpritny tKtivo^. §. 230. 

Translate the passage : explain ivltt^fiiyra^ and point out the 
diiSerence in meaning and derivation between Xiifjifta and X^fjuu 

XXIV. rl TovToy tiTOi rcc ; IfMi fjiiy vij toy Aca (ilp^tnrai yap 
t\r a/uiyoy, circ /iif) 00* ovroc, a>c a^'XXay/iai, xepiWy iXoyoroiei^ 
iv^rjkol rtvec ^mzv d')(d6fuyoi rtay irdyv rovrf XaXovvrwv lySeitfc. ical 
yi7 A/a avrolQ ToXXf} trvyyyii/jaif §. 251. 

Translate this, eirrot nc ; Various readings, etir^, ay citoc. 
Which of the three are necessarily right or wrong? Support your 
translation of dmjXKayfMi^ and say whether Demosthenes or Midias 
be the nominative case to it. 

XXV. il diXmrt aicoireiyy rf tror eivly vfi^y ol del ^iKa^oyriQ 
lojfvpoi, ay re iicucoalovs ay re x^^'vc Ay ff oiroaove ay tf iroXXc 
Kadlirjip cvpocr av, k, r. L §. 280. 

Translate this. Explain del, and illustrate it by example. How 
many of the Athenian citizens were generally thus employed ? Give 
the substance of Aristophanes's calculation on this subject. 

XXVI. Give the different senses in which irpo/3aXXo/ictc 
occurs in this speech : explain the formation of wyeCXox^^ ^°^ 
translate and illustrate ^tlpiuQai wpoQ rove trXovalovs. 

Explain the words ^taKpou(njrai, ipavoi^ irXij^nJci ot/i^cirra- 
(ofUyov^f iieKKXTiffidZniff iwinftoct eVXiJ^cre. 





1. Give a concise analysis of this treatise. To which of the 
three gradations of Attic dialect is it to be referred ? By whom 
were treatises composed upon the same subject; and of such 
treatises how many are still extant 1 

2. What were the real circumstances which led to the impeach- 
ment of Socrates? Was Plato present at his trial? By what 
majority was iht sentence of condemnation passed? How long^ 
and upon what account, was the escecution of the sentence de- 

3. Mention the opinions whidi have been entertained respecting 
the nature of to ^oufwytoy of Socrates ? To which, and for what 
reasons, do you incline ? 

4* (1) Kfff-ecra cVci/DW/itiv avrf ZeiKvvrm, Sri ocotro fuv cinu 
cwpdc* till V oS% 
(2) Otoinu yap fu iicdtmre ol irapovrec ravra avrov dytu 
ao^y a av aXXov eSeXiyiw. 
Why is the adjective oo^c in the nominative in the former, and 
in the accusative in the latter, of these passi^;es? 

5. State the meaning of the following forensic terms and 

Tpaf^^^yTiyp€uf^f--<ifr(nlni^aaoOai — Koroklni^oaaQai — riiuifuu — 
dyririfjMfjtai'—ipiifUiy Kartfyopiiy — Hicriy ^tvyuy — ^iiaiy dm^nyiiy — 
Uiaiy AfiKiaKaytiy, 
and translate the following passages : 

fti| ovy d^tovri fu, i ivSpt^ 'AOiyvacoc, ravra iily irpoc vfiac «'par- 



rny, fuLkitnu irdyrt^c vrj A/a fuvroi cac dmfitloQ ^evyovra viro MeX/- 

Tov rovrovc. • • • 

Kai ovK MC drifid^^v \iyia nj^ roiavniv iiciirniyaiVi eiric irepH 
tUv TOiovTtay ero^g C9rc, /it|irwc cy^^ v^ McX/rov roffavrac ^^icac 

6. Between whom, and with what result were the engagements 
Kol iv UoTt^^ Kal iy ^Afi^nrokiif col iwl AiyX/y, fought? Who 
were the respective Commanders on each occasion ? 

7. '£yu» ydpt i dyip€c 'A0i|valoc, oXXi^v /icv cS^'X'''' mittfday itm- 
irorc ^p{a €K rjf iroKiC ifiovXEvaa ^* koI «tvx*^ i;fi«v ij 0iiXi} 'Airtox^C 
iTfwraytvovtnLf Srt vfuit rove Hxa arparriyovt rove ohx dyeXofuyove 
rovg ix rf c yavfia\lat^ ifiovKiVfraoBt dBpoovc KpLytty^ T<ipay6fuac, <^ 
iy rf vtrripf Xpoy^ Tcdaiy vfiiy Ho^' Exphiin the historical al- 
lusion in this passage. On what account were ten Commanders 
usually appointed by the Athenians 1 State the manner in which 
the Prytanes were selected ; their number ; the nature of their 
office ; and the time of its duration. 

8. OJroc (Chaerephon) i/ioc eraipoc ^y k yiov cal vfuay rf nXiiOti 
iraipoc rt, icai ovve^vyc rriy fvyrjy ravrriy va) fuff vfuiy KarifKde, 
What historical events are here aDuded to? In what Olympiad 
anQ at what period B. C. did they occur ? 

9. Give the accurate meaning of the terms kckSvvcvw— xapi£y- 
rlZo/Mu — elpiayevofjuu^ as used by Plato in this treatise. 

10. Translate the following passages into Latin or English ; and 
give some account of the personages mentioned : 

'Ei y av o\oy diro^/iijmU ianv 6 Bdyaroc iyOiyie 

— — -8ta Kplaiy a^ucoy ridyriKty. 

'£irl iro^y r ay rig' 

■01 eicci dxoKreyovm, 

'AXXa yap H^ Spa diruytu- 

•difiXoy irayrl wXrjy tf rf def. c. Si, SS. 

11. Draw a map of the coast of Thrace from the river Axius to 
the river Hebrus, particularizing the position of Potidfiea» of Am- 
phipolis, and of the river Stryraon. 



First Paper, 

1 . What are the probable years of the birth and death of Plato ? 
What were his earliest productions? How long did he live with 
Socrates 7 Does it appear from any circumstance that he was present 
at his trial ? Afler the death of Socrates what became of him ? Into 
what countries is he said by Cicero (De Rep. i. 10. De. Fin. ▼. 29.) 
or by others to have travelled ? What may be inferred on this point 
from the Gorgias or his other dialogues ? What were his connections 
at Syracuse, and what his treatment? When does he seem to have 
founded his school ? and where ? 

2. What philosophical works anterior to Plato remain to us? 
What others are quoted by ancient authors? From whom besides 
Socrates did Plato derive any of his doctrines ? In which of his 
works are they found, and what are they ? Who were the most 
eminent of Plato's scholars ? In what respects did they follow or 
deviate from their master ? Who succeeded him as head of his 
school, and what was its fate down to the time of Cicero? 

3. On what models may Plato have formed his dialogues? How 
does he vary their form? Is there any thing in the nature of his 
philosophy which led him to adopt it ? What are the chief character- 
istic differences between the dialogues of Plato and Cicero? What 
other writers ancient or modem have adopted the same form, and 
with what modifications ? 

4. How and on what principles have Plato's dialogues been dassi- 
fied by ancient or modem critics ? What place would the Gorgias 
occupy in each system? Have you observed any references to 
principles established in earlier dialogues, or any thing like anticipa- 
tions of principles which were afterwards more fully unfolded? 

5. What is there in the Gorgias to determine the time when the 
conversation is supposed to take place ? Are there any anachro- 
nisms ? Is there any thing from which the time of its actual com- 



position may be inferred ? Can any pUy of Aristophanea be regarded 
as a parody of any portion of Plato's pbilosopby 1 If it can» what 
inferences may be drawn from it about the chronology of his 

6. What is the main argument of the Gorgias ? Is it correctly 
indicated by the ancient title ^ irepH "Prpropuc^c ? If it be, what most 
be the meaning of 'Frfropucii ; and how does it differ from the Rhe- 
toric, which is the subject of Aristotle's treatise ? Shew also how 
the Mythus at the end is connected with the argument of the whole. 

7. Upon what points do the discussions with Gorgias and Polus 
turnl In consequence of what admission is Gorgias confuted, 
according to Polus 1 Of what, Polus according to Callides ? What 
is the position maintained by Callides, and in what manner does he 
relinquish it ? By what chain of reasoning does Socrates prove 
the essential difference between the ij^v and the dyadovl With 
which does he connect the wpikifwr ? What relation does this dis- 
cussion bear to that in Cicero's Offices ? 

8. What is meant by cfiireipio, rpcjSii, tsxksi ? What does Socrates 
say is essential to constitute the latter? What does he call the 
fi>ur prindpal arts, and what is the jcoXaicc^a answering to each? 
Shew how this is connected with the argument about the tfSv and the 

9. A£k^ <re iri i| loonic ij yccfierpuny co) iv Otol^ col iv drSptiwoig 
ftiya SvKarac. «v 2e x\eoy$Uav ditt itiv dmceiy* ytM/urpluQ yop 
dfuXeic. Translate and explain this. How does Plato apply the 
same prindple to government in the sixth book of his laws ? 

10. 'H avkifruai rijv ^ioyrjy fUJMv fiovov Siwcec, col ai rolmU axa* 
aaif dlov i} KiSapiaruai 9 iv rdic dywrty. Translate this« and explain 
the last words. What instruments of music are admitted into Plato's 
Republic, (lib. iii.) and what is said on the same subject in the third 
book of the laws ? 

11. Of what city was Gorgias a native 1 In what other kinds of 
composition were the Sicilians distinguished before the age of Plato ? 
When and on what occasion, did Gorgias first visit Athens? What 
was his boast? What honour was paid to him at Ddphi? Are 
Uiere any remains of his writings ? What eminent Athenians were 
influenced by his instructions ? What is known of Polus ? of Calli- 
des ? How is Chserephon spoken of in the Clouds, the Meroora- 


bilia, or Plato's Apol<^ 1 What testimony did he obtain for his 
master? What other eminent contemporaries are introduced in 
Plato's dialogues, and in what manner ? 

IS. BovXevecv \ax(uv, rxciSi; 17 ijtvXii irfwrdvevt xal c^ei fu tiri^ni^'' 
(BiVy yikioTa napeiy(py icai ovk fitriardfiffv efriylnji^ll^eiv. Translate this. 
On what occasion, and in what manner, did Socrates discharge this 
office? What was the office ? How were the irpvraVeic chosen? afler 
what age ? What were the respective Amctions of the irpoe^poi and 
the imirrdrai ? Does it appear from this dialogue, that the same au- 
thority was ever exercised in a similar manner on any other occasion ? 

13. Explain the allusion contained in the words, twv rd tSra 
Kareayortav rairra cucovecc* Quote similar expressions. Is there any 
reason for supposing, that political motives led to the murder of 
Socrates? When did it take place ? Can any play of Aristophanes 
have tended to bring it about? What was the Athenian government 
at the time ?• and who were the leading men ? What representations 
of Socrates by contemporaries remain to us ? How far do they 
differ ? Can they be reconciled ? 

14. Can any particular motives have led Plato to speak with such 
bitterness of all the most renowned Athenian statesmen ? Who is his 
single exception ? What public testimony was ever offered to the 
virtues of the same man ? Explain the historical allusions in these 
words* IlaXiv de Xsye fxot trepl Klfuavot' ovk iitaarpdKwav avroy 
oSroi ovc idepdarevky, Xya avrov Hxa ertiy fiij dicovveiay r$c fbfy^Q ; 
ical QefutrroKKia ravrd ravra inoitimiy Koi ^vyp wpotnZrifjUwray, 
What was the occasion of this additional punishment ? and how 
did it differ from the former one ? 

15. Tarrrl ydpiywyt dxovta, HepcicXea iretroafiKiyai *AOi|va/ov€ dpyovc 
Kal BetkauQ ical XaXovc ical ^cXapyvpovc, elc fuoBo^oplay irpSroy 
icaraffnfffavra. Translate this. What measures of Pericles justify 
this censure ? What notice is taken of them by Thucydides or other 
writers? Shew, from Aristophanes and Demosthenes, that the 
censure is just. Can you explain the dififerenoe in the representa- 
tions of Pericles by Thucydides and Plato? — IhpixKiovc ^i Kal avroc 
ijKovoy ore mry^jiovXevey lifuy wepi rov ^td fiivov rc/xovc* When did 
this happen ? How old was Socrates at the time ? What was ro 
^id fiiffov rc7)(oc ? 

16. Who was Archelaus? What do we learn about him from 

' I 


the Gorgias? What from Thacydides or other sources? With 
what firiend of Socrates was he connected? 

17. On what occasion^ and by what action> did Aristocrates, the 
son of Scellins, distinguish himself in Athenian history ? How is 
his name introduced by Demosthenes against Theocrines? What 
is meant by caramcotf/ac riiy 'HcrcMve/of ? 

18. Translate Ko2 yap ay el fiij i| i/oi^if r<5 trtiiMan hrttnurtiy dXX* 
avro avTf, col /ii| viro ravnfc Kar€d€ktpelTo Kal ^uKplvtro ^ re ojpowouiai 
Kal If larpunj, oXX* avro to viifia iKpivE oruBfuifuroy raiQ \apifn race 
iTjpoc avrci, ro rov *Avaiay6pov dv iroXv ^v^ ofwv ay wdrra xp>|/iara 
ifvpero iy rf avrf» With what verb is the first ay to be taken ? 
Explain the doctrine of Anaxagoras here referred to, and illustrate 
it by quotations from other parts of Plato, Euripides, or Lucretins. 
By what doctrines did Anaxagoras elevate the philosophy of Greece ? 
What illustrious men were his pupils 1 and what were the remark- 
able occurrences in his life ? 

19. *Hii«»£ fiiy ay KaXXtxKu rairf in iuXeyofifiv, Sm^ avrf nfy 
rov *Af»/fioyoc airc^wica fiSjety dyrl r^c rov Zijfiov. To whlit does this 
allude? What were the two f^ocic? In what tragedy did the 
discussion occur? What appears from Horace to have been its 
termination ? Quote his lines. . 

20. Translate KaX iaaiy riyd 9dv Kara^ffay^i^a^ tis dyoiirov, xol 
vpaw^KoKiaai day jSovXiinuy koI yal fid Ma tni ye Bap^y irarofac n^y 
artftoy ravniy wkyyiiy* What was this irX^yif called? Against 
whom did Demosthenes bring an action for such a battery ? What 
remarkable instance is there in Athenian history of such an ojBfence, 
and of its punishment? 

21. Translate ES Wc fu ipotrot T^f 2e Xoyc^ruc^y riya xoXccc 
rvjftniiy ; tiiroifi ay on koX aim <^ Tmy Xoyy ro irdy KvfHJVfxytiy* 
«ol ei iira;yipoirOf 'H irepi ri ; eiiroc/i' av iStfircp ol iy tf ^^fAf ffvyypa- 
fififyoif in ra fuy aXKa KoBdrip i} dptdfap-upi if Xoytorunj ij(tc xepl 
TO ovro yop iarif ro re Spnoy ral to weptrroy' ^ta^ipti Be rooovroyt in 
KoX xpoQ avra ca2 irpoe aXXi|Xa ir«^ ij(€i irXif^vc cVicreoirei ro Teparor 
«ai TO dpnoy 17 Xoyiffruni. '^o what does 4cxcp ol ffvyypa^fuyoi 
refer ? What is ij dptdfofruni as distinguished from ty Xoytoruny ; 
and how does ij Xoytffriny answer to this definition ? What must be 
the meaning of each, when Strabo says i dptdfjafnai axo rqfc Xoyc^- 
rtgis ^ipSaro ? Does* the nature of Greek arithmetic elucidate the 


passage ? In what manner were its operations carried on ? Express 
753 in Greek numerals, and multiply it by 26. What does Plato 
mean by ii werrewrucrit and upon what principle can it be combined 
with the two former? What is the oldest mention o£ wt^vol^ 
What modern game does it appear to have resembled ? How did 
vtrrtia differ from Kv^ela ? 

22. What was the value of the Attic ofidkoc and Ipaxfoj^ 
Whence are the names derived ? What was their value in the days 
of Homer ? What may be learnt from the Gorgias, as to the value 
of money at Athens ? ^ Refer to any other passages you may 
remember, or to any customs, which throw light upon (he same 

28. To what stage of the Attic dialect is Plato considered to 
belong ? What are the chief differences as to dialect between his 
writings, and those of the tragedians and Tbucydides 1 Explain 
the forms reOyi|£ei, d^BevSijaofiaif rvimiintw, BiiaKaOeivp yeyorstraw. 
What are the only cases in which Attic writers omit the augment? 
What is there remarkable in the augment of i7/i^ff/3i|ni<ra/<€v1 
Produce any instances you may remember of formations like any of 
the preceding 

24. ji. Derive and explain Karail/evdofiaprvfnfielQf avyhaTrepdtmtf 
drrcvireiirtrai, wpomiKaKlieoBaif ^icuaafiw^eiwt tcaraTrtrrovv , (illustrate 
the punishment alluded to,) ov/iiro^c^^ct morofuvOri, dvapfwimiVf 
rd (fiTijSoXaia (what were the crvfilioKawt ^tKail) rmxiapvx'^^yt irpotrt^ 
oraXfievfif ^rjfitovpyol (what public officers in what state were so 

called ?)' e{e7rcnyd£C, irayxpQ, dyrlorpo^, ^(priftariieaBatf lir)(vpi(^^ 
dcUf ftopfio\vTT€adai, ihrovKoQt cfiirXiyrroc, 2Xtyy/aitf, Kara/3oXi|, dtxi" 

B, In what peculiar senses does Plato use iraraXvccv, avfifiaiveiVf 
SrifitiyoptiVf Kivivytveif i^eavicvc^dat, dyanb^tn (what other verb is 
used in the same manner Y) elpweve^dac, dypouLa^ dortioc, ^«prucoc» 
ffivCf woUiXoQf drty^vQ^y dviiiiv ? 

C What is the force of the idioms cJc eiroc ecrciv, koX ravra, vpoc 
'Koyov^ avrUa irpHroVi Oavfiaelotg Jc (with what other words is iJc so 
used 7), ifiKvapeic ixwv, ixtay elvat, 6e/iic tlvai, ovx in rf pifutn 
ovTiaQ elwec, — oc oirt trrpartiyoVi firi Sri KvPepyiirov, cXajrw ^vvcurai 
(rui(tiv^—ov fiTJy dXXd^dftodty yi iraQtv (what similar adverbs are 
there? From what is diwBtv derived? What other words come 
from the same original ?) otoC arra ? 


Z). Explain the expreasions xatpai^ov filov — ro wapop eS voulv — 
iv wldf njv Ki(KLfulay. 

E. In what cases are orrtas and owutc fii? followed by the sub- 
junctive ? In what by the Indicative ? What is the force of c^c in 
'Iva 6 Xoyoc ovTti trpoty, n'c fidXiffr* dv tjfjiiy Korcupavig noidi. 

F» 'Epitfrac, ci ov koKii fioi ^Kii el vac. What rule has been laid 
down about ti ovl To what limitations is it subject ? What is the 
general difference between ov and firj ? In the following passage, 
OvKOvv diroicrlpwfiev oldfuyoi Afuivoy elvou ij/ilv rovro trouiv ^ iirii 
what is the force of rj fiiil What would be the meaning of 17 ov* ? 

G. In these two passages diroddvoic av, el fiovXoiTO davdrov trot 
TifMoBai — oKIyov 2e irac Bavdrov irlfitiffav — what difference of mean- 
ing occasions the difference of voice ? 

Second Paper. 

Translate the following passages accurately, preserving, as nearly 
as you can, the order of the words : 

L AiyXoc Se ravra iroXXa)(ov ij ipvtnt on oSr^i txtt 

•TO Twv \€tp6vwv re koI ijiroyuy. — C. 89. 

II. Ov ydp roi Oavfidioifi ay, el ^piwlhiQ dKrfdfj' 

idy irwc oToc t w, irei<rac furaBeffSai.^'C* 47* 

III. "Akovb ^lit fairlf fidKa koKov Xdyov- 

-v€pl TfJQ iroptlaQ role dyOpwroig. — C. 79. 

1. ]. 'OTTUTfip avrov M Sirvdac. To what expedition do these 
words allude ? When was it undertaken ? What was its result ? 
By whom is it recorded ? 

2. 'EfSy^w/ievemrovc. In what manner are comparatives and 
superlatives from positives in oc usually formed ? Do any others 
formed like e'^Spw/ieveWepoc occur in Attic or other Greek ? 

S. *Ayefdyri — ejeXo/iipev. What is the force of these aorists ? 
Is there any thing similar in Latin 1 

4. Derive and explain Karer^^oKrec, yoiTrevoKrec, xara&ivXov/ieOa, 
dwoniffdfuyoc, tcarairaniiniet ypdfifiara, /xayyavev/iora. 

5. Separate from the context the words which belong to Pindar's 
Ode. What other remains of it are there ? Shew from this and 
other passages in Plato, and from the manner in which it is referred 



to by Herodotus, (iii. 38), what Pindar meant by Ndp>c> and hovr 
it differs from the lex which Cicero (de leg. i. 16) calls ratio summa 
insita in natura, and from Hooker's Law, What are the various 
meanings of Nd/ioc in Homer, Herodotus, and the Tragedians ? 

n. 1 . T/c 5* oJhy, IT. r. X. From what play of Euripides are 
these lines extracted I How and on what occasion are they paro- 
died by Aristophanes t 

S. EI TO i^y fiiv ioTi KarBaytiv. What is the usual difference 
between the present and the aorist in the imperative, optative, 
subjunctive, infinitive, and the participle? Shew how this is 
exemplified in the following words :—BoJXct ovv, iiniBif rififg ro 
Xaplieadaif (TfUKpoy ri fwt xaplmwBat, Will this explain the use of 
f pv and KarBayeiy by Euripides ? If not, account for that use, and 
state what would be the proper antithesis to (^v. 

3. Routh reads reOydfuv. Which is right ? Give the whole of 
the indicative and imperative, and the first persons of the other 
moods in common use. What tenses of other verbs are made up in 
the same manner 1 

4. What is the original meaning of ffo^c> (nxf^ttrrriQ, ^iXdoo^oc ? 
What classes of men bore each of these titles T Who is said to 
have first called himself (fttkovofpoQ, and how did he explain the name 
according to Cicero ? (Tusc. v» 3). Of whom does Cicero say (de 
fin. ii. 3) unus se sapientem prqfUeri est atutis ? By whom is oo^ 
first used ? To whom does Herodotus apply the words ao^vn^c 
and ^iXo9o^(V| and in what sense ? 

5. T^c ^fvyji^ TOVTO iy f ai ifridvfdai itaL Into what three parts 
does Plato in his Republic divide the soul ? What does Cicero 
call each of them ? To which of them is the coVccvoc compared f 

6. Ko/i\pdc avi7p. Who is he supposed to have been ? Upon what 
grounds ? Is the same person elsewhere mentioned by Plato ? Is 
Plato likely to have seen him ? and where ? What is known of 
him from other sources ? 

7. Explain ico/Li\f«dc, irapdyuyy d/ivi/roc, oreyavov, cv^e/jrwrcu, circec- 

KWQf VfTO Tl, UTOira, 

8. Point out the various words in this fable which are played 
upon or used in a double sense. 

9. *A6XuJraroi ol dfiwiroi. To what does this refer ? Quote any 





Other (passages to the same purpose. What other allusion to the 
same institution is found in the Gorgias ? 

III. 1. What is tlie difference between fivdoct Xoyoct ^^oc in 
their original, what in their derivative meanings ? What Latin word 
answers to fivdoc in both ? 

2. "Qamp "Ofiripoc Xiycc. What are the lines of Homer ? On 
what occasion are they spoken ? 

S, Moucapciiy yiaou How does Pindar describe these islands ? 
How does Horace speak of them ? Where were they supposed to 
be ? What great Roman wished to go and live in them ? Relate 
the anecdote from Plutarch. 

4. What is Tdprapo^ in Homer, and what is his place of punish- 
ment? How does Virgil represent this ? 

5, 'Extlyji rij ijftipif, ^ucafovrecf k, r. X. Give an account of the 
national custom from which this is derived. 

• 6» '£irc/LicXi7rai. What was the office from which Plato derived 
this name. 

7. Explain the formation of dfivexpfuwoi. In what other words 
is the same principle followed ? 

8. Explain y ^ Sq, Is it a common expression ? In what other 
cases is ie used in the same sense 1 By what authors ? What is 
il Is any other part of this form found ? 

9. Toiiro eipnrai rf Upofiffiei, To what is Plato alluding here ? 

10. Fv/ivovc Kpiriov. What cases are commonly governed by 
similar verbals ? Is there any thing remarkable in the use of them 
by Pkto. ? 

11. Of what countries were Minos, Rhadaroanthus, and Aeacus 
natives? Why does Plato call the two former Asiatics? How 
does Plato's account of the infernal judges differ from Homer's, 
Pindar's, and Virgil's? What circumstances in their lives led the 
Greeks to confer this office upon the three men here mentioned ? 

1 2. In what other work of Plato's is there a similar ftv6oc ; and 
in what does it differ from this ? 

Translate the following passage into Greek : 

We hear many complaints of princes and of fortune ; but believe 




me, my friend, there never was a good or generous action that met 
with much ingratitude. 


Is it possible you can say so ! you, to whom no statues are 
erected, no hymns are sung in public processions; you, who 

have no country and you smile upon such injuries and such 



My friend, I have lost nothing : I have received ne injury : I am 
in the midst of our country day and night. Absence is not of 
matter : the body does not make it. Absence quickens our love and 
elevates our affections. Absence is the invisible and incorporeal 
mother of ideal beauty. Were I in Poland, how many things are 
there which would disturb and perhaps exasperate me ! Here I can 
think of her as of some departed soul, not yet indeed clothed in light, 
nor exempted from sorrowfulness, but divested of passion, removed 
from tumult, and inviting to contemplation. She is the dearer to 
me because she reminds roe that I have performed my duty towards 
her .... Permit me to go on .... I said that a good or generous 
action never met vrith much ingratitude. I do not deny that ingrati- 
tude may be very general ; but even if we experience it fit>m all 
quarters, there is still no evidence of its weight or its intensity. 
We bear upon our heads an immense column of air, but the nature 
of things has rendered us insensible of it altogether : have we not 
also a strength and a support against what is equally external, the 
breath of worthless men ? Very far is that from being much or 
great, which a single movement of self-esteem tosses up and scatters. 
Slaves make out of barbarians a king or emperor ; the clumsiest 
hand can fashion such mis-shapen images ; but the high and dis- 
cerning spirit spreads out its wings from precipices, raises itself up 
slowly by great efforts, acquires ease, velocity, and might, by 
elevation, and suns itself in the smiles of its Creator. 





1. Give a brief account of the Writer of this Oration ; state the 
time of his death ; and give the names of his principal Scholars. 

ft. Who were the founders of the Old, Middle, and New Academy ? 
and of the Italian sect in Magna Grsecia ? 

3. Enumerate the Funeral Orations now extant; and state 
which were actuaUy spoken. 

4. Relate the causes and manner of the death of Socrates ; Was 
it prior or subsequent to the Peace of Antalcidas ? Give the date of 
this peace ; and mention whether any remarkable event happened 
at Rome about the same tnne. 

5. ovSe rovs iKyovovc rovrovc dwaf/j^yafiivrf lAtroiKovvrat iv rjf X^f^ 
— What were the diree divisions of the inhabitants of Athens ? 
Give a particular account of the fUroixoi ; mention their restrictions ; 
and state whether the tribute, called fjLtrotKiov, extended throughout 
Attica, or was confined to the sojourners at Athens. 

6. TDciyrai re avr^v rjifi KoXiSf riiy openyy iy fwveuc^ vftyiiaayr€c$ 
cic Tavras fiefirivvKaffiv, What poetical works are extant, which 
commemorate the early wars of the Athenians, and are alluded to in 
the above passage ? 

7* Kvpoc ..... r^c 'Aalag fu^P^^ Alyvvrov ^pfeV* o ^e vlot 

QVTOv, Alywrrov re koI Ai/3vi|c, Smw oloy re {v iwt^ytiy' State 
rather more fidly the conquests of Cambyses in Africa ; mention 
what expeditions hq undertook there ; and how they succeeded. 

8. woXXoi fjiy dfjupH ZuceXlay ilirep rrjt tuoyriywy iKtvdiplac — 

What claims had the Leontines on the Athenians, for their assistance 
against Syracuse ? Who was the principal instigator, at Athens, of 
this expedition ? Mention th^ Generals employed in Sicily. 

9. Draw a map of Ancient SicOy, marking the situations of 
Messana, Pachynum (promont.), Leontium, Catana, Syracusae, 
Agrigentum, and Selinus. 


1 0. Give the names of the Commanders on each side, and the 
events of the several Battles of ^gospotamos, Arginusse, Cnidus, 
and Cyzicus. Arrange them also in their order of time. 

11.. Mention the principal dialects of Ancient Greece ; and the 
districts wliere each peculiarly prevailed. It has been usual to 
consider the Attic in three gradations ; in which of these would you 
class the writings of Plato ? 

1 2. What were thf? peculiar distinctions between the Attic and 
Ionic dialects ? Assign the reasons why the Attics contracted the 
Ionic Futures, ending in a^in, €tna, &c. Give the futures, AtUc^ 
and lonic^, of cnce^a^bi, jcaXeiii, ^ap/40/iai, aiviia, and ^oprdiia. 

1 S. Xpiy hi Kal r<tf F| iv rovrf t^ troKsfif (phcei^ scil.) TeXevrritrdyrwVf 
VTT dXXtjiXMV fiveiav ex^^''* '^^^ hiaKXaiTUV avrovg ^ SwafudOf ev^alc 
Kol dvtrlaiQ iv Tourhe rote icpaTOvaiv avri^v tvypiiivov^t iirtiiri koI lifuic 
BiiiXXdyfitda. ov yap Kcuciq, dXXjfXwv ^i//a»TOy ovT ixOpSh <^^^ 
^voTvx^?* Translate this passage into English ; state how the 
public tranquillity was restored ; and adduce passages from Cicero, 
where the idea contained in the last sentence prevails. 

1 4. Translate into Latin, or English, the following passage : 

HdXai yap Srj to MHAEN ATAN Xeyo/xevov, caXwc Soicec 
\iy€(FdaC rf yap Syri ti Xcyfrcu. oTf^ yap dy^pl tig eavroy dviipnfr 
rat trdyra ru irpog ev^aifiovlay ^kpoyra^ ij iyyvs rovVov, Kal ^ij iy 
aXXoic dyBpwwoiQ aca>pe7rai, €*{ Jv ^ ev rj koxiHq vpaldyrtay vXaydtrdoA 
rfydyKa/rrai xai rd iKtlyov, rovrif apiirra vapetrKtvatrrai {pv. ciT6c 
ioTiy 6 mafpiayf Kal oiroQ 6 dy^peioc Kal tftpoytfios* oJroc, yiyyofuyt^y 
'^fipdnay Kal icaihiav^ ral iiai^Beipofiiyutyf fiuXiffra Kuvtrai rp 
wapotfil^" ovTt yap -^alptav, ovre Xwrovfuyot ayay ^vi/crcrcu, hid tq 
avrf viiroiOiyai, roiovrovi hi ijfuic ye dliovftey cal Tovt ijfuripovt 
eJyaiy Kal PovXafieOa, Kal iJKifuy. Kal ijfiaQ avTovt yvy vapi\ofuy 
TotovTOVQ, ovK dyayaKTOvyrat, ow^ if^PovfiiyovQ oyav, ti Scl TeKeur^y 
iy Tf irapdyri. 

Sine Coll, et anno, 

1. Give a concise outline of the speech. Explain why it is 
described as ireptKiififjiaT dira, from the speech of Pericles ; and 
how fat it may be supposed to refer to that of Lysiaif- 


S. What 18 the character of Plato's style? What particular 
passages of this speech have been praised by critical writers ? In 
what estimation was it held, according to Cicero, in bis time ? 

3. Relate from Thucydides the manner in which a public funeral 
ceremony was conducted? Who were appointed to speak the 
Amend oration after the battle of Marathon? and where were the 
slain buried on that occasion ? 

4. What mode of argument did Socrates principally use ? and 
what traces of it are there in this oration ? 

5. In what respect did the philosophy of Socrates differ from 
that of the generality of his predecessors ? Give a short history of 
the different schools, as established by his followers. 

6. In what manner were the Greeks, as a general body, con- 
nected together ? What was the original form of government at 
Athens? What were the institutions ascribed to Theseus? and 
what alterations were made before the time of Solon ? Give an 
account of the constitution as established by Solon, and the change 
introduced by Aristeides. 

7. Explain the terms, rcXiy, ^poc, daipopat, rifjuifiaraf Xeirovpyol, 
Koniyoplaip dUat, viro/xo^io, dvriKaxtiv ^iKfiy^ xecporovi/rol, ffXijpoirol, 
aiperoii ^i/iaor/a, XoytaraL What were the distinct offices of the 
Archons ? In what manner were the officers and members of the 
Senate of Five Hundred appointed ? How often were the public 
assemblies held ? and what magistrates presided in them ? 

8* Give the dates (in years B. C. and in Olympiads,) and the 
consequences of the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, 
Plataea and the Eurymedon, and the names of the commanders on 
each side. Give a short account of the expeditions alluded to in 
the, words oi eig Kvirpoy orfHirtvaayrtQf koI oi ilt Aiywrov irXev* 
oavrfc, KoX oKkocre iroXXoxoac, and of the events at home during the 
same period. 

9. Explain the origin of the Peloponnesian war, the manner in 
which it was conducted, and its effects at Athens. Draw an out- 
line of a map of Greece and the islands, and distinguish the allies 
on both sides. Mention a few of the leading events of the war, 
and the terms on which peace was concluded by Lysander. 

10. HoXXoxov Kivhtvevei koXov eJyai to iy vdKifAf dwodyiitrKiiy' 
rol yap ra^c t% koI /icyaXoirpcirovc rvyxiytt icai idv iriyrig rcc iv 


reXcvrffffp iced iircUyav ai trvx^ '^^ ^^^ ^vKdq ^ vv dvip^y ao^y re 
Kol CVK eliai iwaiyouvTiay, 

Xf>ij hi Kol rHy iy rouTtf rf wokifi^ nXevrtiirdyrtiy vw' dXX^kmy 
fiyelay ex^cv koI ^idXXdmiy oJrovc ^ hvydfjada evxalQ ircd BvalaiQ iy 
roiaht role xparovacv oMiy evypfuyovt, 

*'Orf> yap dy^l c2c iavroy dyfiprtfrai wdyra rd irpOQ tvhatftoylay 
^poyrOf Ti iyyve rovrov, kclL firi iy aXXocc dyOptiwoie ati^droi, c{ iy 
^ d rf KOKuie vpaidyrwy wkaydoBcu i^vayicaorat, koI rd ixelyov rovrf 
aptara vaptmxvaarai (yy. 

Point (where necessary) the preceding passages, as you think 
they should be read. Translate them as accurately as possible, 
and illustrate the sentiment in the last, by quotations from other 

11. Translate the following passage into Latin : 
/^ofuOa h i 

-fifiiy irpo^cXcffrcpov. Menex. §. 21: 

MENEX. & THUCYD. ii. 35—46. 

St. JOHN'S COLL. 1823. 

1. Give a brief description of the public works executed during 
the administration of Pericles for the strength and ornament of 
Athens. What was the population of that city, and the extent of 
its dominion at the time of his death ? 

2. What qualifications were prescribed by Solon for admission 
into each dass- of citizens? Explain the mode in which con- 
tributions were usually levied among them for the service of the 

3. "Apx^i Ba^tWc* Uo\dfiap\ot» State the respective duties 
of these Magistrates, and explain the terms if/iy^io/ia, irpol3ov\tvfia^ 
Befffjbott yofMOQ. Were the laws of Solon and Lycui^us committed 
by them to writing ? 

4. To what private motives of Pericles did his enemies ascribe 
the Peloponnesian war ? State the final terms that were offered 
by the opposite parties before it coipmenced, and those imposed 
upon Athens at its conclusion. 


5. From wbat original authors do we derive our knowledge of 
the events referred to in these Orations? Mention the periods 
embraced by each, and the reason which is supposed to have 
caused the vacant interval between the histories of Thucydides 
and Xenophon. 

6. *Avrifiy. In what estimation does this Orator appear to 
have been held by his contemporaries ? Give an account of his 
works that are extant. According to the divisions of Oratory 
made by Quintilian, to what class do the Funeral Orations be- 
long? Mention some of Cicero's which may be referred to the 

7. iffrt 2e r^ dhfiel^ fUT eO^<Hac vXifOovc dptOTOKparla, Ex- 
plain this passage. Was the Constitution of Athens agreeable to 
the opinions of Plato ? Mention some of the leading principles of 
government recommended in his writings. 

8. 01 tlf Alyvinvr ir\evaavr€t. Give an account of this ex- 
pedition; also of the circumstances which led to the battle of 
Tanagra. What was the fortune of Aspasia after the death of 
Pericles, and of the Eretrian prisoners taken by Datis? 

9. State the different readings and interpretations that have been 
given of the following passages : 

Kal Iv avrf rf ofivyaoBai koI iraOeiy /laXXov ifyriadfuyoi H rf 
ivhorre^ irti(€vdai t6 fiiy al(r)(p6y tov Xoyov ifvyoy. 

"Oaoi 3* ai irafn|/3iji:are toy re TrXeloya iccp2oc oy cvrvx^^''^ /3coy 
ijyeiffde koI rovSe fipa^vy invdai, 

MaXt^ra 2* iy yucffuda koX vfuic yiKfjire, il vafKLOKtvaaaioBe rp 
rJv irpoyoKwv 2o^ /iij Kct^axpn^f^yoi, fH|ff dyaXMoayrec ovnjV- 

10. Translate into English Prose : 

*£Xevde^C ^c rd re irpoc to KOiyoy iroXtrevofuy, ical c'c Tijy irpdc 
aXX^Xov^ r<Sv xaff lifupay iwtniiiVfMTkfy viro\fflay, oir Si* opyij^ roy 
vc'Xac, el Koff i}Soyfjv ri Sp^^ ixoyrtc oWe d(rffiiovQ fUy, Xvmipde 5e 
rpf oi/«i dx^ioyoQ vpoariBifuyoi' dyeitayB^Q U rd iSca wpoffOfuXovyrec^ 
ra hiiwiruL ^id Seoc fAoXurra oi Trapayofwufuyf rQy re dd iy dfxj 
irrvy dxpodnif mi r« v yofjuayp koI fiaKiOTa airrwy, Saoi re iir ti^iktiif, 
rmy diunvfiiykty KCiKrcu, ical o^oi, aypa4poi ovrec* altrxyyiiy ofwKo*^ 







First Paper. 

1 . What is known of Aristotle's life ? Where and when was he 
horn ? To what Greek people did he belong ? What benefits did 
he confer on his native town ? Translate and explain : 'Apiororikfic 
vloQ ^v Ncjco/ia)(ovy to yivoQ koI n^v rixyv^ dya^poyroc etc M.a\aoya 
toy 'AffKXtfirtov (Dionysius ad Aromseum, c. 5.) : and 

'AffcXiprca^m Xiyoyrai Kara Kvplay Xc(iv, 
"Oaoi yoyijy iffyjiKany 'AericXiynov (nrepfidrwy, 
Nwv 8c Kara Kard^fniiny rov^ larpovc etpifwiv. — 

Tsetses xiL 697. 

How are these verses to be scanned ? lUustrate this pedigree by 

similar instances. 

2. What circumstances led to Aristotle's connection with Alex- 
ander ? What traces of it are to be found in his works ? What ad- 
vantage did he himself derive from it ? In what parts of Alex- 
ander's life or character do we find any marks of the influence 
exercised on him by his tutor ? Translate 'AXe£av8poc *ApiffrorcX£i 
«v irpdrreiy* Owe ({p6wc eiro/iyaac tKhri^ irovc dicpoarucovQ rwy Xoytay* 
rlyi ydp {re iuUaofuy lifulc r^y aXXfriy, il Kaff o(fQ iiratZevdfffJiey Xo- 
yovCy oSroi wdyrtay iaovrcu MOivot ; iyti ^i liovkolfifiy iy raic ^yA r« 
dpiffra ifiTretplaic i race ^vydfieai dia^cpeiv. 'E^Spw0o. To what 
works is it propable that he alludes ? 


3. What 18 recorded of the intercourse between Aristotle and 
Plato? Shew from the Ethics, and by other arguments, the 
groundlessness of the stories told by iElian of their quarrel. Shew 
likewise the incorrectness of the assertions, that Aristotle i<^ira Soi- 
Kpdrei' and that Plato*s republic was written in opposition to Aris- 
totle's opinions. 

4. Translate 'Apcoror^Xiyc njv iavrov fiipKioOtjiaiv Qto^paar^ irapi" 
BwK€Vf fwep Kol rriy tr^oX'^y aireXc7r£, wpHirot iv *itrfi€v trvvayayiav /3/- 
/3Xca, cal Sc^o^ac rove e v 'Atyinrrfi jSaortXcac /Si/SXto^'iciyc ov)Ta£iy. Geo- 
fpaaro^ ^e Ni|Xec irap€^b}ixy. 6 ^i role ftcr' avrot' l^uJrouc dyOptairotQ, oi 
KaraKXeitrrd tJxoy rd /3/j3Xia ov2* imfUXuc Ktl/uya, inei^rj ^i yvdmrro 
n|v tnrovhiiy riSy *ArraXucwy /Sao'tXea^v, trara y^c eKptnpay iy Zuapvyi 
TiyC v?ro ^€ yor/ac ica2 eyfriHy KaKtadeyra 6\pi nort dirihoyTo^ AirtWlKoyri 
Tf Tfilf* ^y ^io ^AireXX/rwy ^iXo/3c/3Xo( /laXXov ^ ^offo^c' ^<^ CviTQy 
ivayopdiany r^y ^lafipbtfidruiy eic dyrlypa^^a xaiyd ^erifvcyice nyV y|t>a- 
^ijv ayairXiy^F ovic £v, Ka\ Hi^wKey dfiapTadiay irXi/pi/ rd )3//3Xca. 
"Lvvifiii li Toi^ €K riSy veptirdrufy, role y^y irdXcu role fitrd Qtoi^paaroy, 
oK^ cvK iypvffi rd /3//3Xta, irX^y oXiybfy, koI fidXitrra rHy i^wrepuciayy 
fiTi^y ixeiy ^cXocro^eiv vpayfAariKuiQ, aXXa BitrsiQ XiyrvOi^cd' ; rocc 
S* vartpoy^ d^ oni rd (ilpKia ravra vpofjXdeyf Afuiyoy fiiy tKtlyiay ftXo' 
oo^iy Kal *Aptoror€\li€iy, dyayKaZevBai fuyroi rd iroXXc2 eiicora Xeyccy, 
^id ro irXfjOoe riSy dfiaprtdv, Strabo xiii. How far is this story 
borne out by the evidence to be collected from Aristotle's works, 
and those of his successors ? to what portion of his writings may we 
suppose it to apply ? Who were oi fitrd Qtw^frroy ? explain the 
phrase diatic XjiKvOiieiy. Who were oi vtn-Epov ? How far does 
Strabo's account agree with other accounts of the same school? 
What is meant by the j3^/3Xia e^turepcjca ? how do they differ from the 
Xoyoi dicpoaruooli spoken of in Alexander's letter 1 What is Aristotle 
referring to, when be says Xeyercu mpl if^x^^ ^^ ^^^ if/urepiKoTc 
Aoyotc dpKOvyrutQ evia (Ethic, i. IS.)? And what does Cicero mean 
by saying to Atticus (iv. 16.) in singulis libris utor prooemiis, ut 
Aristotetes in iis quos e£(tfrcpurovc vocat? What are eyicvicXcoi Xoyot 
spoken of in the Ethics, i. 5.1 

5. Teneamus Aristotelein, et ejus filium Nicomachum : cujus ac* 
curate scripti de moribus libri, dicuntur illi quidem esse Aristotelis : 
sed non video, cur non potuerit patri similis esse filius. Cicero de 
Fin. V. 5. What evidence do we find in the Nicomachean Ethics 


to establish that it was writteD by Aristotle ? What other treatises 
on morals occur among Aristotle's works? What relation do they 
bear to the Nicomachean Ethics ? What may we suppose to have 
been their origin ? 

6. How does Aristotle explain the title of his work ? Translate 
KaXwc tiyofiaffrtu to ^9oC iart fiiv ycip, tie tvw^ tiwiiv, voionyc t«v 
aXoyov ro $0oc* myofiaffrai H Sti riiy vtHonp-a ravriiv kqX t^v hta/^opdv 
idet, XafJtfidyei to dXoyor vwi rov Xoyov irXarrofUVOv, ov fiovkofurcn 
TO Ta&ot e$aipely Travrawainyf aXX* opor Tivd koI ra(cv iwiTidevroQ avr)»» 
Kol roc ijOucac dperdc, ovk dwadda^ ovaoc oXXa ov/ifterfMOc iraOAf coi 
fuvoTTfraQ, ifAirowvvroQ' ifiToul ii rp ^poviyVcc riyv tou ifadrfrumv ivvw 
fuv c2c e{(v dtrrtlay Kadiord^, Plutarch ircpc r^c ijOuc^c dpenjg, 
p. 443. Shew the appropriateness of the title as applied to Aris- 
totle's treatise. Deduce the senses of the Latin word cffickm from 
its theme« 

7. Translate Updiroc ivtytip/niin IIv6ayopac irepl dperiiQ civccy* owe 
ipdiit ii' rac ydp dperdc eiQ Tovt dpidfuntc dvdytav^ ovk clxtlav rwr 
dperwy Tijv divplay esroiiieroro. ov ydp iariv ij lucawwivri dpiOftOQ coa- 
KiQ iffoc* Mercj rovrov JMicpdrffg jiikrtoy koI M irXeioy tlirey ircpi 
TOVTtay' OVK 6pO(Sc ^e ovS* oJroc* rac yap dptrdc iTimiftag wouV 
TOVTO ^ iariy eJyai dhiyaroy' ai ydp iwurrrif/Mi irdiffac furd Xoyov* 
Xoyoc ^ iy rf diayorfrucf Hjc if^^c yiyerai ftoy^» ylyoyrax oiy ai c^- 
rat irdffoi kot avroy iy rf Xoyiorucf rijc \l/vj(rJQ fioplf' ov/ij3a/v€c ovw 
wJrf iirumifjbac votovyrt rac cfpcrac dratpeiy to aXoyoyfiipog TiJQ^ylnf^g. 
TOVTO 8c iroiiSy dyatpei Kal wddoQ koa ^Bqc» Merti rairra 2e IlXarwr 
iuiXero Tfjy ^fn^rjy etc r£ to Xoyov ij(py Kal to aXoyov* opO^Q* Kal ccire- 
8ci>ff£y cffatrrov ofierac irpovfiKOvvaQ, /xexP* f^*' ^^'^ tovtov KoXmc- furd 
fdyTOi TOVTO OVK m opOwc* Ttjy ydp dpenjy KorifAtiiEy elc n}K wpayfiw 
rday Tjjy virip tov dyadov' ov S^ opOvc' ov ydp ohxToy. Aristot. 
Magn. Mor. i. 1. Explain the nature of the doctrines here attri- 
buted to Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato, and of the objections 
made to them ; illustrating your explanation by references to other 
passages of Aristotle or of other writers. 

8. What connexion does Aristotle establish between ethics and 
politics ? What omissions in his catalogue of virtues have been oc- 
casioned by this connexion ? What is the relation between ethics 
and politics according to Plato ? and to Socrates ? Are they guilty 
of the same omission ? Shew the manner in which this portion of 


the Greek philosophical theories was connected with the state of 
society. , 

9. In what respects does Aristotle define virtue to be a /icoonic ? 
what are his arguments to establish that it is so? What are the ex- 
tremes between which he places aV^a, irw^poovyiff iXevOepwniCt 
^paonic ? Shew that this definition does not in any way trench on 
tbe supremacy of the moral law ; or justify any compromise of duty. 
Explain how it enables Aristotle to steer clear of the difficulties into 
which other philosophers have fallen with regard to the practical ap- 
plication of their theories. What is there in Plato, or in other 
Greek authors, similar in spirit to that definition? 

10. Translate Dae o ^cpl riv wpaxriSy Xoyog rvwf koX wk dicpi^c 
o^iXct \ty€oQaC ol yap Xoyoi Kara rfjy vKxiP ancturrfnoi' rd V iv race 
<irpo£e<rc cal ra trvfu^povra cviiv ianiKoc ex^'* Afnrtp oHi rd vyuiva, 
TotovTOv V ovTOQ rov KaB6Xov \iyov, in fiaXkov 6 wtpH nSv Koff tKaara 
Xoyoc ovK iy(ti raKpifii^' ovre yap vwo riy(yyiv oiff inra wapayyeXiar 
vviifuay xljmi, ii. 8. and ^Ayampvyf frepl rountrwy xal cV rocov- 
Twy Xeyovrac, Ta^vXctfc koI tvw^ rdKifiit iy^ilKyvaSar icat w€pl riSy 
4»C M. TO woXv mil ix rowvTwy \ey0yrat9 rotavra ira} tntpwtpalytodai, 
i. 5. What is the primitive meaning of rviroc ? the meaning as- 
signed to it by Aristotle 1 and by the sacred writers ? Whence is 
tbe metaphor taken ? What motive led Aristotle to insist on this 
remark so firequently ? What is the metaphysical sense of vkti ? 
Translate Td ii ^vfuravra i^ eTjuy lHayf vXav, alpBr/roy re, oloy 
hcyovoy rovnay, jcal to fjiiy tJfuy dytyyaToy r£ cal dxlyaToy Kal fit' 
voy T€ KoX rac Tavrm ^vanoc* rdy V vkav igfiaytioy koI paripa TiBdyay 
re Kol yeyyaTiKay ilfuy rac Tplrac oitriajf ^^afuyay ydp ra dfiottifAa* 
ra ec ^avrav ral dloy dyafioiafiiyay dmrEkriy rait Ta y^yyapjara^ 
ravray M rdy vXav dt^toy piy c^, ov pdy OKlyaToy^ dpop^orroy it 
icaff avTay Kol dtf^pdriOToyf ie)(pfi€yay is irdffay pop^y, rav H 
w€pi rd wpara ptpioTay tlpty koI rac daripu ^ercoc* TOTayopevoyrt 
ii rdy vXav rowoy xal x^^P^^' T^™' Locr. i. What word does Plato 
use instead of vXj|? Explain, and deduce from their themes, die 
philosophical meaning of piOoiot, Koniyopla^ dpX'^^'^^^^* ^cadeaic, 

11. 'Airopifffece i* ay nc, irwc \iyopiy ore isl rd iUaia Tpdrroyra^ 
iucaiovc ylyeaSai, ii. 4. What is the difficulty here ? and how 
does Aristotle solve it ? 


12. Ta iv rij ^jnty^ yivofuva rpla iarlf wddti^ Swa/xciCi e&cc* ii* 5* 
Explain the nature and give instances of each class. Under 
which head does Aristotle place virtue ? and what are his reasons 
for so placing it ? 

13. Translate and explain to yap jca/cov rov dvelpoVf dc oi UvSa- 
ydpctot elKCL^oV ro ^ dyadov rov mrrepairfiivov. ii. 6. vidaviiripoy 
iolxcunv 'oi Tlvdayopetoi Xiyeiv T€pl rov dyaOov, rSivrt^ iv rp rdv 
dyaBQy avinoi\Lq. to €v, i. 6. and ^Ivovrai Si tov dpidftov vofU' 
^ovTtQ dpyriv elvac, koI (Jc vkriv rote ovot, Ka\ irdBti re Kal c{ac* tov hi 
tlpiOfiov oTocxeia rd aprtov koX to irtpirrov' tovtwv hi to fiiv Ktiriptuf" 
fuvov, TO hi diretpov, Metaph. i. 5. What is meant hy i{ tUv dya- 
6%iy av&roixLa ? 

14» Translate * Kara fiiv tiJv oiviay kqX tov \oyov tov tI riv cTy^ai 
Xfyovra, fuaoriis imlv 17 dptni, ii. 6. and itn-i hi opoc fuv Xoyoc 
t6 tI rfv elv€u tniiiaiyiav* dwoilhoTai hi ^ \6yog dvr ovoparo^^ ff Xoyoc 
dyrl Xoyov. hvvaroy yap Kal TiSv vwo \6yov Tivd <nffiaiyofiiyb>y opivait^ 
Bau Topic, i. 4. Explain the construction and meaning of the 
phrase 6 to rl iv elvai arifudviay, 

15. What does Aristotle mean by €*ipwy and tlptavela 1 with what 
qualities does he connect it ? does he regard it as a fuvoTri^, a vtrcp* 
j3oXi7, or an cXXeiij^cc^ Why are ol ctpinvec xapdartpoi ra jyOiy? 
What is meant by the dpiavtla ascribed to Socrates by Aristotle, 
Eth. iv. 7 ; by Plato, Rep. i. p. 337 ? ^Ck 'H^KiicXfiCi w^ ixelvri ij 
el^tOvia elpiaveia Swcparovc* ral Tavr iyta yhfi^ Stl irv dtroKpivaaBai ftiv 
owe iSeXffOOic, eiptavivtmo hi Kal irdyra fiaXXov troiiitrotc ^ diroKpiyotiO 
ft r/c tI iFt ipwd. Translate this, afid shew how the conduct atr 
tributed to Socrates comes under the head of iipwvela. Translate 
also, and explain the nature of the elpwvela alluded to by Cicero, 
Brut. 87. Quod autem plnres a me nominati sunt, eo pertinuit, 
quod intelligi volui in eo, cujus omnes cupidissimi essent, quam 
pauci digni nomine evaderent. Quare iiptava me, ne si Africanus 
quidem fuit, existimari velim. How does Cicero render elpanftla 
into Latin, de Or. ii. 67 ? How does Horace express the same 
quality, Sat. i. 10, 13 ? What is the meaning of Mipuv and of avO- 
iKairrog in Philemon fragm. iii. : OwV ear dXtiwrf^ if fjiiv e^tpufy rjf 
^voci, 'H h* avdiKaaroi ? What is the proper meaning of irony in 
English, as connected with its etymology ? 

1 6. Explain the meaning in which Aristotle uses the words, cv- 


TpdireXoCf /SdyaiKToCi liiiffioKoxoQf ffarairXi|{, hri\aup€Kaida^ dirttriaf 
er/^NTtC) ddeKcurrot (what is the corresponding Latin word ?) trroxo-tr- 
runf , TO ivwapoKoKovdriToy, Shew how tliis meaning flows from tji^ 
etymological sense of each word. . 

1 7* Aio hei Toy arfrj^aJ^ofuvov rov fuerov nrpSrov fuv djcv^ta^v tov 
lAoXKov iyavrlovj Kaddirep Koi i} KaXvi//6i Tofygvei to 

Tovrov fuy xdirvov Koi icv/iaroc Iktoc cepyc 


^ep oiy 01 ^rifwyipoyreg efraSoy wpog rrfv 'EXeviyv, rovro Bet iraOtiy 
Koi iffioc irpOQ rrjy ij^vtiy ical iy irdvi njv ixelywy iwiKeyuy iputyijv' 
ovTia yap avrtfy diroKefifrofuyoij ^vvov dfifxpnitrofieBa^ ii. 9. Give a 
full explanation of the allusions in these two passages. How is this 
remark about if^ovif to be reconciled with the assertion that Taimv 
iytpytlay rtXtwl i| ij^vi;, and the rest of the discussion on the same 
subject in the tenth book ? 

1 8. What are the chief characteristics which distinguish Aristo- 
tle's theory of morals from Plato's ? Shew how the Stoical, the 
Epicuriean, and the Sceptical doctrines arose* each from a peculiar 
narrow and partial view of Aristotle's system : and point out the 
analogy between this splitting up of Aristotle's school, and that of 
the school of Socrates into the Cyrenaics, the Megarics, and the 
Cynics. • "^ 

Second Paper. 
Translate into English : 

XirifiMioy a hii voleiaBai 

vtfl ravra kclL iyipyti^ eipifffdw. ii. 3. 

1 . *Oc o nXarwv ^irlym To what work of Plato is Aristotle here 
referring ? What is the principle especially inculcated there I In 
what systems of legislation was any end of this kind aimed at ? 
What objections does Plato make to those systems ? What qualities 
of our nature does he appeal to as indicative of a nobler destiny ? 

2. Explain the argument in the sentence oc larptiai ha rQy iyav 
rlwy ylPoyrai* 

3. 'O^a^ctfc aAXbfc v^o rov Xoyov BiopiZercu rd rotdwa. Explain 
this. What is included in the words otrax^i iXXuc ? • 

4. By what school had virtue been defined to be airo0e/a rcc Kal 



ijpe/i^a ? by whom has the same doctrine been maintained since ? 

5, Translate KaOdircp iced *Hf)aicX£troc clirc, xaXeiroy ^doKtiv tlvat 
BvfAf fidxeoBtu' ipv^jlQ yop iJreirai. Foliu v. II. How fjEff does 
the reference to Heraditus in the text extend ? Who was he i and 
what is known of his doctrines ? 

Translate into Attic Greek : 

There is a greater di£ference, both in the stages of life and in the 
seasons of the year, than in the conditions of men : yet the healthy 
pass through the seasons, from the clement to the inclement, not 
only unreluctantly but rejoicingly, knowing that the worst will soon 
finish and the best begin anew ; and we are all desirous of pushing 
forward into every stage of life, excepting that alone which ought 
reasonably to allure us most, as opening to us the Fia Sacra^ along 
which we move in tritnnph to our eternal country. We labour to 
get through the moments of our life, as we would to get through a 
crowd. Such is our impatience, such our hatred of procrastination, 
in every thing but the amendment of our practises and the adorn- 
ment of our nature, one would imagine we were dragging Time 
along by force, and not he us. We may in some measure frame 
our minds for the reception of happiness, for more or for less ;we 
should however well consider to what port we are steering in seardi 
of it, and that even in the Mchest its quantity is but too exhaustible. 
It is easier to alter the modes and qualities of it, than to increase its 
stores. There is a sickliness in the firmest of us, which induces us 
to change our side, though reposing ever so softly ; yet, wittingly or 
unwittingly, we turn again soon into our old position. Afterward, 
when we have fixed, as we imagine^ on the object most desirable, 
we start extravagantly ; and blinded by the rapidity of our precipi- 
tate course, toward the treasure we would seize and dwell with, we 
find another hand upon the lock .... the hand of one standing io 
shade 'tis Death ! 




Sine Coll, et anno, 

1. In what Olympiad and year B. C. was fschylua born? 
Belate the most remarkable circumstances of his life. What philo- 
sophical opinions is he said to have adopted ? Are they discernible 
in this Play ? When and where did he die ; and what particular 
honour was afterwards paid to his memory at Athens ? 

2. Mention some of the ancient authorities which prove Thespis 
to be the inventor of Tragedy. What was the original meaning of 
the word Tpayf^la, and when was it first used 1 Explain also the 
terms Tpvy^la and Kwfifhla. 

3. What was the state of Tragedy before the time of JEschylus ? 
Quote and explain the words of Aristotle and Horace* which describe 
the improvements introduced by this Tragedian; and state the 
reason why each gives a different account. 

4. What were the opinions of ancient writers on the comparative 
merits of the three great Tragedians ; and how will you account 
for the peculiar difference of character observable in their compo- 

5. How nuuiy kinds of Tragedy does Aristotle enumerate ? 
To which of these does the Prometheus belong ? Is its fivOoc faulty, 
according to the rules of this critic ? and what epithet would he 
jqpply to it 1 

6. What other plays did JSschylus write on the story x>f Pro- 
metheus ? Mention the subjects of all his plays now extant, 
arranging them in their historical order, and naming those of the 
other Tragedian's which are on the same' subject, or relate to the 
same families. 



7. What is the most probable supposition respecting the scene 
of Prometheus's sufferings ? Can you reconcile it with the account 
given by other ancient writers ? Name the principal authors who 
have related this fable ; and state the circumstances mentioned by 
them and omitted by ^schylus. 

8. Who, according to Mr. Bryant, is the true person alluded to 
under the character of Prometheus 1 What are the grounds on 
which he supports his opinion ? Give also his explanation of the 
fable of Atlasy and that of the Phorcides. 

9. What were the opinions of ancient philosophers respecting 
the origin of proper names ? Quote instances from Tragic writers 
of allusions to this controversy ; and thence determine whether the 
Scholiast be correct in the name he assigns to the river alluded to 
in the line, 

"Hfcic ^ vjipiarriy irorafidv ov yj/ev^wyvfiov* 

10. Of what number did the Chorus consist, in its improved 
state 1 What particular part of the Theatre did it occupy, and in 
what order was it arranged ? Explain its use and importance in 
the composition and representation of the drama. Into what Plays 
in our own language has it been introduced? and are there any 
reasons for supposing that it could not be exhibited with as much 
advantage on the modern, as on the ancient stage ? 

1 1 . Explain the construction of an Iambic Senarius, according 
to the rules established by the late Professor Porson, stating his 
observations on the final Cretic, and the introduction of Proper 
Names. What ai^ the principal Csesurse in this System, and what 
is meant by the Quasi Csesura ? Illustrate each by instances from 
the Prometheus. 

12. In what manner has the Professor considered the construc- 
tion of the Trochaic Tetrameter, according to the Tragics ; and 
what are his observations on their Anapsestic Systems? 

13. What is Dawes's Canon respecting the Consonants which 
must concur in order to change the quantity of the short vowel 
which precedes them ? What is that concerning the force of ^ in 
this respect ? Can you produce any exceptions to these Canons ; 
and can you^ under any limitation, make the latter more correct ? 


14* How hare the following passages, taken from {Stanley's 
edition, been corrected ; and upon what grounds were those cor- 
rections made ? 

V, 449. Ovre trXtrOvfiif 

Xfiovc vpotniXovQ ItraVf ov iuXovpyiar, 
V. 461. K^ieviia ir/Nmc cV Zvyoufi Kytihoika 

itvyXaun hivKsvovra ^wiutalv 6\ Svate 
Bytfroi^ fuyiuTiav hiuh(y)(pi fMoyfiniixanav 
yivunfff' v^ itpftar ijyayoy ^cXip^^ovc 
twirovt, K, r. X. 
V. 756. IO.^H yap tot iarlv EKwitriiv off)(jit £iia ; 
ff^fA ay, olftaif Tfjyh* Itovira tnffupopdy, 
vwQ ^ ovK ay, ring cV Aioc vd<r)(w kokHc ; 
15. Translate the following into Latin or English Verse. 
Divide the last Strophe and Antistrophe, so that each line may 
consist solely of the Anapsestic or Iambic Metre ; and give to each 
▼erse its proper metrical denomination. 
fj3v n 6af>0'aX£Oic 

. • • . 
wiOwy hdfjMpra teiyoXeicrpoy. v. 544—57 1 . 


1. When did iEschylus live; and what eminent Writers were 
his contemporaries? For what was he remarkable, besides his 
practical merit ? Are any traces of his life and actions discoverable 
in his writings ? 

2. What is Aristotle's criterion or definition of unity of plot ? 
Does that of the Prometheus accord with it ? 

S» Give a criticism on the plot, characters or manners^ and die* 
tioD of tlie Prometheus. 

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a chorus 1 and 
what other differences are observable between the Greek and Eng- 
lish drama» as to plot, moral, passion, and character? 

5. Compare ^schylus with Shakespear in the last mentioned 

s 2 


6. What kinds of events and character of a hero is the most 
proper for Tragedy according to Aristotle, and for what reasons ? 

7. Translate the following passage of Aristotle : " Uspi Be rd if&ti 
Tlrrapd iimVf iv Zii morj^Qita^aC iy fiiy koI TpwvVf Birwt "xptiirrd ^. 
"E^ei ^ ^Qog fuy, idvp uioinp i\i\Bfif iroty i^yepdy 6 Xoyoc, rj ij irpd^t, 

'wpoalpitrly riya ^evrepoy dc rd dpfwrrovra • . . . . ,Tplroy ^ to 

ofiowy TirapToy Be ro ofioXoy" . . . .and explain particularly 

what is meant by ypiiard^ dpfiOTToyra, ofioioy and ofuxXoy, 

8. Explain the meaning of the following passage : " npoatpeioBai 
re dBvyara Ka\ elicora, fLoXXoy ^ Btfyard koI dvldaya." 

9. What does Aristotle mean by calling certain sorU of Poetry 
a species of Imitation ; and to what sorts is the term more particu- 
larly applicable 1 

10. Were there any remarkable laws at Athens respecting dra- 
matic representations ? And what were dieir effects on the national 
character ? 

11. Give the rules of the Anapsestic and Iambic metres, as 
adopted by the Tragic writers, explaining in the latter the Csesura, 
Quasi Caesura, pause, and variation in case of a proper name. 

12. What are the characteristics of the lom'c and Attic dialects 
as to (1) augments; (2) contractions ; and what is the probable 
origin of them ? 

13. Explain the force of the Aorist imperative ; and translate 
accurately the following phrases : " nyV Be yvy UOPIIASON eur^t^c.'* 
*' nOPIU diF^Xwc" " 9KeKn U KIPKO20N j8/a." " KIPKOY 

14. Give accurately the meaning of the following passage: rdy 
ei,afidpToyT* eig Oeovc i^TifUpoiQ iropoyra rifidg, 

15. What is the difference between ipeiy^ Xiyeiy, yeyiiyety and 
between ^tcca, ip)(pfjuu^ y^XOok, elfii, 

16. Explain the principle on which the different usage of the 
subjunctive and optative moods is founded in the following pas- 
sages : TO fieXXoy ^ xpalyoiTo wpoiredetnrlKeif «^ oh Kor* l^yyyf uwBe 
wpoe TO KOprepoy XP^V dicovvaff *lc ^Bnre Bid reXovt to 4dy, 

17. Give a theory of the middle verb : and shew the force of it 

in the following passages : eVci rdxiar^ fip^ayro Balfwyet xoXov 

yiyywffKe travroy, kqI fAeBdpfxoffai rpoKovg yeovc- 


1 8. Translate the following passages into English Prose : 

• • • • 
fAvpioit lioyfioiQ hicucvcuofurov* v« 526 — 41. 
'AXX* cly fx^yritfB* dr iyw w^Xiyia 

c/L»rX£x9i|9e^ W aVoittc v. 1071 — 9. 


1. Write a concise account of the Life of ^schylus, and assign 
the times (01.) of his first contending for the dramatic prize, of 
his retiring into Sicily, and of his death. Give the titles of his 
Tragedies that are extant, (arranging them in the chronological 
order of their representation) and of the plays composed by him 
from the story of Prometheus. Which of these last was a Satyric 

S. Of what persons was the Chorus usually composed ? What 
advantage did the poet derive from it ? Was their number limited X 
Could they sustain the office of Prologus ? Give Horace's des- 
cription of their character and duties. To which of the three 
Tragic Poets does he seem to give the preference in the consti- 
tution of their chorus ? Who compose the Chorus in this play ? 
Is it probable that they were numerous ? 

d. Into what feet of an Iambic Senarius can Anapsests and Dac- 
tyls be admitted? Does the rule hold with respect to proper 
names ? Why cannot the third and fourth feet be included in the 
same word? In what cases only can the fifth foot of a Tragic 
Senarius be a Spondee? What is the Caesura? In a Senarius 
where must it fall to be most harmonious ? How many kinds are 
there of this Caesura ? What is the Quasi Caesura ? What are the 
properties of an Anapaestic dimeter, acatalectic and catalectic? 

4. Translate the following passage into English Prose : 

rijc KoKkuciipTrov ScKcXiac \tvpdc yvac* v. 347 — 69. 


Enumerate die different kind« «f xepavi^. What names did the 
Greeks and Latins give to places stmck by lightning ? Give their 
derivation, and the titles of the Deity to whom they were conse- 
crated. What is the derivatioD and exact meaning of the Homeric 
word wapviopoQl How does it sometimes obtain the signification of 
fatmu ? Had ^schylus in view any particular eruption of ^tna! 
Quote the similar passage from Virgil relating to this mountain. 
By whose agency does he consider the eruptions produced? 
GKve your reasons for supposing with Elmsley the whole of this 
passage a continuation of the speech of Prometheus beginning rd 
fUv tr ewaivhi, Koi^fifi Xif^w wort, 

5. What is Dawes's Canon regarding the power of the inceptive 
p? Can you produce any lines from this play that militate against 
it ? State the more certain rule by which it has been superseded. 

6. Explain the construction of the particles cva, «Jci oir6»c» o^po, 
followed by the indicative mood, and translate the following pas- 

CI yap fA vwo y^v, vipBtv ff Al^ov 
rou ycKpo^yfioyoQ etc diriparroy 
rdpTCLpov ^irev, ZtirfioiQ aXvroic 
dyplotg ireXdtmct «C fiifre 6coc» 
/LM^rc rcc aWot roiaf cyeyi|6ci. 

Can you cite any other passage in this play where 5irMc is fol- 
lowed by a similar construction. 

7. Point out the errors of the following passages as edited by 
Stanley : 

iipxOifi^ oituQ alKl€uai 

Koievfyi irpvroc iy ivyoitri KytthaXa 
(ivyXattri 2ovXcvovrai trtifuurly ff £irwc 
Oyfiroie fuylariay hdh(y)(pt fur)(dTif^riay 

• 10. ri ydp TTor i^y iKwinly apx^c A/a ; 
fjiotfA ay, oT/iQi, n/vS* i^ovtra avfi/^opdy. 
wwc 2* ovK etv, ifriQ ix Acoc wtryw KUKtSc* 


if^vpoy elicri wdt^a, Kovre irXivOv^elc 
^/lovc TTpotniXovs sltraVf ov ivXovpylav' 
Kartapv\€e ^ evat^Vf iS<rr deltntpoi 
fAvpfiriKEC, avTptav iv fivxoic dvriXlott. 

.... uvvvoiq, Ik hdnToiMu iciap, 
opQv ifiawvv J^£ wpOiTtkovfuvov. 

Translate the two last passages, and quote the lines from Apollo- 
nius and Ovid, explaining the origin o£ wpoviXrivoi* 

8. What are the characteristics of the Ionic and Attic dialects, 
as to Augments and Contractions? Point out the error of Schutz's 
note on die word VKtB^y viz. " prsesens pro futuro : etsi antecessit 
cnroKpvt/^i. Hanc temporum enallagen Tragicus noster frequentat." 

9. ytray. Give the Ionic and Attic forms of the persons of tliis 
iense.-^viyXcfJcf vfjtmCf &c. Give Blomfleld's remarks on the deri- 
vation of these words. — irayoc, pagus. Assign a reason for the 
difference of quantity in these words. 

10. Illustrate the force of the middle voice in the following 

ylyytiHTKe travrov Koi fuOdpfuxrai rpovovQ. 

And in the word oriKXiirBaL in the sense of cavere. 

11. 6 ^ €gr€ IIvOw icaxl Att»^«Jyi}y vvkvovc 
OeoTTpoirovg laXX£v, k. r. X. 

Is £schylu8 guilty of an anachronism in this passage ? Grive 
briefly the origin ofthe Dodonaean oracle. Where was Dodona? 

12. Point out any of the passages from this play that may oc- 
cur to you which Milton has either borrowed or imitated in the 
Paradise Lost, and some of the more remarkable words and phrases 
for which ^schylus is indebted to Homer. 

18. Translate the following Chorus into English Prose : 
fAtfidfA 6 ndvra yefjuar 

.... « 

TiOwy iiiftofra mtvoKtierpov, 5M — 60. 

\ -■ 


St. JOHN'S COLL. 1823. 

1. Give proofs of the estimation in which .£schylu8 was held by 
the Athenians generally, and by ancient critics. Aristophanes has 
described a contest between him and Euripides. Give an account 
of it, and mention some of the epithets applied to him by his rival. 
Shew that the common story representing the Chorus in the 
Eumenides is improbable. 

2. At what time of the year was the Athenian vintage ? Does 
it correspond with the time of the festivals at which Tragedies were 
acted? Mention the regulations adopted with regard to the 
appointment of the Judges, of the Choruses, and of the Actors, and 
the time allowed to each Poet How often in the day was the 
Theatre filled, and what number of people was it capable of con- 

3. In what kind of metre originally were the satyric verses, and 
what is the reason given by Aristotle ? Which of the extant Playa 
contains most of this metre? Who was the inventor of the regular 
satyric drama ? How many of this species have been preserved, 
and what reason may be assigned for the number being small ? 

4. From what two causes, according to Aristotle, did poetry, in 
general derive its origin ? Of the parts of qualky into which he 
divides Tragedy, for what reason does he ascribe the greatest impor- 
tance to the fable? State also in what respects he considers Tragic 
Poetry to have the superiority over Epic. 

5. Explain the * quasi caesura,' and in what manner the harmony 
of lines is improved by it, where the * caesura' is wanting : also the 
pause, and the reason for it. In lines which have neither * caesura ' 
nor ' quasi caesura,' what may the omission be intended to denote ? 
Where a tribrach is admitted into any place, or an anapaest into the 
first place of a line, are these feet usually comprised in one word, or 
divided between different words ? 

^ C Troch. Tetram. Cat 1 State the rules for the construction 
1 Anap. Tetram. Cat J of these. In the former is an anapaest 
admitted ? In what eoen feet of the latter is a dactyl admitted, and 
where it is admitted, what foot usually precedes it ? 

ST. John's coll. .265 

7. Ky, fip, fiK, &c. Write down Dawes' rules, by which the 
quantity of a syllable preceding a concurrence of consonants like 
these is determined. How far does he say they are applicable to 
Tragic as well as to Comic Writers 1 Prove the inaccuracy of them 
by instances, and give the remarks made on the same point by 

8. Translate the following passage into Ghreek Iambics : 

Then Ml look up; 

My fault is past. But oh, what form of prayer 
Can serve my turn ? Forgive me my foul murder ! 
' That cannot be, since I am still possessed 
Of those effects, for which I did the murder, 
My crown, mine own ambition, and my queen. — 
In the corrupted currents of this world, 
Ofifence's gilded hand may shove by justice. 
And of^ 'tis seen, the wicked prize itself 
Buys out the law ; but 'tis not so above : — 

9. Draw a map of the Pontus Euxinus : mark the courses of the 
principal rivers which fall into it, the position of the nations border- 
ing upon it which are mentioned in this Play, and the part in which * 
you suppose Prometheus to have been bound. 

10. "Er^Kcva, fUkott vfivoc, wdpo^f ffra^c/iov, KOfifwc, Explain 
these terms. Give the substance of Blomfield's remarks on the 
words dfiojfii, n|Xc<Sc» cVcJw/ioc, fiaoooy^ *A.ipaaT€ia» If you questiqn 
the accuracy of any of them, state your reasons. 

1 1 . Kalroi fx ov fuXxyktiffaoig ireiBovc, 
TwJMva Oovpov, irdar* oc dvriani Beoif^ 

Ov ^iira, irply ay iyiay ay Ik ^etrfjuiy Xv6elc. 

T^ ffiic TTope/ac /Li»^fia rote vaai fipcroig* 

Toy iififiapToyr etc 0covc« roy ifrffupoig 

Tlopoyra rt/iac- 
Explain the errors of these lines, and correct them. In what 
manner is the translation of the last passage affected by the correc- 
tion which Blomfield adopts? A change has been made by one 
Editor in the arrangement of the first system of anapaests in this play. 
State Butler's opinion upon it. 

12. ove/fHira, jcXiy^vcc, wrrjatc oiuytay. Describe the modes of 
divination by these. irXiydv^eic ^ofjun, wf dpfxaeriy tmroi, dpidfioQ, 


ypafifidrwy avvBitntg. Quote authorities on which these iDTentions, 
claimed by Prometheus, are ascribed to others. At what time was 
the complete Alphabet publicly adopted at Athens ? 

J 3. dKapTTiara irc&a 2iic£X/ac. How is this expression of Euripi- 
des to be interpreted ? Give the date of the eruption of MttiB, to 
which ^schylus alludes, rocc we^apvloit icrviroic triaroc Quote 
other instances of verbal adjectives having an active signification, 
ovirore, ovTranrore. To what tenses are these joined ? ovr£f ovhe, 
fjiiihf &c. also ovdtttt /ivr^c/C' These not being used indiscriminately, 
quote or frame instances in which some of them are rightly used, 
and the others would be incorrect wpiy ay (followed by the subjunc- 
tive), Cpv, ^pfvf fiiXXbft ypaipeu, firj, oil, trxeOeiv, What remarks on 
these words has Elmsley made? 

14. Authwyri. Herodotus consulted the Priestesses as to the ori- 
gin of this oracle. What information did he receive from them ? 
What account does he give of lo ? Does he accede to the opinion, 
which prevailed in his time, that the Niger and the Nile are one 
river ? State the objections that are made to it. 

15. Determine the usage of the Tragic writers in the following 
particulars, and support what you advance by quotations or re- 
ferences : (1) The omission of the augment Mention some verbs 
which are singular in this respect, or in the formation of it. (2) 
The admission of an hiatus, and the quantity of the diphthong if it 
be admitted : also the elision of vowels or non-elision in .any words 
and cases, and at the end of a hue. (3) The duplication of a, as 
in ifftrofiatf fiifftro^. (4) The quantity of diphthongs in the middle 
of words, such as ococ, roujvToct tococi yepococy &c. and the qu^tity 
of a privativum. 

16. irpoirdtra ^ rj^ri trrovoev Ko\\Uai re yd^ eyoucoi 
XcXoucE X^P^t /leyaXo- ^opOcvoc, fidxaic arpcirroc, 
0XOf*oya T dpx^unrpewfj ical Sm^Oiic ofuXoCf ol yds 
trTEVovtri rdv irdy ^vyoftai- tty\CLToy rowoy a^c Mat- 
fjL6vQ)v re Tifidvy oiroaw r tariv exov9i Xifiyay, 
eiroucoy ay vac * A viae Apo/Scac r apetoy aydo^f 
llh}Q yifwyrai, /icyoXo- v)l/iicprifAyoy oi iroXifffia 
arovoKn trptQ mifuttri 9vy- KavKatrov ircXac ytfioyrai, 

Kafiyovai dvrfroi, ccuot ^rparoc, o^virpw- 

poitn ftpEfiuy cvacx/icitc* 

ST. Peter's coll. 267 

Explain the construction of this metre : also of simple dochmiacs, 
and the versus Glyconeus Pherecrateus. Translate the passage into 
English or Latin verse, and accentuate the concluding lines. 


St. PETER'S COLL. 1824. 

L Compare the political and literary state of Athens in. the time 
of ^schylus with that of England in the time of Shakespeare. 
What points of resemblance, and what of difference, may be ob- 
served in the style and genius of these poets ? 

XL Construct a Grecian theatre ; give the origin and explain the 
nature and oflSce of the Chorus. What proportion of importance 
do the three Tragedians respectively give to it, and which of them 
has most conformed to the dramatic laws in this respect ? 

in. ooTiQ f^vkatrtni wpayoQ €v vpvfiyri iroXeiiic 

mora vutfitaVf jSXc^ofm ^1/ Koifiiav viryta, 

1. Accentuate and mark the spiritus of these lines, and explain 
the meaning of Anastrophe. 

2. Define metaphor, trope, personification, simile and allegory, 
and from your definition shew to which class the passage here quoted 

3. Is there any instance of synizesis in these lines, — to poets of 
what dialect is it peculiar, — and how is it limited in Homer ? 

4. What is the allusion of Plato to this passage ? 
IV. fifj fwi woXiv ye vpefivodey jtaviokSpov 

iKdafivltnfre ^jjoXfiirov, *£XXaSoc 

1. Translate this passage. What is meant by *EXXa&>c ijSoyyov 
yicveavf and iroKiv fxfj v^Qff irepo^iavf trrparf in a subsequent 
line ? 


2. What do you mean by dialect ? Give a full account of the 
Greek dialects, the ages and principal writers in each, and the 
countries in which they prevailed. 

d. What is the construction of p; with the imperative and sub- 
junctive moods in a prohibitory sense ? 

V. ^1} loKJitrdrta rivL — /ii|S£ r^ hohjf iraXi^'. How do you account 
for these two forms of ZokIw ; which is the more modem, and 
which the more poetical ? 

VL oc IffT opBuQ Koi ToKvvtiKtic 

Kar iiriayvfjilayf 
wXoyr a<rc/3ci ^iaKo/9. 
Explain the allusion of this. Give the laws of the Anapaestic metre. 
What is the nature of the verse which concludes the system, and 
whence derived ? What is the preceding verse also called ? Ex- 
plain the terms ffvytuf^eta and d^ia^opla* 

VII. Translate the following passage into literal English Prose : 
XO. Ilc^uca ray tJKttrlotKov 

. . » • 

ircikaioitn ovfifityeig roicocc* v. 705 — 26. 

1 . Point out the Doricisms, and state why that dialect is found in 
the Chorus. 

2. Mention the metres of the first Strophe. 

3. Illustrate the most striking parts of this extract by parallel 

4. What are the derivations of these words : — irc^ura, evKralav, 
TcuhoKirwp, yprijiarohcdrac^ and avro^cujcnit ? 

5. Trace the genealogy of the family of CEdipns. 

6. r/c av KadapfwvQ wopoi ; riq av tr^t Xovtreuy : Explain the cus- 
tom here alluded to. Mention the different powers of the adverb 
av, with the indicative and optative moods. 

VIII. Translate the following into Latin Hexameters, or English 
blank verse : 

Tv&wc /i€v fi^ri TpOQ TTvXaitn Upoirim 

irXe/6pii)v XvOevritfv, rrpotrrareiy ^piyyvoQ ; v. S61 — 81. 

IX. Translate the following into Greek Iambics : 

Hast thou given the horse strength? Hast thou clothed his 
neck with thunder ? Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper ? 
the glory of his nostrils is terrible. He paweth in the valley, and 


rejoiceth ^in his strength : he goeth on to meet the armed men. 
He mocketh at fear, and is not affirighted ; neither turneth he back 
from the sword. The quiver rattleth against him, the glittering 
spear, and the shield. He swalloweth the growid with fierceness and 
rage : neither believeth he that it is the sound of the trumpet. He 
saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha ; and he smelleth the battle afar 
joffy the thunder of the captains, and the shouting. 


1. In what ^ecies of songs did Comedy and Tragedy respec- 
tively originate t Does there appear to have been any essential 
difference between Comedy and Tragedy before the time of Thespis? 
l¥hat was the nature of the ancient Comedy, and to what kind of 
subjects do the plays of Epicharmus appear to have related ? Is it 
probable that Comedy, considered as expressive of the transactions 
'Of common life, was anterior or posterior to Tragedy ? 

S. What was the distinction between the Old and New Comedy ? 
To which class does that of Aristophanes belong ? Translate the 
following passage : JLufifiBiv ^ aZ koX mjcwc Xeyeiv noi' fiiv Brjfiov 
cvK iwriVf (va fc^ wrol aKoviaei kokQq' IS/f ^e iceXevoviriv, el Wc nva 
fiovXeratf ei ecSoreCf on ovyi rov hriiwv lariv^ cvhi rov irXijdovc 6 KUfi^- 
iovfAEvoc tic M TO woXv, oXX* ij rXovcrtoc, fj ytvpoiocy V ^vrdfuyof, 
Xenoph. de Athen. Repub. ii. 8. Who were the vXovfnoi attacked 
by Aristophanes, who the ycwaloi, who the ^vvdfuyoi ? 

8. Had the Satyric compositions in honour of Bacchus any con- 
nexion with the Dramas which formed a part of the rcrpoXoy/cu ? 
Translate and reconcile the following passages : 

"En 2e [i) rpayf^la^ ro fuyiOoc Ik fuxpGy fivdntv ica2 Xi^^ofc yeXo/ac, 
^ca TO tK trarvpiKov lurafiaKjuv^ ^t dir€tr€fiyvy6fi^ Aristot Poet. x. 

Uparii'ac — iroiiynjc TpayfUaQ. dyrfiy^yl(€ro ^e Alaj(y^f te Kal Xoc* 
p/Xfi eirc Tfjc ipiofuiKOOTtic *0\v/Liirui2oCf Ktd Tptirog eypaif^e Sarvpovc. 

What was the metre of the satyric Songs according to Aristotle ? 
Does the same measure prevail in that satyric Drama which has 
come down to us ? 


4. Mention the several changes which Tragedy underwent, and 
the different persons by whom the successive improvements were 
introduced. Translate the following passage : 

Ofiotoraroi yap $l(nv oi roiol^i roitri TrapeKrayofUvoun Tpo<niwwj9w ey 
ryvi Tpayf^li^tn, iJc yap eKeivoi trxfjfia fuv koX aroXiivf Ktu Tpoountotf 
vwoKpirov ixovtriv, ovk eltri ^i viroKpiral, ovtu koi oi itfrpolf ^/ip ftir 
iroXXol, ipyf ^£ vdyxy (ilatoi. Hippocrates* 

5. Translate the following pass^e : 

At. ev^v ttrr Evpitrlhrfg ; 

K17. OVK ey&>v, iy^oy itrrivf tl yviJ/ii;v ex^'C* 

Ac. friac iv^y, eTr ovk eyioy ; 

K17. opdwQ ia yipoy* 

6 vovc fuy, i^u ^vWiytay ^VuXXux, 
ohK iyhoy* ahroc ^ ly^y ava/3adi}v tou* 

At. iKKoXetrov ai/roy, 

Krf. aXX* atvvaroy. 

At. aXX' ofAutc. 

£v. ttXX' ov* o^^oXi}.- 

Ac. aXX' iKKVKkffirtr , 

Ev. oXX* dhvyaroy. 

Ac. aXX* o/Mi»c- 

£v. aXX* iKKvkkfiirofmi'^ Karafiaiyeiv $' oh trxpkii, 

Arist. Acham. 395. 
Do you read Tpvy^blay with Bentley ; or rpayia^iav with Branck 1 
Explain the terms aVa/Sa^ijv, cmcvjcXccv. 

6. Translate and explain the following expressions : 
vTTOicpcnjc — Tpirayatvurnic — hhdtrKoXoQ tov ')(opov — eKmceva — vapa- 

')(ppiiyriiJLa'^i\uyihric mypdiftri^id to rrefreiy rd hcpla hrijUtKVVfUvom 

Point out the difference between dvaltldtrKiiy and hiaaKEvdJ^tiy, 

7. In what estimation does ^schylus appear to have been held 
by the Athenians ? Was any encouragement given to those who 
after his death chose to reproduce his Dramas ? Were they ever 
allowed to be brought forward at the tragic contests for the prise T 
What is Quintilian's statement on this subject ? 

8. Arrange in chronological order the remaining plays of Mb* 
chylus. Did any of them belong to the same riTpakoyia ? 


Aa9)(. s tovq Eirr* irrl 6i}j3a£. 

Aco;^. cira ^iSa{oc TUpaac furd ravr', irtdvfjitiv c{c^/2a{a. 

Ran. 1021. 
0{ Ilepflrac rpiorepov hththayfuvoi elvlj eira ol £irr* M Gi}/3ac. 

Schol. in Ranas. 
How do you reconcile these accounts 1 

9. Mention some of the most remarkable occurrences in the life 
of iSschylus. *Orc ^ AltryvKoCt ^larplipctc iv SciccX/^, voKkaic tceydpti^ 
rai ipwydic ^ucekucais, obhiv Oav/iaoroV. Athenseus ix. 

What causes have been assigned for his quitting Athens for 
Sicily ? Is it probable that he visited that country more than once ? 
Can you mention any {^ay or plays in which a greater number of 
Dorisms is observable than in his others 1 Can you point out any 
Doric or ^olic words, or allusions to Sicily in any of the earlier 
plays? Do you conceive that any argument derived from such 
considerations as these, can be applied to determine the chronologi- 
cal order of the plays which remain to us ? 

10. By whom, according to Homer, was Thebes waUed and 
fortified ? Is the war which it sustained against the Seven Chiefs 
authenticated by ^omer, or Hesiod ? Are there any allusions in 
either of these Poets to the subsequent expedition of the Epigoni ? 
By whom was it commanded according to Euripides, and what was 
the result of the contest ? Quote the passages referred to. 

11. V. 17. 4 ydp viovQ epirovrac thfuvti vi^f 

tOpiyl/ar*, oUnrrifpac dtfircdi|^povc 
TTiarovi, oTTCiic yivoitrdt rrpoc "XP^^ r6^€, 
ii yap. State the peculilirity here. Is the article ever used 
nakedly in this sense ? 

Is Srrufc yivriaOt legitimate ? State Dawes' Canon respecting the 
Use of "iva, oi^a, us, &c. to denote a purpose. Is the syntax in the 
following instances correct ? ' 

'AXX' €Iq ro^ rjXQov, irac^c cic^£l{aA fpiva 

rov (Tov Sticacav, cJc vir' evKktlas Oaio^. Hipp. 1293. 

tvravBa TttfiTTEi Tov<r^, ^iruc • • . • 

iCTilyouy ev^tlpiaTOv'VtKKiiviay irrpaTOv. Pcrs. 456. 


J 2m V. 61. imruciiy it wvtvfioykfv. 

" T\£vfi6vvy Bninck. utpote magis Atdcum." 

Mention any words, of which the Tragic form differs from that of 
more recent Attic. Point out any Ionic words or forma of words 
which occur in the Dialogue of iBschylus. 

13. V. 75. ikivdipay ^ yijy re ical Ko^/iov woXiy 

(vyoifri iovktioitn fiiiwore trxeOtir. 
Supply the eUipse. 

^(Xtoy avlpa fiij Biv^, Rhes. 687* 

Fvvfluxcct opfUfOiyrc, fiii^ oBvfda 

^iBfl TtQ vftdc Eur. Alcmaeon. 
What tenses are Biyj^c^ ^X^^ • — ^^^ ^^y s<> necessarily ? 

14. OK fidget Pperiwy ixeaBau Translate this. 

Point out any other verbs which have a similar government in the 
middle voice, and explain the reason of it. 

Translate, oiroca Kiffiroe 2pvoc» otu^c T^tr^ iifipai, Hec. 896. 

15. V. 98. iriirXiay. Quote any instance of sudi supplications 
from Homer, or Virgil. Were ofierings of a similar kind ever 
made at the tombs -of the dead, in a later period of Greece ? 

16. V. 195. tI ^ ovy ; d Favnyc i^ fiij c<c Tptipay ^/vytir 

Tpyfiyifierf afp£ fjaf)(ayriy trurrfpias ; 
Translate this accurately. Were the tutelary gods of the Romans 
at the prow or the stern ? 

1 7* V. 228. fifi wy, idy ByiiffKoyraQ if Ttrpvfuycvs 

TvBfiaBe* . . . Explain and give similar instances. 

18. V. 237. ov ffiya firi^ey rfvZ^ kpti^ Kara irrokiy 
V. 239. (AfK tlQ ^Q6poy tfiyHa* dyaayj^tnL rdJtt 

How do you point these lines ? Is ovk etc t^opav analogous to 
the OVK eQ icopcucaQ of the Comics ? 

1 9. Translate and explain the sense of the following : 

CvfijSoXei jtipiay f^poyri, 
icai Ktyoc KEVOV KoXei^ 
iuyyofioy Bikvy exEiyp 
ovrt fuloy, ovr* tffOK Xe- 
XifAfUyoi, V. 345. 

20. V. S52» Translate irto^^y dkyvyei Kvptjaaf, 

Is the expression ircflrwv icvp^aat the same as ftapfiaipovjay tvpilr 
(v. 397.) ? 


Is mpeiF ever used in this sense witbont a participle ? What is 
Porson'JB Canon respecting rvyxdvw 1 Produce instances which 
militate against it 

21. V. 4 1 0. Siroprwv h* dv* dvlptHv^' iv "AfH^c i^ti^oro. 

Give from Euripides or any other Poet, the fable of the origin of 
the Sparti. What is Bryant's hypothesis respecting them ? What: 
arguments have been used to shew that the Colony which founded 
Thebes came originally from Egypt? 

22. V. 462. dviip I* ovXirric rXi/iaicoc wpo<rafApdatic 

OTtL\ii irpOQ ijfiptfv mipyov. Translate this. 

" Nemo interpretum vidit artixEi aetivo sensu usurpari." Vid. 
Pors. ad Orest. 142*. 

Are the instances collected by Porson in the note here referred 
to, strictly analogous to the case in the text ? 

23. V. 469. Kol iij ff-ere^nT^ ov Kopwoy iv xepoiy ix^y* 

What objection is there to this reading? How remedied? Explaia 
the force of the reading you adopt. 

24. V. 476. loofiiraC hr oXXi^. Explain the peculiarity of dic- 
tion here, and quote similar instances. 

t5. V. 492. tyBiOQ ^"Apei 

I3aic)((^ wpOQ dXaiyt ^id^ «c, ^fiov fiXiirttv, 
Produce instances where the particle of comparison is omitted. 

26. V. 687. From what sources do the Greeks appear chiefly 
to have derived their metaphors ? Could you from considerations 
of this nature infer any thing respecting the character, habits, and 
employments of the Athenians 1 Support your opinions by instances 
from the Thebes, or elsewhere. 

27. V. 710. Xeyocr' av iv dv^ rtf ov H XP'? fJMKpdv, 
Give your reading of this line, and interpret it. 

28. V. 856. viKvooToXov Otioplha, 

Is there any mention in Homer or Hesiod of Charon ? From 
what nation is it probable that the Greeks derived this part of their 
mythology 1 Quote any instance where the word (idpic is used of 
the boat of Charon. From what language did the Greeks adopt 
the word ? Point out the propriety of using it in the following 
lines from the Supplices of ^schylus. 

V. SSS. ffovode, 90vaB* M fidpiv, 

V. 879. fiaivtiv KiXevw jSopiv c2c dfA^trrpo^v, 



Hd, V. 974. Mention any discrepancies between the story of 
OBdipiu as delivered by ^schybis, and by the other Tragedians. 

SO. V. 1059. yivos ttXitrare TepifivoBtv olhttc* 
V. 1 063. dKkd ^(iovfjuUf Kaworpiirofiai, 

Is there any violation of tragic usage in either of these lines T 
Can you produce similar instances? Is ^schylus more or less 
sparing in the admission of licences than the later Tragedians ? Is 
there any difference in this respect observable between the earlier 
and later plays of Euripides ? 


1 . What appears to have been the origin of Tragedy ? Give a 
brief account of its progressive improvements from Thespis to Eu- 

2. Give Aristotle's definition of Tragedy, and explain the terms 
of the definition. 

3. What are the parts of Tragedy, Kara ro woiov ? 

4. What, according to Aristotle, are the species of Tragedy? 
Under what class is the Septem contra Thebas placed? 

5. State the particulars which are known of fschylus. In what 
light is he represented by Aristophanes? and how was he r^^arded 
by Sophocles and Euripides ? What are his peculiar merits and 


6. Shew that, according to the idea of Aristotle, this play is a fit 

subject for Tragedy. VHiat appears to have been the period when 
it was acted, and what the motive of the author in representing it I 
?• What are the discrepancies in the accounts of CEdqpus, as given 
by Homer, and later writers) Relate it briefly firom Laius to the 
Epigonif with dates. 

8. Compare the Septem contra Thebas with the Phoenissse, in its 
plot and its characters ; and shew in what respects the excellencies 
and defects of each are characteristic of their authors. 

9. What plays, extant, lost, or of which firagments only remain, 
were written on subjects connected with CEdipus and his fiunily by 
iBschylus, Sophodes, and Euripides 1 


10* Translate, 

aXX* etc T ciraXScic coi irvXac irvpy»^rwy 

opfiuirBe iravrec, <rwa6t aiv iravrtvyl^ 

vXfipovre Oupaictia, icdvl ffiXfMat 

irvpyiav ara9i|re, rol irvXwy eir* cjo^occ 

filfiyovrect ^v Bapirtire' V. 30 — 5. 
Why 18 sach reading of the last line to be preferred to /ilfivwrec 
cvOapmre? What is the difference in regnnen of fJ^/Selv and cS 

11. V. 80. dpouficu ^fiepd, c. r. \. Give instances of the most 
regular forms of Dochmiac verses in the Tragedians ; and mention 
the licences which seem to have been generally admissible. Whence 
are the names of metrical feet in many instances derived ? From 
what remark of Athenseus respecting instructions given by iEschylus 
to his Chorus has a reason been deduced for the great irregularity 
of some of his Choric songs ? How is the Doric dialect in the Cho- 
ruflses to be accounted for ? Give a list of' words which retain die 
Doric form in the Attic dialogue. 

12. V. 98. wiwXuy ral me^t^y irir\ el firi rvv, afi' 

^ \trdy ilfiiAtv ; 
TranslatCi and quote instances of similar construction. 

13. v.. 138. ' irol W, Avcec' amt, Xvcccoc yevov 

OTparf daf^. 
What are the derivations given of the epithet Avkiioc ? Is it pro- 
bable that the poeU in the use of this and similar appellations of 
their deities, restricted themselves to any single etymology of 

14. V. 180. K€l fAij TIC dpf^c r^c cf^nc wmvotTOi 

dvnPf Vyv «» X**" ^**^ fifTolxfuoVt 
if^^oc Kar avrmv SKtdpia j3ovXev0rerai, 
XEvtrrijpa ^fjuv 2* otffc /ii| fvyjf fwpor. 
Translate this passage. What is the Attic future of cucovw ? What 
are the forms of the future tense having a passive signification ? 

15. V. 195. vetaQ Kaficvofic Tovrif trpac KVfiari ; 

What is remarkable in the syntax of this line ? Collect instances 
of construction and modes of expression from the plays of £schy- 
lits which serve to mark their antiquity. 



16. V. 188, i ^ur wcov" 

mum Tor dpftaTOKrvror orofioy^ 6t€ y 
ai ovpiyy€Q €K\ayia.y iXirpoxoit 
imriJCA'v r dypvTcv^v 
mfitiKi^v Bid trrofia 
irvpiyeyirdy ^^aXtvwv. 
If the syntax of this extract, as it here stands* correct ? If not 
correct it, and translate the passage. Give another reading and 

17. V. 2S2. ovrai ^vd. The common reading is ovri ^Boyd^ 
Why is the former to he preferred ? 

18. V. 236. iinUv riivS ipu£ Kara VTi>av, Quote instances of 
this syntax, and explain the force of it. 

19* V. 238. ovr elc ^Qopov tnydo* dyaffx^creiraU; Translate, 
and explain the -construction. 

20. V. 246. d MfiQ teXoc. What are the expressions for " uti- 
nam" in Grreek ? Give instances of the imitation of the Greek mode 
of expression from the Latin poets. 

21. V. 251. What is meant hy imt oZa dyaXftdnay ? 

22. V. 264. Xd^pa ^wy BavpCKsi^. What Ionic words are 
found in the Tragedies, and how may their introduction be accounted 
for 1 Was the aame licence in this respect allowed to the Co- 

'23. V. 295. vBup T€ Acp- 

Koiioyf ivrpa^aTaroy 
Why is evrpof^ffraroy preferable to tw-pi^araroy the common 
reading ? What is Person's remark respecting the forms mJ/ia and 
wJ^ in Attic writers ? 

24. V. 300* iFpOQ rdj^f i ircXuov^oi 

Oioif nlm, fiiy H** 
Tvpytav dy^poXerttpay 
Kol ray fil}lwirkDy &ray 
e/i/3aXayr£c, SipoiaBe 
JCvSoc TOia^e mXirtuc' 
arai iroXcciic pvropte 
evtipoi re ffrddffr 
ofvyootc Xirainy* 


Translate this passive. What is the emendation proposed by Her- 
man in the fourth line, and why ought it probably to be received? 
Illustrate the construction apoioBe kv^c roitrie voXItcuq. What is 
generally the force of c2 in compound adjectives ? 

25. V. 371. Xdyoifi ay, €i3a»c e2, ra rwv ivavrltav. Shew that 
the introduction of the description of the Chiefs by Euripides is 
more skilfully managed than by ^chylus. Compare the merits of 
the two descriptions. 

26. V. 376. Tv^evc ^ fiofyyiv, k, r. X. 

Quote the description of Tydeus from the Phoenissse. Do the two 
Tragedians agree in making Amphiaraus the only chief who bore 
aarifjia 6vKa ? 

27. V. 398. rdx iy yiyoiro fidyrig tvvoiq, rivL 
another reading is ra'x* ^y yiyoiro fidync rj dvola nvi. 

Translate each : which is to be preferred ? Give the rules with the 
most material exceptions, for the quantity of the final syllable of 
feminine substantives ending in a. 

28. V. 477. eir£vxofia« JiJ rf^t fiiy evrv\tiy. 

How is this line to be rendered in English ? Quote instances of 
similar construction. 

29. V. 505. t)(6poc yap artip ayhpif Tia f;uaTfi<rerau 

Write down the various readings of this line ? What are the diffi- 
culties of it ? Translate the reading which you select, and state 
why you prefer it. 

30. V. 587. dtnrl^ evKVKXoy yifuay. 

What is the quantity of a ^ort vowel followed by a sof^ or aspirate 
mute with any of the liquids X, /i, v, p, or by a middle mute with p, 
in poets of different ages ? What rule may be given for its quan- 
tity in prose writers? 

31. V. 701 . rl yvv ir ay (ralvoifuy oXiSptoy popoy ; 

other readings are W ovv, rl y ovv. What is the objection to each 
of them ? Propose a reading not liable to them. 

32. Translate the following pass^e: 

dWd yap rJKOvff ocd* ^irc npdyoQ 

ijfipoy waidy eVt/iiXirecv. v. 859 — 67. 
State the rules for the construction of an anapaestic system. When 
is it most complete ? Mention the principal licences in this metre. 


What do you understand by if/iyov 'Epcnwc — ff-alava A3tiaV 
d3t V. 896. What is the allusion in the words 

fuyel fcriavd r iinyovoi^ ? 
34f V. 1059. yiyoc tiXiffare wpifjiyodsy ovTiaQ' 
V. 1068. dKXd ^jSovfcai, icairorpciro^cu. 
What is Porson's conclusion with respect to the difficulties in tiM 
scanning of the above lines ? 

85. Translate the following lines into Latin Hexameters : 
Jj dttoy ipyoy Koi Oeoiai irpov^tXict 

wifiirtiy nracvw. dccvdc oq 6eovc ^ifiit* v* 576— 9S. 




1. Give a brief summary of the most important critical dis- 
coveries of Bentley, Dawes, and Porson. 

II. 1. From what Choruses did Tragedy and Comedy re- 
spectively originate ? 

2. VHiat was the Uapdliams of Comedy ? In what metre was i( 
written ? And on what subjects ? 

8. Explain the difference between the Old and New Comedy ; 
and state the causes that led to the change. ' 

4. At what festivals did the dramatic contests take place at 
Athens ? And with how many pieces did they contend ? 

III. Shew from Horace, 

1. Who was the mventor of Iambic Verse ? 

2. What is its peculiar fitness for Dramatic Poetry ? 

8. And why, and with what limitation, the Spondee was ad* 

IV. 1, What waa the character of Phrynichus as a.Tragedian t 


Tranabte the foUowing : 

cat TO ^pvyi')(iiov 
ccXfucritfctrw rie* ^«Cf 
lioyrtQ ayw mcXoCi 

&i^9iy ol diaral. Aristoph. Vesp, 1482 — 5. 
f • Whose scholar was he ? And what variations from the model 
of his master did he introduce? 

3. How long did he flourish ? And what play, with what suc- 
cess, and how long hefore this of iBschylus, did he write on the 
subject of the Persa ? 

V. 1. When and where was ^schylus bom? In what public 
events was he engaged? Where did he die? in what year from 
the battle of Salamis, and what from the beginning of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War ? 

2. What is the peculiar style of his writings ? And how is it 
characterized by different writers ? 

3. In what light is he represented by Aristophanes ? And how 

was he regarded by Sophocles and Euripides ? 


VI. What are the principal characteristics of the Attic dialect? 
How many gradations of it were therei and who were the chief 
writers in each? With what other dialect had the Attic any 

VII. What are the parts of Tragedy Kara wdoov ? Illustrate it 
by reference to the Perta, 

VIII. 1. What argument can be drawn from the prevalence of 
Trochaic Verses in the Ptrsa ? 

St. By what epithet does Aristotle characterise Trochaics ? And 
what laws has Porson laid down for the construction of a Tragic 

Tetrameter ? 


3. Shew how the following are faulty, and correct them : 
ravrd fwi &irXi$ H^PH'^^* afpatrro^ iariv iv ^aly, v. 170. 
wpoQ ra^i tic ixorrktv ow-tiQ Ttipiit b^fApovXoi \iyov* 175. 
r^y ifuiy yepaui Xiicrptay ^vyyofi\ ivytyit yvvcu. 710. 

4. What foot has the following in the sixth place ? Is it correct ? 

Touii fioi yevcffdc, IlepMiv yrfpakia wian^fiarO' 1 76. 

IX. 1. What verse is the following? 

{ if dtti fuov fiaKOfUraCf Imialfuay fiaviKevQ ; 659. 


2* What is the name of the following lysteni ? Explain par- 
ticularly the last verse, and shew how it has a place in this system. 

Kvayovv ^ Sfifuuri Xevaa^y 
^yiov lipyfia ^poxoi^roc* 
iroXv^cip teal rroXvravrat^ 
Xvptov ff apfia iuaKwy, 
ttraytt hovpucXvroiQ dv 
^paat roio^fivov" Apiiy, BS — 8« 

X. What was the probable number and constitution of the 
Chorus in the Perste ? Translate Kara wpeafielav rove alroe amC 
SCif^rie eiKtro xdpaQ i^optveiy, and say if any light can be thrown 
on the subject by reference to historical fact 

XI. 1 . What were the ancient names of the Medes and Per- 
sians ? And what was the occasion of the change ? 

ft. Shew whether ^schylus's account of Persian History differs 
from that of the Historians. 

3. Give a brief account of the religious worship and customs of 
the Persians ; and say whether ^schylus has introduced any cir- 
cumstances inconsistent with them. 

XII. laoywy yijy, 182. 1. What country is here intended? 
And with what propriety is it thus designated? 

2. Where was the country commonly called by this name? And 
why so caUed ? 

XIII. tlc^Tfiv fioi ivo yvvauc einlpove, 
ij ftiy irifrXoun Uepaucoic fjmcfi^yti, 
9| 2* aire Awpiicocarxy, cIq otf/iv /loXeiv, 
fuyiOei re r^y vvv einrpeweardra iroXv, 
caXXci r dfuifua^ jcal xanyyiira yivov^ 
ravToh' irdrpay ^ iyauty, if fiiy 'EXXo^a 
KXjjpf Xaxovffa yalay, ij ii fidpfiapov, 
rcvrta fncuny rty\ iJq cyw 'ioarvy opfwf 
T€v\uy iy aXk^Xtum, 1 86 — 94. 

1. Translate this passage. 

2. Compare the expression riSy yvv vhrpareardTa with similar ex- 
amples in Greek, Latin and English. 

S, Kamyynra. Explain the relation here intimated. 
4. kkiipf Xaxovoa. Illustrate this by reference to the manner in 
which Greece was originally peopled. 



5. rovroi. How is the gender accounted for? Produce examples 
of similar usage. 

6. ardffiy revxciy. Trace the origin of this quarrel from the first 
connection between the Greeks and Persians. 

XIV. TOVfirraXiy Si navh yalq, Koroxa fiavftovoOai tncorf^ 228. 
Shew the error, and correct it. 

XV. o iroc dptBfioQf 945, What was the number of ships en- 
gaged on each side in the battle of Salamis ? And what were the 
contingents furnished by the several Grecian States 1 

XVI. vKfivrla^f KOVKiT ^y ^iXXeiy 'cu:p|. 413. 
TUptrtSv SffoiTTip ^(ray ^aKfjiaioi fucriy, 4t47» 

Are both these passages correct ? What is Dawes's Canon respect- 
ing quantity in the case of a concurrence of such letters as r, /a ? 
And to what limitation is it subject ? 

XVII. oi/p/^(ii, 608. What is the regular, and what the Attic, 
future ? How do the Attics form the futures of verbs in a(t, c^w, 
and o(ta, and with what exceptions ? 

XVIII. AvSftfv di Xoov. • . .cmyVaro, 776. 

1. When was Lydia subdued ? And who was at that time King ? 

2. What femilies successively reigned in Lydia? And by what 
event did the last family obtain the throne ? 

XIX. cl firi OTfMTvioioff eic Toy *EXXtjyiay roiroy, 

fitl^* el arparevfjLa TXeloy ^ to Mrihucoy* 795 — 6« 
Corrected hy Dawes to TXeloy ccii Mti^ucoV. Point out the &ult 
both of the common reading and the correction ; and give what you 
conceive to be the true correction. 

XX. Translate the following : 

*liiy^y yap dirrgv- 
pa yavfpaxTOQ* KptiQ irepaX' 
Ki|Cf yvj(lay xXaico Ktpffdfuyo^ hte* 

^ifioyd T orraV. 942 — 5. 

XXI. a»yvy/ovc«* ••'AOavac, 967—8. Quote instances of the 
application of this epithet by the poets to different places, and explain 
its force. 

XXII. avroCf 06y wiaroy vavr o^aXfwy, 972 — 3. Explain this ; 
and mention a ludicrous use made of the BaaiXewc ofdaXfwc by 


XXIII. Trandate the following lines : 

1. Haiy€f ^laiv€ irffui, irpoc Softovc 2* lOi* 1039. 
ft, ircirXoy 2* Speure tcoXr/av aV/ijf X^*"* 10^J« 
S. ical tf«aXX' eOeipav, koI KoroiKrlffai orparov. 

airpiyy, airpiy^ay /ictXa yoc^vo. 1068—4. 
4. Ill rpimmkfioiQ (idpmr oKofuyoi, 1076. 
XXrV. To what ipecies of ancient Drama does the conclusion 
of this play bear a resemblance ? In what respect does it diflfer 
from it ? Enumerate the instances of the species referred to, which 
are found, in parts or in whole pieces, in the extant writings of the 


St. PETER'S COLL. 182;.. 

I. (a) Mention the most remarkable circumstances in the life of 
fschylus. Give the dates of his first tragic contest and of his 
first victory. What causes* and with what probability, are ass^^ned 
by various writers for his final departure firom Athens ? When and 
where did he die ? 

(6) With what dramatic writers was Aschylus cotemporary ? 
With which of them did he contend for the priae, and with what 
success ? With what Ljrric Poets was he cotemporary ? 

(c) What schools of philosophy were established in the time 
of iEschylus ? To which of them did he, according to Cicero, be- 
long ? Do you discover any traces of it in his works ? 

(d) Give a chronological abstract of the events, which during 
the lifetime of ^schylus occurred in Persia, Ionia, Greece and 
Italy. When happened ** the capture of Miletus*' ? Who exhibited 
a tragedy with that title, and what, as Herodotus relates, was its 
efiect ? On what authorities does Grecian Chronology depend 1 

II. (a) At what festivals did the tragic contests take place? 
What were the tragic, dithyrambic, and musical priaes ? What was 

8T. PBTBR'S COLli. 283 

the ipofUL ffarvpuBiyl — who according to Suidas was its inventor ? 
b any specimen of it extant ? 

(6) Explain the term TcrpoXoy/o. What three Tragedies and 
what Satyric Play composed the 'Opevrccac? — ^when was it acted? 
Arrange the extant plays of ^schylus in the received chronological 
order* What is there remarkable in the MSS. of the Agamemnon 
and Coephorae ? 

(c) Explain the following words, as used by Aristotle.: aircp- 

pitntf wapo^9 ardtrifioy, KOfAfioc, XopifTfi^t Kopw^Toct — and the follow- 
ing phrases : rd diro tnoimii^f af»ya ft«pi|t h^dtrxeiy rpayfilay, \9- 
poy iMvaim 

(d) Derive and explain die words : xttftfila, rpvyfila^ wapd- 

III. Institute a brief comparison between ^schylus, Sophocles, 
and Euripides in sty]e» in sentiment, in management of plot, in the 
conduct of the Drama, and in their Choral Odes. Support your 
assertions by quotation from their works, and from antient and mo- 
dem critics. 

IV. (a) Which were the two eldest dialects of Greece ? From 
which was the Latin language formed ? From which did the Attic 
dialect arise ? State the chief distinctions between the old and 
new Attic. Which was used by the tragic and comic Poets : by 
Thucydides, Pkto, the Orators 1 

(6) What Doric and Ionic forms are admitted into Tragic 
dialogue 1 What are the opinions of different critics on the recep* 
tion of Dorisms into Anapsestic systems, and on the omission of the 
augment in Tragedy ? 

(c) What are the chief uses of the middle voice? Distinguish 
between wpdtriru and wpdatroficu — fpd^ia and fpd(ofiai — ipwa and 
ipvofuu-^rit* and rlofjuu — Biadat vofwy and Belytu y6fioy. What are 
the general significations of verbal substantives in -rjoov (as xofutrrpoy 
in this play) of adjectives in -ruroc and of verbs in "(ma and -^eua ? 
What Latin terminations correspond to the two last ? Explain the 
uses of ov firj and /ii} ov« With what moods and tenses can orwc 
and oTwc fJt^ be joined ? When is irp\y ai^^with the subjunctive pre- 
ferred to vpHy 4vith the infinitive ? Can ay be joined with the indi- 
eative present ? Explain the construction of the line, Agam. 908. 
tI ^ ay toKii 90i UplafWij el rdh* fjyvtrty ; 


(d) Point out and correct the toloeeisms in the following pas- 
sage : Toic Bi fdifiivoit rac rifidc Imfuvtiy crc loKtirt av, tl avrwy ol 
yifv\aX ovhivoQ Kvpim ^vav ; Ovroc ye eyof, J iraideC) fiip-c tovto Tt^Tore 
iwtlirdfiyf cJc V ^hoC^^ ^<^C f^^ ^^ ^^ fftifiari Orifrf tiri, Cp* or€ hi rovrov 
/raXXayp, reOtniKtv* 'Op£ yap Srt koI ra mafjuira Oyffrdf oaov &v itt 
avrdiQ y(p6vov eci| ij 4^>ii C^>^o irapexerai. 

V. Give the readings of MSS., and remarks of various critics on 
the following passages, and translate them accurately as they here 

(a) ^vivTtQ ur- 

TtLp fk^KoQpiav^ X^P^^ ^^ ^vraXrov, 

9ra/j»rpcnT0cc iv ihpaxiny^ 
PooKOfuyoiXaylyav ifMCVfwya^ipfiariyirvav'---' v. 114—7. 
(6) roflrooy 9rep iv^ptar a icaXa 

hpoaoiffi Xcmroic futkEpuy Xcorritfv— V. 137^^» 
(c) ^aoc— — 

iSrpvvc Oifffwy firf)(apl(effBai irvpoc- v. 295. 

(«0 r/ yap 

yvvoMl rovTov ^yyoQ rjhioy Ipaxtiv^ 
dvo orpartiaQ av^pa, matrarroi Beov, 
frvXoQ drdiinu ; v. 584—7. 
{e) ovK ia& oiriaQ \iiaifju rd \lf€vhfj xaXd 

elc Toy iroKvy ^(koun KopirovaBai ypoyoy, V. 605— -4. 
[f) el Tcdyra $* ufc irpdirffoifA, dyevOapaiit iyni* v. 903. 
Of) Xtdpovvay ov^iy fcrtroyf ^ iioahor^ 

yayti ofcopifroQy niXvieoc ^y Xoxcvfiatrtv. v. 1S68 — 4. 
{h) €vyiii rrapoylnayfifia r^c e/i^C X^^^^* ^* ^ ^^'^* 
( i) wdpeart &iy\ ori/ioc aXX* dkolhopoCf 

aviffrat di^iuyay tSely— v. 402—8. 
VI. (a) Derive and explain the following words: ayKoJdtVf 
wporiXeiaf iriXayoQf uraf, rptaxnjpf KaradoUyuf, rpiTotnroyhoct dyyapoQf 
wp6hucoQf pvaioy, dfAaprtoy, ficvKoktia^ «raiyia, wapdofifiot, mtpcu^opoct 
Spfiaf Kaiyl(uif ivlbiyoy, Opcynow. 

(6) Explain the following phrases ; el Trtmly—rplQ HfiaKjuy — 
jiov^iwl yXfJcrflrji^dyirtvioi OuH — ^jSovXify Kara^i^iuy — Kaipla irXi|yi| 
— Tpoz Ktyrpa Xaxrliieiy — \afLiraZri^6pwy yo^ot, 

(c) Distii^ish hetween fiffx^ ^^^ ftf'coc — riKftapt irvfi/3oXoF» 
wifutoy — c{ <rej3ecy, fvfftfitiy — x^Xoc> icoro^ — licirriCt *po<rrpiwauK — 

ST. petbr's coll. 285 

HTw^'^Cy sreyiyc— -jyopi vfrap — virmdfH>Qf vwalBptoc — rfwirala, rpoiraia— 
ftTfTpomro^f yLffrpOKrovoe-^hk^ cvrtt iiijfii^ itrfTir^Zio^ hla — wov irol, 
irf , irov, froc, iri|. 

VII. The beacons which announced the destruction of Troy 
were stationed on the following mountains: Ida, Hermaeus (in 
Lemnos), Athos, Macistus (in Eubsea), Messapius and Cithseron (in 
Boeotia), ^giplanctus (in Megaris], Arachnaeus (in Argolis). 

(a) Draw such a map as will enable you to mark out the 
situations of these mountains. 

(6) In the same map piace Troy, Tenedos, Athens, Thebes 
■Sparta, Mycenae, Delphi and Delos. 

VIIL TLp€7rov<rd 6^, «Jc eV y/MX^Tc, irpofffyyeiruy 

(a) How has the story of Iphigenia been treated by iEschylus, 
Buripides, Lucretius, and Racine ? 

(6) Et mcestum simul ante aras adstare parentem 

Sensit, ethunc propter ferrumceIareministros,&c Lwr, i. 90. 
For *celare' Wakefield reads * celerare.' Translate the lines 
according to each reading, and state which you prefer. 

(c) tig iv ypa^acc- 
Is the allusion here particular or general ? lUustrate it by parallel 

IX. (a) 'EX£i'av— eirci vpetroyriitg 

eXevavc, eXay^poc, iXtwroXic, k. r. X. v. 670 — 1. 
Quote instances of a similar play upon names from the Greek 
tragedians and from Shakespeare. 

(5) €rvy rditrii fi iftfialyovff dXovpyitrty OiSy 

fiq nc irpoatadty ofijiaroc jSolX}^ fOoyos. v. 919 — 20. 
What was the ancient notion concerning the Oeloy ^voc ? Cite 
other instances. 

(c) "E^/Jaiv ain{f^c r^ff^ — 
Do you recollect any other instance in Greek Tragedy of a mortal 
introduced on the stage in a chariot? What do you suppose to 
have been the motive of ^schylus for so introducing Agamemnon ? 
How is Pallas brought on in the Eumenides, Oceanus in the Pro- 
metheus, Hercules in the Philoctetes ? Explain the phrase 6eoc eV 

(d) Aafjiwpovc ivydara^f ifurpiToyrac aldipt, v. 6. 


Illustrfttrftte this by a reference to Scripture. Cite other inttanees 
from iEschylus of Scriptural imagery and phraseology. Is it possible 
that the Zodiac, as Blomfield supposes* is alluded to here ? 

X. (a) Write down the laws of the Anapsestie system. What 
is the tfvya^cca ? 

(6) In what licences do the Senarii of Comedy differ from those 
of Tragedy ? 

(c) What are the Canons of Dawes concerning the quantity of a 
vowel before /3X, yX, y/i, yv, S/i, 3y, and the initial f$, and h6w have 
they been modified by Person an^ Monk I What is his Canon 
concerning the quantity of diminutives in -c2cov ? 

(d) Accentuate the following lines : 

*A^]|Xay«ii, ^povrtSwy tmfnideit, 

evwaikafjuoy fupifivay 
owa TpoKWfjun^ wiryovroc otkov, 
hi^iKa 2* o/i/3pov mnroy ioftoafaXti 
rov aifianifioy' yf^oxac 8c Xi^yec 
iuaiy 2* iir dKKo irpayfia Oiyyavcc /3Xa/3i|c 

TpoQ oXXoic Otiyaifuffi Motpa, 



1. State briefly the most striking points of the contrast drawn 
by Aristophanes between the literary character of ^schylus and 
Euripides, with respect to the arguments, the construction, and the 
diction of their plays. How are we to understand the words O 
wptiroQ rtSv 'EXXifvuv irvpycJ^ac pijfiara ffefxvd xal Kov/iijotic rpaytxoy 
ySipay ? Explain the aUusion contained in the words i} KoiriffiQ ovxji 
ovyriQyriKi fiou Which of the Tragic Poets had the highest reputa- 
tion in the Satyrical Drama ? 

2. Mention the stories connected with the joumies of iEschylus 
to Sicily, and the arguments which render them improbaUe. How 


often 18 it necessary to suppose him to have gone thither ? What 
prohable motive for the last journey is suggested by this pky? 
Which of his poetical contemporaries may he have met at the course 

3. What is the date of the performance of the Eumenides ? How 
long did it pflecede the death of ^schylus 1 What political allusions 
does it contain ? In which of the other plays of ^schylus is the 
same object visible ? 

4. Enumerate in the order which seems most consistent with 
tradition and analogy, the successive stages by which the choral 
song in honour of Bacchus was converted into the finished Tragedy 
of ^schylus. At which of these stages might Tragedy, according 
to Aristotle's notion of it, be first said ixtiy nfy aviijc fiiffiv ? What 
advances appear to have been made toward the Drama out of Attica 
before the time of Thespis ? 

5. What is \iyoc in the early Attic Drama ? What does Aris- 
totle mean by saying of £schylus roy Xoyov frpi>rray(i>ycon}v irapc- 
ffic&ian ? What should we infer from analogy to have been the 
original meaning of rpiXoylal Could it have been applied in its 
primitive sense to any three plays of Sophocles? What is the 
earliest instance we find of the use of the word ? 

6. What other plays of ^schylus besides those composing the 
OpEOTtuL are mentioned under a common title? What do we 
know o£ the plays performed together with the other extant trage- 
dies of £schylus, and of the connexion between them? Translate 
and explain the words So^icX^c ^f>& ipdfia irpdc ^pdfia dywyi^tadai, 
dXXd fiij TtrfkoXoylay, 

7. What was the ordinary number of the tragic and comic 
chorus 1 What is meant by x^^ rerpdyuyoi ? Describe the modes 
of entering, Kara (vyd, and xard orolxovs ? What reason is there 
for supposing that the chorus in the Eumenides exceeded or fell 
short of the ordinary number ? What argument on this question 
has been drawn from the Agamemnon ? 

8. Describe as distinctly as you can the visible action in the 
first scenes of this play, down to the appearance of Minerva, 
What part of the scenery would it be necessary to change in order 
to indicate the transition from Delphi to Athens ? From what part 
of the theatre would the shade of Clytemnestra make its entrance ? 


How do you conceive Minerva to have been introduced ? Explain 
the use of the raro/SXij/Mira, aUipai, dvaweltrfiara, eVn/^Xsj/xa, rcp/- 
ajtrroc. Which of them may have been used in this play ? 

9. Explain the connexion of ideas expressed by the mythical 
relation between the Mdipai rpifwp^i fiv^ftoyit r 'Eptwvcf . How 
and from what point of view was the number of the ibrmer some- 
times varied 1 Illustrate this fluctuation of number and the general 
prevalence of the number three by the example of other allegorical 
Deities in the Greek mythology. What must Euripides have sup- 
posed to be the number of the Furies who pursued Orestes? 

10. What are the four attributes assigned to Apollo by Plato? 
How does he adapt the name to them 7 To which does the epithet 
4>oi/3oc correspond? Why is Apollo made to express so much 
more vehement an abhorrence of the Furies than Minerva ? What 
explanation do the ancients give of the use of the laurel garland in 
the Roman triumph ? 

11. Mention the legends connected with the following epithets 
of ApoUo : JifuyBiVQ, IlarapcvC) HapvirtoCf AcX^vcoCt "EfiiofMyirrUt 
'Apxiyyenjc- Why should the Pythian Apollo have been considered 
as trarpfoc &t Athens rather than the Delian ? What is meant by 
yeyrjrai 'AtoWmvoq irarp^v ? 

12. What room does iEschylus leave for the Sc3^ian adventures 
of Orestes? Can his treatment of the story be reconciled with 
that of Euripides in the Iphigenia in Tauris ? What traces of the 
wanderings of Orestes and of his iroXXoi jcaOap/iot are mentioned in 
Greece and Italy? How are they connected with the Athenian 
*Ay6eaTiipia ? 

13. Illustrate by historical examples, the various private and 
public occasions of consulting the Delphic oracle? From what 
epoch, and through what causes did its credit begin to decline ? 
What is the last occasion in the history of Greece on which we read 
of its being consulted ? How did the ancients explain the general 
silence of the oracles about the beginning of the Christian Era ? 

14. What is there peculiar to ^schylus in his account of the 
institution of the Delphic oracle ? Mention the story told about it 
in the Homeric hymns. By what other road did a different fable 
conduct Apollo to Delphi? Mention the rites and monuments 
which commemorated the subjects of these legends. What may be 
considered as their common historical base ? 


15. Explain the allusion contained in the words deXovmig ov^ 
irpoc fiidy tov6£, and the meaning of \lp$iy and o/i^oXoc in the open- 
ing speech of this play. Who are the iccXcvOoroioi waihs 'HfcUarovl 
Mention the grounds of the different interpretations, and shew how 
they may be reconciled. 

16. What are the legends respecting the institution of the court 
of Areopagus not noticed by .£schylus 1 What are the other deri- 
vations beside that given by him of the names V IVhat mythical 
personages are connected in the same way as Orestes with its 
history ? How is its legendary antiquity to be reconciled with 
Plutarch's statement. (Sol. 19.) oi TkEiaroi njV e£ *Apelov vdyw 
jSovX^y SoXwva (n/onimurBcU ^<n ? What was Solon's mstitution ? 

1 7. Explain the distinction between the functions of the court, 
and the council of Areopagus ? On what occasions in the history 
of Athens does the latter fill a prominent part 2 What were the 
motives of the party who laboured to reduce its authority ? To 
whom were the powers withdrawn from it transferred ? Which of 
its functions were analogous to those exercised by any of the 
Roman magistrates ? 

18. Translate d^UXovro r jc i^ ^Apeiov trdyoy fiovXijc rdc KpiauQ 
wXiiy oKlyiiy dvdtraQ. When and by whose management was this 
effected 1 Mention the causes beside those of murder that came 
under the cognizance of the Areopagus. What argument does this 
play supply in favour of the opinion that it was deprived of its 
jurisdiction in cases of murder ? How does it appear that this was 
ever restored to it ? What was there peculiar in the mode of pro- 
ceeding in this court ? 

19. Who were the *Ef trait By whom were they instituted f 
What is the derivation of their name ? Mention the courts in which 
they sat, and the causes that belonged to each of these courts. 
What legends were connected with them ? What is the forensic 
meaning of c^^ic- Why was the statue of a wolf set up at the 
door of the Athenian courts of justice 7 

20. Explain the term riyifwyia ItKCLrrnpiom, What is the cor- 
responding Roman term ? Describe the functions annexed to it. 
By whom were they exercised in the Areopagus ? How are they 
described in the trial of Orestes ? What part of a judicial proceed- 



ing wta the dvwcpunc 1 Is there any other technical use of the 

word 1 Translate and explain : 

tnrev^fuyai ^ d^ekeiy riva TtitrBe fupifiyatt 
Beiiy ^ areXeiav ifMitn Xiraic iwucpalyuy, 
ftri^ is ayicpunv iXOelv. 

21 . Translate and explain 

rj Kol iranjp ri ff^aXXerac fiovKevfjLariay 

irpofTOKTOyoitn irpoarpoTraiQ 'Iftdvoc ; 
How does ^schylus derive the name of Ixion ? To what part of 
the fahle is it referred hy Pindar 1 

22. Why is Minerva made to say that no tribunal equal to tbe 
Areopagus will be found ovr iy Srv^^tv ovre TUXoiroc iy rorott ? 
In what part of Africa is Tplruyoc xcvfia 7 Do you know of any 
other from which the epithet TptroyeVcia may more probably be 
derived? Explain the allusion in eirt ifXiypalay irXara, BfUKnc 
rayovxoc cJc dyijp, iritncoTrei. What appears to have led ^schylm 
to give so particular a description as he does of the region from 
which Minerva comes ? 

23. Deduce from their etymology the meanings of the words oXa^r- 
Tuip, fi^cX0O£, otavijc, avOevnyC) cuyht deralyuy, SXoffvpoc, ucrapf dpoii- 
fio^f BsowpoTrioy, j(pnTnjpioyf eyicarcXXwirrA;, iraXafiyaioc^ /leooXajSiyc* 
ntfATrdi^ia, r(/iaX0i5. Explain the meaning of reXeioc in the several 
combinations : riXeioy {fyj^iOTOv Aia, rcXfcdroroi^ itiTEriy^v {p}eriy\ 

24. Translate and explain what is peculiar in the conatracdon of 
the following passages : 

o 2* c{aXv{ac oix^rai yefipov liKfiy 
rai Tovra kov^s ix fUotav dpicvtrfidrwy 
&pcv<r€y, vfiiy cyicarcXXcJ^c fuya, 

XO. rove fJirrrpdKolaQ ix hofxwv ikavyofuv. 
AIL ri ydp ; yvyaixoc W^c ay^pa vov^terp ; 
XO. ovK ay yiyoiff Ofuufwc avdivnit ^h>c« 

fidXa ydp oiy dXXoftiya 
dyiKoBiv fia^fwttini 
jraro^fKa nMc axfuty 
m^aXtpd rayv^opfwwi 
JuSXa ivo^opoy orar. 


9V ^ €l 2arafii»C9 etrc /lii|, Kpivoy Biniy' 
Tpalac yup iv mA irayrayii Toi* glvitrta, 

Kplyaira f dtnUv t&p i/imy rd jSsXrora 
^{w, licupely rovro irpdyfi irrirvfMt^f 
Sptoy TrtpUvra^ ftrjfiy eK^ucoy ^peirly. 

hty^poKii/My 2c /III Tveoi /3Xaj3a, 

ray ifidy X^piy Xcyii», 
f\oyfi6{ T 6fifi€tro&rt(nic 
^VTWVy TO nil irepfy 6poy roirtav* 

9v Toi Td\ ovK exovoa r^c ^ciyc reXoc 
f/ici Toy toy ovlty iyfipoiatv fiapvy, 

TtSy dpeu^Tuty 7 cycJ 
irpeTtrwy dytiywy ovk dyiipfun ro firj otI 
nfy^ dtrrvyixoy iy pporoi^ rifi^y iroXiy, 
What 18 the reason for adding the second ov in the last passage 7 

In the line yuciafuyo^ Xiyoitriy ovk dycuyofiaif how would you change 
the sentence so as to substitute an in6nitive for the participle ? 

How do you account for the optative in the second of the follow- 
ing lines : 


Swtac ycVoiro riJvS* ifuA Xvn/pcoc* 
Is there any pleonasm in the words : 

raraVrvffroi joopcu ypaiai irakaiai. irai^ec — 
and iUi <rv rot wakaidc haifayaQ xartu^iaaQ 
diyf teap/ifKarriaaQ dp^alae dccic. 

V f 




Sme Coll, et anno, 

1. What tragedies remain from the Greek stage relating to the 
family of Agamemnon 7 Place them in the order of the drcum- 
«tanceff on which they are founded, and mention the subject of each. 

2. Give a short account of Pelops, of his father, and the 
punishment to which he was subjected after death ; and explain the 
aeries of events alluded to in the foUowing passage : EXffo Trovriffdde 
ytufn-CKoQ iKoifiddfi, ovnc wia iXevfrey ek rou^ oIkov iroXinrovoc ahcla, 

S. When and by whom were Argos and Mycenae founded ? and 
where was the seat of government in the time of \£gi8thus ? Give 
an opinion of the scene of the play, and some account of the places 
pointed out in the opening. 

4. In what other places, besides Argos, was Juno held in par- 
ticular veneration ? Quote any passages which represent her as 
the tutelar goddess of the Argives. Give the fabulous story of lo, and 
the historical account of Herodotus. 

5. What were the four principal games celebrated in Greece ? 
and in what places were they held ? When were the Pythian games 
instituted ? Explain the terms Hvducol yofuut WvroOXov, and quote 
the description of a chariot-race from Virgil. 

6. HA. T^ 6€p£i{ rd^ ifiirvfM ; 
XP. Mijn^p fu TtfAirn warpl rvftfitvtrai xod^. 

Why does Electra call the same things Ep,icvpa which Chrysothemis 
calls "xoai 1 What were the usual offerings to the dead ? What 
are mentioned by Virgi], .^chylus, and Euripides 1 

7. Xap^ ht TrlfiwkfffA evdvQ ofifm BcLkpwar. What is the original 
of this expression ? Quote parallel passages. Give instances of 
the oxymoron from Greek, Roman, and English poets. Does Homer 
use this figure. 


8. Translate literally into English the following passage : 
HA, "^oiBa' TT^Q yap ov\l ; mtfjL^opd^ yap av 

weTirtincoC tl ^ iweori yifUffts, ov Xcyff. ▼• 1440 — 69* 
Explain the ambiguity in the answers of Electra. Mention the al- 
teration that has been proposed in the last line but one, and translate 
the passage when it is corrected. In what class of words is evfifopd ? 
Explain the difference of ^idatnaa and SiddtrKOfioji. What is the 
quantity of ijfdv and vfuy in the three Tragedians ? Account for 
av^tya agreeably to the Attic system of augments. 

9. O doi/A* Aft^ov KOI Hepinfoyris, 

ta xBovi H^ft]|> Kai mrri Apa 
fftfiyai re Btwy nailec Epcvyvcc* 
rove aduck^Q Oyfitncovrdc opartf 
rov{ rac evvac viroKKeirrofjLevovc 
b\6(t, apifSioTif TuraaSe irarpoc 
^voy tifitrepov, Kai fjun toy €fJcoy 
wefAipar a^cX^v. fMvrri yap ayeir 

XviriTC avTtppOKoy ayfioQ. 
Put accents and spirits on this passage. Correct it throughout, and 
shew the necessity of the alterations verbal and metrical. Is the 
name IL€ptrt^yri confined to the Greek language ? What are the 
other names of Proserpine ? Explain the terms x^*^^* '^f^l* ow<ni»» 
and ayrtpptnroy* 

10. iSvyoucoQ ioirofi. aXXa, k. t, X. Correct this line, and shew 
how the word eoaofx doubly ofiends against tragic usage# Give a 
system of Ionic and Attic futures, and shew the propriety of their 
general difference and occasional agreement. 

1 1 . Twv ffQv irpoaiiKtay iiZovdy fudierdai. 

What cases do fitOlrffii, and the middle /ic6/c/iai govern ? Correct 
the passage, and explain the construction in tlie Medea of Euripides, 

— — rovroic 8*, 6picloi<n fiiy fvycJc, 

ayovvtv ov fuOti av Ik yoioc €/i£. 
Give an account of the leading principles of the middle voice. 

12. Make a scheme of the Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapaestic 
metres ; explain the csesura and pause in the two former, the basis 
and versus paroemiacus in the latter. In what metre was Tragedy 


first written ? Why was that metre chosen, and why dianged after- 
wards to the Iambic ? 

13. Havrtav dpltrrov iraT^a KSKXriaBai koXov, In this line is there 
any thing particular in the quantity of vfiicXf 0601 ? If a syllable na- 
turally short is followed by two consonants which su£Fer it to remain 
short, when is it not unusual to make it long by position? and in 
what cases is it less common ? 

14. Define Tragedy; distinguish it into its parts of Quality and 
Quantity, and explain the terms dyayvwpianQ and ire/»Mnfreca. Does 
the Electra contain an example of either f 

15. In what sense may Poetry be considered as an imitative art ? 

1 6. Explain the office and the advantages of the Chorus. Upon 
what occasion was the number of the Chorus first limited ? How 
many Choruses were appropriated to Bacchus ? and what was the 
prize of each ? 

17. Give an account of the age, origin, and progress of Tragedy. 

1 8. Give a short account of the plots of the Electra of Sophocles, 
the Electra of Euripides, and Choephorae of jEschylus ; compare 
them, and shew in what respects the economy, beauties, and defects 
of each are characteristic of the genius of their several authors. 

1 9. Translate into Latin or English verse, 
"lltff Swov TTpoyifitrai 

iqpin/Mxc ftysQC avTtS rcp/io, icovreV dfifMipti. v. 1367-^89. 


A, 1. Give a short account of the life of Sophocles; and a cha- 
racter of his writings from some ancient author. 

2. What was the court before which Sophocles is said to have 

recited one of his poems (mentioning the occasion, and the 
poem) ? When, and by whom, was that court founded ? 
What peculiarities marked its sittings ? 

3, Give a short account of the story and plot of the Electra 

of Euripides. 


4. Mention some of the more remarkable features in the style 

of Sophocles. 

5. Explain in what respects he may be considered an imitation 

of Homer. 
B, 1. Assign reasons for believing or disbelieTing the story of the 
siege and destruction of Troy. 

8. Shew by reference to ancient authors, what became of the 

principal leaders said to have engaged in the Trojan war. 

5. State the grounds on which the testimony of Homer is de- 
serving of our belief. 
C 1 . Name the public games of Greece. 

2. Where, and how often were they all respectively held ? 

9. What were the objects of contention, and the prizes in each ? 

4. What political advantages did Greece derive from their in- 

stitution 1 

5. Illustrate the description of the chariot race, by quotation 

from some Greek> or some Roman writer. 
2). 1 . Describe the origin and progressive improvements of tra- 

2. What are the duties of the chorus according to Horace, and 

how are his rules supported by this play ? 

3. Specify the advantages and disadvantages of the chorus. 

Enumerate some of the best modern plays composed after 
the Greek model. 

4. What is the oVayvoipcffic? What the refKTcreca? In this 

play what effect is produced by the one, and by the other! 

5. What is the double fable ? is there any reasonable ground 

to object on that score to the Electra ? 
JE» 1. In what consists the superiority of the Greek language above 

the Latin 1 
2. Trace the progress of the different dialects, and name some 

of the most celebrated writers in each. 
9. From which of the dialects did the Latin tongue originate, 

and whence does it appear 1 

4. What Ionic or Doric words are to be found in the Attic 


5. How do you account for the existence of the dual number 

in the Greek, and for its absence from the Latin tongue 1 


F. 1. When, by whom, and for what purpose* were the accenUr 
first marked 1 

2. State Dawes's objection to the doctrine of accents, that it 
involves an argumentum in Circulo. Is the charge true ? 
Point out the present utility of accents. 

3. Enumerate some of the principal rules for accentuation. 

4. Give the different meanings of the following words accord- 
ing to their difference of accentuation : 

ovKCVV, /3coc9 aywy, apa^ aXXa, circ, ravra^ wy, ay, afjajxpLyf^yy 
a£ia, irapa, yoaiay, 17, fuyttf tyttpai, 

G, 1. What Is the orthography of adverbs ending in (ec) or (i')r 
and how do you determine it ? 

2. Explain the following scholiastic terms, and place the pro- 
per accent over each: ^ta fuaovf iroficXircfv, irapcxjOa^tCr 
wc cvcoi, TO e£i)c» ^Vf^^ *poc TO mifiaiyofuyoyf avcuooXovOoK, 
airo KOiyov, Kvpuag KtiaOcu, 

H, 1 . TarpOQ TVfilioy 

Xoi^ltn wpuroy ral KoparofMnc )(Xi2aIc 
ft, TOiavrd rov wttfrnyroc, ^y^X *HX/y 
ZtUyvai Toiyapf ixXvoy i^riyovfuyov. 

3. ovKCvv caffccc ov^ vir ev^/iov |3o$c Oviral /ie« 
Illustrate the practices alluded to in the three foregoing 

passages by quotation from ancient authors. 

4. ^tiopKOTp ixBpoitf aoTpoy wq, Xdfiij/eiy in. 
Quote a similar sentiment from Homer and Virgil. 

5. i yBoyC 'Epfirj koI Troryi *Apa, 
VEfiyal re Sidy nai^eC' 

Shew from Homer (Odyss. iJ.) the propriety of making 
Electra invoke Mercury. Who are meant by the atfiyak 
Oetiy walZeg 1 and shew from Sophocles himself, why they 
I were so named. 

6. lira Toy^ i^artoy Urjiou Xa^yra mcijirTpoy, 6v^6p€i treri 

Avroc, rayyy ^ AlyiaOo^, 
I Quote Homer's description of this sceptre, at fiill. 

7. fi^fi yap elSoF iroXKdxK i^ol rove tfo^ovc 
XoTY t^^Tfiy dyiiwoyraQ' uff iray lifuw^ 
iXBwtnv dSdec, iKTirlfiriyrai frXioy. 


The story to which the Scholiast supposes our author to al- 
lude in these lines, is quoted hy Dr. Bentley, in his Dis-* 

What is it 1 and what early authors mention it 1 

2. iyta ^pdaaifi ar, il to rwyf vivavy wapa. 

Translate these passages, marking distinctly the force of ov 

in these and similar cases. 
d« ov^ av irVf ffiS^pvy y oitra' vvr f e£oy narpot, k, r. X. 
What according to Cicero are the various meanings of W- 

^pwy ? 

4. What are the respective meanings of rvyxot^ccv, according 

as it is, or is not, followed hy a participle ? 
J, How would you read and translate the foUowing passages ? 

Where other admUnbU readings have been proposed, state 
reasons for that which you prefer ; and where errMeaiu 
ones, shew in what the error consists. 

1. roSe yap iraXcuov''Ap7oc,oviroOecc' To^t, 

ric olarpoK\fiyoQ oXcroc 'Ii^oxov KDf>i}c* 

avTfi ^f 'OpioTO, K*T. X* 
ft, rvirtii^a— *0 koL av OdfiyoiQ tiaSd tov KtKpvfifUvoy, 

oirfi»C Xoyy KKiirToyres, ifBiiay ^rir 

^ipiiffuy avToic 

3. wpHy oiv Tiv dy^pHy ifp^mpciy ariyfid 
iuyamioy Xoyotffcv* wc iyravff ifffuy, 

IV ovK er oKyety mipoc, fltXX epytay ajc/ii|. 

4»V\» tit* I % It , I 

oaX e/u y a aroyotaa apape ^ya^ 


5. ml ff eXov ye Bdrep\ rj i^yiiy icaicvc, k» r. X. 

6. hpoft^y hiavkuy iriyrdtffk* d yofxlierai, 

7. ^Xavye 2* iirj(aroc piy varipac iy^iav 
ircJXovc 'Opcffn^c, rf reXfi trlony ^puy^ 

So Brunck and others read this passage* Restore the right 
reading, translate it, and shew from the context that read- 
ing to be right. 

8. iiriiirep ovr ipav jcara{/(i>c 
irpci£c/ac, oSrtf c. r. X. 

9. ToXXa»v av rJKOi^, i {ev*, a^coc rvx^lv 

li njVS' cTow^ac rrjs woXvyXwtrirov fiofJQ* 


Do you prefer this reading to the proposed correction ? or 
versa t>icef Give your reasons ; translate and explain. 

1 0. IfVyoiKOQ itrtrofji*' aXXa T^he trpog trvXy, r. r. X. 

11, Sv Kara fiiy /3ap/3af!>ov alat^ 
ipoiviOQ*'Afnic ovK i^yttriv. 

How does Person read this ? Quote the passage in Homer 
to which it seems to refer. 
K, 1 . Kov iTOT c( ^tvwy ; 

What is the government of ^vQv and ohA respectively ? 
and how do you account for it ? 

3. ^£V 7-$c dvola^ lac ff hroucrtlpv irdkau 

How might this line be read ? ^Support your alteration by 
instances of similar construction. 

4. Electra, condoling with her sister upon their forlorn situa- 

tion, says, fccU ftova XektlfifuBov. How would you alter 
this passage ? and why ? 

5. Electra, expressing her own determination to revenge the 

murder of Agamemnon, says, 
TEffovfieff, d xp>7> ^arpl rtfiutpovfiepai. 

6. cec/ii{Xi' avr^ ravra (ria(io6wy cciriif. 

How would you read these passages ? and on what general 
rules are your emendations founded ? 

7. bi Zcv Be^pra ^trfif ayev ^Biyov fuy ov 
wem-wKOQ' el ^ circerrt N^/icotc, ov Xeyw. 

Correct this passage ; translate and explain it. 

8. Distinguish accurately Iito/mii, fiireifih ^<Win> in their gene- 

ral usages. What other idea belongs to httixtit, according 
to Dr. Bentley ? 
L. Translate the following passage into English Lyrics : 

' T/ rove ayioBty ^poKCfMMnoroiic oiwrovc 

. • • a 

dxopevra ^pov^ oyelhi, v. 1047 — 58. 
And the following into Latin Heroics or Elegiacs: 
dp' iJ/ilv cJc aXyovffa KtHvyutfUyri 

. . a • • 

<povtvtn irarpoc* opo fwi raXJc Sx^c ; v. 794 — 806. 

8T. tohm's coll. 299 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1825. 

L What was the state of Dramatic representations when Sopho- 
cles first contended for the prize? 2o0okX^c c^i^a^e Bpdfiara picy, 
iJc 3c Tiyec Kol irciXXf wXelw. Suid. Translate thiSf and shew that 
the numbers are probably incorrect. Give the names of all the 
Tragedies which are assigned on unquestionable authority to So- 

2. Give an analysis of the plot of the Electra : compare it with 
the plays of ^schylus and Euripides on the same subject* Quote 
passages from Aristophanes to shew the estimation in which So- 
phocles was held by him. On what grounds has it been supposed 
that Plato was unfriendly to Sophocles ? 

S. V. 96. foiv^o^" ApiriQ ovk eU^vitre, 

Brunck. e SchoL ovk i^vitrtv. Is the metre improved by the 
correction! State the rules for the construction of this metre. 
Give the observations of Porson and Elmsley on Iamb. Tetram. 
Cat. Mention the cases in which the fifth foot of a tragic senarius 
may be a spondee. What is the effect of an initial p and fiv on a 
preceding short vowel ? 

4. V. S, TO yap iraXaioy" Apyoct ovwoBitg, roSe, 

r$c oloTpoirXriyot oXooc 'Ivct^ov KopriQ, 
Translate this. What is the incorrectness in Brunck's reading ? 
By whom» and at what time, were the cities Argos and Mycenae 
founded ? Mention the distance between them : the cause and 
date of the destruction of Mycenae. Shew, by quotations, that the 
Tragic writers use the names indifferently. 

5. V. 17. fukauyd r aarpwv iicXi\oiir$p iv^povri' 

irpiv ovv riv dvhpwy c£o&>cirope7y myi|Ci 
JuvanTcroy Xoyoiffiy. 
Support your interpretation of atrrpfay iv^yri by similar ex- 
pressions in this play. Explain the usage of irply with different 
moods. Distinguish between irpcy iuiryfiyf wpHy hiwyifftUf wply 
^iuTyifKiyai, Shew that {vyairrcrov is pre&rable to f,vydwrtoy* 

6. V. 61 . 17^ yap el^y ToXXa'nc Kal rove ffo^ovc 

Xdyy fianfv OyrivKoyraQ' tW, oray iofwvc 
tXOwaty a20ic» itcrirlfJiiiyrai irXioy, 


Relate the story to which it has been supposed that Sophocles 
here alludes. What distinguished citizens of Athens were expelled 
during the time of Sophocles ? 

7. V. 157. Ota XpvaoBefAiQ (wei koI 'li^dvatrtra. 

ola Brunck. "Which do you prefer ? " Iphianassa non est eadem 
cum Iphigenia.** — Musgrave. Do you assent ? Quote the lines in 
which Homer mentions the daughters of Agamemnon. By what 
writers before Sophodes is the sacrifice of Iphigenia mentioned ? 

8. V. 686. hpofiov r ttrtaerag rp <^vaei rd ripfiara. 
V. 689. otnay yap eltnictipviay flpafifgc 

dpofjuavt hiavXtiy^ trivre ff Jv vofdi^tTai. 
Give the substance of the remarks which have been made on 
these passages. Illustrate the description of the chariot race from 
Homer. What political advantages resulted to Greece from the 
public games ? 

9. V. 1 275. firi fjL dtroarepfqtryQ 

TUfy ady irpoawrtay ifhoydy fuOetrOai, 
dhoydy, Porson. Fully explain the reason of the proposed 
alteration, and the objection brought by Hermann against it. 

10. V. 1422. HA. Kal fjLify irdpeitny oUe foiyla hi xe2p 

ffrd^ti Ovri\rjc''ApeoQ. ovh' exto Xcyccv 
'Opeora, iruic Kvpti, OP. rd y iy hofwuri fur^ 
KCLKwst 'AttoXXaiiv el coXi^c iBitnriae, 
riOyriKBy tf rdXaiya' fiifKer ixfoPov 
fop-pfoy tic ffc X^f(* dniMVti wori 
HA. i irtuZeSfOVK a^ffoppoy; OP. ileropari mv 
rdy ayZp i^ rifiiy ; HA. oiroQ eV Tpoaarlw 
X^^ ycyiyWc. 
Shew distinctly what is objectionable in the above arrangement. 
Give the correction of Hermann* and translate the passage. 

11. Translate into Latin Lyrics : 

"iBiff omi Tpoyifitrtu 

• • a « 

yewcoyrpvv dlfia xiLipoiy ix^ay' V. IS 76 — 86. 
State the objection to veoicovi^i', and the authority for y€oi:6yiirov, 
" Non levis accedit auctoritas ab imitatione Euripidis." — Hermann. 
Quote the passage. 



1. Describe the origin, and gradual improvements of Tragedy ; 
and give an account of the tragic contests. 

ft. In what places of an Iambic trimeter do the tragic writers 
4idmit anapaests, dactyls* and spondees ? What exception is there 
to the rule concerning anapaests? And what limitations to the 
admissibility of a spondee in the fifth 4>lace of the verse 7 

o, o yop 

fiiyiffros avroic rvyydwi BcpvUvtay. 
How far does Porson appear to have admitted this constmction of 
the verb rvyxdytiv to be legitimate ? 

4. Translate into English Prose : 

XO. ov Toi trol fjumyq^ reicvoVf 
• • • • 

ToOuty 2* QVK altol ^pfiyai» v. 150 — 67. 
In V. 154. ota. *'Sic recte Erfurdtiua. Perperam vulgo ola" 
Schaefer. Explain the difference of the readings. 

5. HA. T€aovfud\ d jQtii^ irarpi TifjMpovfuvou 

In some of the earlier editions the reading is rifiwpovfupau Which 
is the right reading, and why ? 

6. KtifAijXl avrp ravra tna^ioBta Kona, 

Brunck reads trwiitrOwy. In wliat number is the verb generally put 
in Attic syntax, when the nominative is a neuter plural ? What is 
ihe principal class of exceptions to this rule ? 

7. Translate into English Prose : 

CEiyoc yop iXJdtiy eit i4 K\€iydy ^BXXd^ 

Ayafiifiyoyc^ OTfHirevfi dyeifKLrro^ Tport. v. 671 — S6. 
Describe the jpoftoc d/anXoc, and hence explain v. 676. 

8- jcat fioya XekilfifjuOoy, 

On what ground has this reading been questioned by Elmsleyf 
and what correction has he si^ested ? 

On what ground has tliis reading been questioned by the same 


critic ? State any arguments by which you may think it capable of 
being defended. 

1 0. Translate into English Prose : 
XO. Tl rovi avtStv ^poyiftwrdrovt «Miif<it)c 

rlc iv emrarpiQ iSBe liXdtrroi. v. 1047 — 70. 
Explain the syntax rpo^c tctfiojuvovQ^ d^' iv n PKdarmtnv. And 
quote any similar instances of construction. 

11. Translate into English Prose : 

HA. i ^CKrarov fjiyrifuioy dySpiJ'jnjr ifiol 
• • . • • 

fffJUKpot TrpomfKitQ oyxDc iv trfwcpf Kvrei. v. 1 1 1 5 — 31 . 
In V. 1123, explain the construction of Sirvc with the praeterite 
tenses of the indicative mood. 

12. f^^ t^* dirotntfiriaifQ 

Twy trwy wpotrbhruty i^^ydy fuOioBai 
Porson proposed to read dhoydy. What is the ground of this 
correction ? Is the correction necessary ? 

] 3. — ^— Xoytay yap ov 

yvy iarly dytiy, dXKd trijc if'i^^c Wpi. 
The earlier editions have dyniy. What difference does this make in 
the syntax and the metre ? 


1. When was Sophocles bom ? How old was he when he pro- 
duced his first tragedy, and what celebrated competitor did he con« 
quer in his first tragic contest ? How many of his plays do we 
possess entire, and what are their names ? 

2. What was the nature of the first dramatic representations! 
What improvements were made in them by Thespis ? Who intro- 
duced a second and who a third actor 1 Give some account of the 
theatrical decorations as they existed in the age of Sophocles. 

3. Upon what great political occasion were the tragic contests 
first instituted ? Where and at what season were they cslebrated f 
How many compositions and of what nature were presented by each 


candidate ? Explain the meaning of the terms xoptiyla, x°P^y^^» 
dynxopJiyol^ atrtdcScuncaXot, dvrirtxyoiy irpwrayitf i^c0n|c» hevrtpaytariv* 
njci TpiTaytaviariic* 

4. Of what number did the ChoruB eonsist in the time of 
Sophocles? What were its duties according to Horace? Are 
these duties obseryed more strictly by Sophocles or Euripides? 
Support your opinion by instances from the plays of each. 

5. Compare ^^e plot of this play with the Electra of Euripides, 
pointing out in what respects our poet is superior to his rival in the 
distribution of his plan. 

6. What is the meaning of caesura, of rythm, and of metre ? 
At what places do the two principal caesuras occur in the common 
Iambic verse ? Write down in a scale the laws of the common 
Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapaestic lines ; 'point out and account for 
the apparent violations of these laws which occur in the following 

Nvi' oly 'Ope^ra koI trv <^TaTe Ijiviav, 

^iMCcvc ^of ' dyhpo^ ^ayoriwQ tixiay 6 yap. 

Xwotrrtrcvtnic iv^y aioBtaSai rtKyoy, 

Taicecc <J3' uKopitrrop olfuaydv. (Anapaestic Dimeter.) 

7. Write down the derivations and meanings of the following 
words; ZopvU^t^yf xfipwrtnt, evyci^Cy BpifAfia, o^cow, ftao^oXcvOfvai ; 
and mention the distinction between yaXj|vf7 <^<1 vfiytfjUa^ fiairCkevQ 
and TvpayyoQf ddpaog and dpd<mc, rdfo^ and jcoXwi^, Oijny and irvpd, 

8. Explain the peculiarities of the following phrases, and pro- 
duce others similar to them : (1) dydpiSftoc dpfiy($ty, (2) OiXut fuU 
y^iuy ; (3) i} iru^a fiXdfifit (4) ff'ovy yX^cei, (5) fjofrrip dfjairwp^ (6) 
^cfXa/a ^etkaliayf (7) fz *AiriJXe90c ^iJT i xavlyyifToy txipa* 

9. Give the whole force of the following line :* 

^H ravra £f| fwi ical fiefiovXtvyrai wouiy ; 
and explain the force of the compound word uirejeOov in the folbw- 

— — ^ic ^f X^P**'' 
KXeifwcr* ^Opiartiy niy ifztSy vwtffSov* 

1 0. What is the signification of the word aorist ? Which aorist 
is most used by the Tragedians ? In what tenses is it used ? 
Give the force of it in the following line : 

*£f^ roim ZiiyotQ BvfMoy wk dtniXtvey. 


11. To^ yap iraXtuoy" Afyyo^ ovirodcic* rv2f 

Ttjc otarporXifyaQ akm^ *lyd\ov icoptf^' 
kvrri y, 'Opiera, rov XvKomvov Beaiv 
'Ayopd Aviccioc* ivl dpumpOQ ^ ^c , 
"Hpac 6 cXcivoc ya6c' oJ 3* UdvofAty, 
^dtrair Mvny vac rac To\vj(pvmnfc opfy, 
UokuipOopoy re Sw/ia IleXoTcdufv r<$££. v. 4—1 0. 
Translate this. Where were Argos and Mycenae situated, and 
how fiur apart from eadt other? Where were the grove, the 
fonun, the temple and the palace that are alluded to in this passage ? 
In what manner do you reconcile verse 4, with verse 9 ? Explain 
the derivations and appropriate meanings of the epithets waXmoPp 
olarpoKkriyotf XvKOKToyaVf Aviceioc, woXvypvcovs and woXv^dopor, 
12. Nifv ^ ifylK ovkIt iarlvf e2c ai iij pXiirta^ 

"Orwc Toy avro)(eipa irarp^^ ^yov 
iBivy rp3' dhiXfp firj Karoicytitryc m-ayeiy 
What is the meaning of oMxEtp ? Is it here used in its original 
signification ? In what manner does the construction of this passage 
contradict a rule laid down by Dawes respecting ^irwc fiij, and what 
reading is proposed in order to reconcile it with the rule ? Quote 
passagis in Greek and Latin similar to the expression Spy rph* 

19. Translate literally into English the following passage: 
^O ^iXnirov fiyiifuioy dydptofwtay ifjuH, 

Mop^Ci inroioy rt koa axidy ctn^X^. v. 1026 — 59. 
14. To be translated into Greek or Latin elegiac verses : 
In vain to roe the smiling roomings shine 
And redd ning Phoebus lifts his golden fire ; 
The birds in vain their amorous descant join ; 
The cheerful fields resume their green attire ; 
These ears alas for other notes repine, 
A different object do these eyes require. 
My lonely anguish melts no heart but mine ; 
And in my breast the imperfect joys expire. 
Yet morning smiles the busy race to cheer, 
And new*born pleasure brings to happier men ; 


The fields to all their wonted tribute bear ; 
To warm their little loves the birds complain ; 
I fruitless mourn to him, that cannot hear, 
And weep the more because I weep in vain. 


Sine ColL et anno, 

1. What is the end of poetry ? State the reasons of your opi- 
nioni comparing it with the expressions of Horace on this subject in 
the art of poetry ; and, from your idea of the end of poetry, deduce 
the essential properties of a poem. 

£• Can it be inferred from his treatise on poetry, that Aristotle 
jdid not consider versification as an essential property of it ? State 
your opinion, and the reasons of it. 

3. In what distinct senses may poetry be considered as an imi- 
tative art ? In what senses was it considered as such by Plato and 
Aristotle ? Can it in any sense be said to be strictly imitative ? 
Whence does the opinion of this quality of poetry appear to have been 
derived, and why was it more obvious to the ancients than to us ? 

4. Translate Aristotle's definition of Tragedy ? What is meant 
by the words it iXiov rod tpofiov wepaiyovtra ri}y rur roiovmv iraOiy* 
fuir^y KodofMnv ? The interpretations of this passage may, in gene- 
ral, be reduced to three. What are these ? Defend your explana- 
tion, and state your objections to those you have rejected. 

5. From Aristotle's definition of Tragedy, deduce the several 
parts of it which constitute its quality. Arrange them according to 
their relative importance, shewing the reasons of your arrangement. 

6. What is meant by the terms *' Quality" and " Quantity" as 
applied to Tragedy? What are its parts of quantity! Translate 
Aristotle's definition of each ; explaining more fully what you un- 
derstand by the several expressions /uVofv Skuv j^opiKQv fieXJv, ri 
wptim Xe(tc Skov XOpWf rd dwo imf vi^, to dvev dyajrcUorov col rpo- 



7. Why 18 die origin of Comedy lem known than that of Tra- 
gedy 1 By whom was it first exhibited as a regular composition 7 
At what period was the old Comedy suppressed ? Transcribe the 
lines of Horace which describe its progress and character. Shew 
what is the proper object of Comedy, and assign the principal causes 
of the coarseness of ancient wit. 

8. In what particulars do Epic and Tragic poetry agree 1 In 
what do they differ ? Compare their merits. In what respects is 
Aristotle's comparison of them an unfair statement, and how do you 
account for the prejudice with which he appears to have viewed this 
part of his subject. 

9. Compare the merits of the three Ghreek Tragedians with 
respect to the fables, characters, sentiment, and diction of dieir 
pieces. Give some account of the life of Sophocles. It was objected 
to him that his representations of nature were not true ; he replied 
that they were " ota hi civai." What is the force of the reply, and 
is this quality of his compositions faulty ? 

10. Required the genealogy and history of CBdipus. Explain 
what is fabulous in it. 

11. What was the origin of thd most ancient Grecian oracle ? 
(resolve the fiible). By what event was the £une of the Delphian 
oracle principally extended in Greece ? On what subjects were the 
oracles consulted ? How were their responses delivered t What 
was their political eflfect on the Greek nation? 

12. Is (Edipus a proper subject of tragic story? Relate briefly 
the action of the OBdipus Tyrannus. Compare it with Aristotle's 
rules for totality, unity, and magnitude of fable ; translating the se- 
veral parts of his definition of a whole. 

15. Transcribe Horace's rules for the conduct of the Chorus. 
Compare them with the interlocutions and songs of the Chorus in 
the CEdipus Tyrannus. 

14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the ancient 
Chorus? How were the actors in it selected? Wliat were the re- 
spective offices of the XofniyoQ and XopoitidtrmKoi ? By whom were 
they severally appointed ? Was there any remuneration for their 

15. Of what nature were die ancient dramatic Dances ? How 
did they differ in the three kinds of drama ? Whence do you con- 


dude that the mittical accompamment was varied in different parts 
of Tragedy 1 What appear to have heen the differences of it ? 

16. Required the laws of tiie Anapaestic, Trochaic, and Dactylic 
aystems. Under what conditions is the structure of each most per- 

17. Define '* a word/"' a sentence/ What b the most compre-. 
hensive distinction, 1« of s^tences, ft. of words ? What species of 
words do you include* severallyf under each denomkiation ? What 
Bie the origin and oses of the article sirieilff so called ? 

18. What are the several speeiee of verbs ? Define each. What 
is the proper idea of present time ? What i» the most natural di- 
vision of Tenses, in general ? 

19. What is Markland's Theory of the Imparisyllabic augment! 
Can the Greeks be said to have an ablative case ? Shew what cases 
they use in the absolute construction, and resolve it in all of them* 

20. Explain the Greek circumflex ; and these accentual tferma, 

irepiavtifjuffot* Which of these terms are applicable to the £atin ac- 
centual system? Shew wherein the general rule in Latin fbr 
placing the accent on the pemiltiraa or antepenulttma differs from 
the gymeral rule in Greek. 

SI. Qf the lines winch IbMow, transkte t)ic €horus iitto Latin 
▼ene, and the lambies into English verse. 


• • • • 
Xvvoumc oXXay^ /3^ov. v. 1 1 79 — 1905. 
*Dc fuv tqX ifvy^ K ior ipwr dpyoi^fuva* 

^ku^PT urayroVf «t>i yivevi nS- Aafov. v. 1 3^^—70. 




!• (a) Translate from the Achamenses of Aristoph. 
avroi yap icfuv, ovwl Arivalf r dytaVf 
«Otfir«ii iiyoi wapuaiv^ cvri yap ip6poi 
9}KDiiff(Vt ovr* er tQv wokiiav oi Ivfjifiaxpi* 
oXX* ifffiiv avral vvv ye irepuimfffuyoif 
rove yop furolKovg tix'i^ ^^^ dariiy Xcyw. v. 504—9. 
(/3) What period is alluded to in the second line ? 
(y) On what occasion were the new tragedies presented f 
'S. (a) In what writer have we the earliest mention of CEdipusT 
(/3) Enumerate in their order the yarious dramas of the 
ancient Greek Theatre which are founded on the story of CEdipus 
and his family. 

{y) What panegyric does Longinus pronounce on this play f 
8. Translate from the oration of Demosthenes against Midias : 
•OiMC d'ifi'j(pfi9t Zk avrf rovrOf oKXA xat toy ZMtrKOLkoy,i ayhp€c *A&tiydiot, 
ZU^npi /lov Tov \opov. ical el iiij TtyXe^i^Ci ^ airXifnJct dvipQw /3eX* 
fiOTOQ ictpX ifii Tore iyeyero, Kal to irpay/ia aladofuyoQ Toy aydphnroy 
AreKairac avroc ovyKporeJy rat ZMcnceiy jlcro Zely tov yppoy^ ov^ 
ay TiyuyitrafuSaf i2 ay^c ^AdriyaloC aXX' a^^Sarroc o.y ei^XBey 6 
^opoc* ical wpdyfiara aiir^urra ay iirddofiey. Kal ovh* evTavff evni r^c 
v/3pcwc» ciXXa TOtrovToy avT^ irepi^y, «Scre rov evTei^yta/iiyoy apxpyra 
iu^eipe' TOVQ X'^^y^^^ wyriyey he efii, fiowy^ airecXuIr, ofiyvoviri 
wapeinrriKiai role KpcrucCi ra irapatrajyta ^pdmay, irpovtlKwy^ IBimtiiq 
iy rd ZrifiotrtOf cara ral irpdyfmTa dfivQifrd /loc irapex^y htmXen* 
(a) Where did this scene take place ? 
(/3) Illustrate the expressions: Toy liMcKaXoy tov x^poSt 
Toy iffre^ytafiiyov ap^oyra^ tovc yp^y^^^ toiq KpiTcSt, ra rapda^ 

4. V. 2 1 . iir *lofiriyov re fiayrelq. owoif* 

What notice have we of the temple of Apollo Ismenius in Herodotus? 
What remarkable document did he witness there ? B. v. 

5. V. 72. Zpap ^ TL ^ttyQy rriyte pvaalfit/y wokiy. 

What metrical canon of Dawes^s is violated in this line f With 
what limitation is his assertion true ? 


6* V* 14S. aXX* «»c rdxiara^ iraT^s, v/ueic ftcvi /3d^K#r, 
How is this line to be reconciled with Person's canon respecting the 
fifth foot of an Iambic Senaritis ? 

7* V.151. rdc iro\v)(pvffoiv 

(a) Shew the propriety of the epithet by quotation from 


(/3) What was the earliest oracle established in Greece ? and 
give from history an account of its origin. 

8. V. 210. rda^ Iwiawfjtoy ydc 

(a) Illustrate this passage from a chorus in the Trachin. of 

(/3) Whence was the worship of Bacchus derived ? State 
the circumstance which rendered him an object of peculiar adoration 
at Thebes. 

(y) To what individual is the larger diffusion of his rites 
among the Greeks to be attributed ? Herod. Book ii. 

9. Translate, 

icei fiiv i^Peiratf rovTrUXiifi wretiekiir 

avroc Kaff avrov' ire/^erai yap aWo fur 

dtrrspyic ovBiy, y^c ^ o^'cufti' a/3Xaj3i|c* v. 227 — 9* 

10. V. 235. Toy iySp dwavhS rovroy^ 6<me eori, y^c 

Hjff^f ^C €y« Kfidrfi re ical dpoycvQ ^^f**ff 
fiiir cla^excflrOai, fti^rc Tpotn^yeiy riyd, 
liflT iy Oeuy tvyaioi^ i^rt Bvftaai 
Koiyoy irouitrdai, /ii/re xipy%^i yi/Mcn 
faOtiy 3* air* olciiiv trdyraQ. 

Translate this passage. Point out and explain any peculiarity of 


11. V. SOO. fS iravra ytofiwy Teipeala, 

On what occasion is Tiresias mentioned in Pindar? Quote the 
lines, Nem. i. 

12. V. 574. fudc rpi^i irpoc ^vrroc. 

Explain the force of the expression Tpe^ei, and exemplify its usage 
from other plays of Sophocles. 

id. V. 411. KpioyrocirpoaTdrov yeypd\l/Ofiai. 

(a) What Athem'an custom is alluded to t 

(j3) Explain the phrase dirpo^aaLov Uai, 


(y) Wiiat fbture {• yiypd\lfOfiai ? How is it fonned ? 

14. Translate* 'Mn^flric ayriJc Xoyiiir 

TO fiij^p^tKoy, V. 681 — 5. 

15. V. 702. dyijXamr. 

(a) Express this word in the language of Proae. 

(fi) Shew from Herodotus and Thucydides on what occasions 
a charge of this kind attadied to particular individuals became a 
pretext for considerable political movements in -Greece. 

(y) What distinguished fiusily at Athens was thus involved I 

16. Illustrate iraircXiic ^'/lop. v. 9dO. 

What is meant by the Homeric do^ioc liprcXec ? Ihad. B. 

1 7. Translate, 

XO. &/Xace rov vov njfc rt ovfM/^opaQ laov, 
«C 9 ifOcXifffa fjnfii y av yyQvai wtw-e. 

01 A. oKoiff oaric ^p^ oq air' dypiag iredac 

rofia^C iinirodiat cXv^e ft', agro rv ^yov 
ifipvTO icdvim<nr, aJhiy clc X'P*'' irpaimifr. 
rore yap ay dart^y^ 

Mfic iv <fiKouriy ovS* e^ rieov^ ^X^* ^* ^^^^ — ^^' 
What tense is e/ipuro ? 

18. V. 1 376. ti'* Ji rv^Xoc re mil cXvwi^ ^tfHy, 
V. 1379. iJc r2ci{a fd^mn. 

On what principle are Sko, 'wc, in these passages followed by the 
indicative mood ? Cvive Ehnsley's canon. 

19. Derive and explain as they^ are used in (this Play, ayvpnic» 
avBaZla^ vfrovKoQf iropa/^nTCii^, iyhtcruoOatf and give from Plautus 
and Tacitus a Latin expression similar in force to the last word. 

20. By what name does Homer commemorate Jocastal Quote 
the whole passage from the Odyssey. 

SI. Translate, 

OIA. i i^rar* klytms sxil, fiOMMC ov ylyy€rai 

(Ed. C6l, V. 607—23. 


St. JOHN'S COLL. 1828. 

L 1. With what exceptions did a century or a little more com- 
prehend the golden age of Grecian Literature ? By what events on 
either side was that period bounded ? State the same points in re- 
gard to Roman Literature. 

2. Opi\lf€u Ti yap ixavij rd fpoyiifxara riSy fuyakwppoytty if 
IkevOtpia, vac cTcXir/ffac, kcu afia ^uaSeiy to irpodvfioy r^c irpo^ aXXi|« 
Xovc ipi^ot Kol rric ?rcf>l rd irpwTEia ^tXorc^/ac. Longin, Translate 
this. Quote a similar sentiment from Homer. Illustrate it shortly 
by reference to Grecian, Roman, Italian, and English History. 

5. What were the Arundel Marbles ? How do they enable 
us to approximate to the era of the invention of Tragedy ? Give 
the name of the inventor, and the date inOlymp. of the performance 
of the first. From what sources is our knowledge of the inventor 
derived ? 

4. What does Aristotle mean by avroaxehta^Kii and 6pxf 
arucaiTipa ? Give an analysis of Bentley*s argument against Boyle 
on the passage Oytfrov^ yap oyrac dddyaroy opyrjy ix^^^ Ovroi xpooif- 
K£u What is Porson's criticism on the quantity of the first syllable 
in dOdyaroQ ? 

5. Herodotus says that the Sicyonians honoured the me- 
mory of Adrastus rpayucoiai xopoivi. Did the death of Adrastus 
precede or succeed to the invention of tragedy ? Account for thiS| 
and illustrate it by instances from the Old Testament and elsewhere. 

n. 1. Oeenric o^e, Tpayvcfiy oc dviirKaat. irp^roc doitiiy, 
Kwfujraic ytapdc Katyorofiwy xdptTatt 
BacxPc ore rpirroy Kardyoi x^^f i rpdyoq aOXoy 
X' ^ *micoc ^y frvKiay afSpc^oc» vOXoc cri. 

2. Translate this. Explain TpiTroy "xppo^i ^^^ mention what 
the three were. In what months were they celebrated ? What 
were the HSoiyta^ Xoec and XvTpot 1 Which was the greatest feast ? 
Who presided at it ? Who at the others ? 


Explain this Inscription. On what occasion was it set up ? In 


what Olympiad f State any other particulars that were 
mentioned in this kind of Inscription. 

4. Does Horace's account throw any light on the use of the 
word fcitf/ii/raic in the passage quoted ahove 1 

III. 1 . What exceptions are there to the generally mythological 
character of the Greek Tragedies ? Does the (Edipus belong to' 
the nde or the exception t 

2. Does the occurrence which forms the ground-work of 
the plot in this play exhibit an advanced stage of civilization, or the 
reverse ? 

3. Explain wherein the character and fortunes of (Edipus 
form a particularly apt subject for Tragic representation. 

4. Schlegel characterizes the mimetic art among the antients 
as ideal and rythmical. Explain his meaning, and illustrate it as he 
has done by an appeal to their sculpture. 

5. What was the number of spectators generally present at 
given by Plato, Sympos. ? Why is the work alluded to called the 
Symposium ? 

IV. 1. What was the Cyclian Chorus? 

2. Explain the difference between the Dorian, Lydian, and 
Ionian moods. How does Athenseus mention the first and third, 
and Dryden the second ? 

3. Does the Chorus ever speak in the singular number f 
What was it composed of in the (Edipus? What is the characteristic 
difference between the Chorus of Sophocles and that of Euripides ? 
Does Cicero appear to have taken much delight in Sophocles? 
Which play does he often mention ? 

4. What according to Lysias was the expense of furnishing 
a Chorus 1 

Tpayfiolg ict)(ppiiyfiKi mrt ovfoc, lyii 2e avXi/raic av^paat.— 
Demosth. in Mid. §. 49. Translate this» and explain which was 
the greater expense. 

5. YiaX fii^y Itm ye rovff on fiovXofuvoi firihira dy^yiitoSat. 
liror ovr ihidicare dirXJ^ ruv yopffiyQv croZtvX vpoKoXiffavTi rove X^P**^ 
rac VKOireiy' ctXX' idy fity KoXfoi}, ircyn^JCOKra dpa)(ficic« idy Si KoBi^tv^ 
Bai K^tvfnij x^iKia^ dirorlyeiy irdiare. Ibid. §. 16. Translate and 
explain this. What feeling does the law itself strikingly exhibit ? 

6. How were the expenses of exhibition and admission pro* 


vided for ? What was the admission money ? How was the law 
regarding it rendered unalterable ? 

7. What is the most striking difference between the dress of 
the actors of the Greek Theatre and our own ? Why could not we 
adopt it ? 

V. In what view did Plato in the Sophist consider the parts 
of speech as two only ? How many does Aristotle mention ? 
How was the number extended until, with the Latin Grammarians, 
it reached to ten? 


VL 1. What was the old form of the Greek infimtiye and how 
did it affect that of Qpntract verbs as /3oa6», BriXow ? 

2. When the initial letter of a substantive, and th^ first of 
the article are both vowels, how are the two written ? Exemplify 
it in Tou ifiov, and <ipx^^ ^^ <>' cirf^alpioc. 

S. What is Elmsley's rule respecting the use of o* or ( in 
the preposition avp ? Is it violated in the line x^P^^ /idkLtrra wpog 
rim ipyavXo^ i5v ? 

4. What is the Ionic imperfect of ilfil, iwn, and what the 
Attic ? What is Hermann's theory in regard to the use of jy and ivt 
Apply it to the line ^ iovXoct ov*^ tayrirot, dXX oIkoi rpai^lc 

VII. rivac iriff ilftaq rdaS' ifwi Oodien ; What is the meaning 
of dod(€T£ ? Is it ever used in a neuter sense ? iBaaJ^ov Kd&aifia 
alra ytyvai. Translate this* Give the corresponding English 
word. Nee virgines festinantur. Tac. German* Explain this, 
and shew how it illustrates the double use of doa(tt. 

VIII. ^(yovaa fiey icaXv^i^^^ eyjcapwotc X^^^» 
^lyovera ^ aycXaic /Sovvo/iocCi roKOtal* r€ 
dyovoiQ yvrmKuiy*' iy ^ 6 nvpfopoc* Oeoc 
tnciiypac eXavyec, Xoi/ioc ixOurroCf vdXiy, 

Translate and explain particularly the expressions 1, <• 5. Scan 
the second and third lines. 

IX. 1 . <tf^ ovK viry^ *Y tvlovrd /i* Sfiyttpert* 

What is the effect intended by repeating in the substantive the idea 
expressed in the verb ? Quote a beautiful line from Moschus in 
which viTFoc is similarly joined with cvSw. 

2. rai li iti<ip 4Si| ivfifitrpcvfuyoy Xfl^^V 
Translate this. What is the difference between x/>o>^c and icaipoQ ? 
Would avfM^Tpovfitvoy be correct ? 


X. Translate : 

• • • • 
wXeUrra (rv/iirai^ei. v. 1079 — 102. 

XI. worepa ^ cV o1icoic» <(• r. X« Is not probability violated by the 
supposition that CEdipus had lived for some time with Jocasta, and 
yet was unacquainted with the commonest facts relating to Laius's 
death ? Has Aristotle laid down any principle by which such a 
supposition is legitimated ? 

XIL "Aprtfuyf a Kvt^tyr dyopdc dpovor ci)icXea ddeaei. 
What is the comment of the Scholiast on the word evVXco, and how 
is it supported by a passage from Plutarch ? Why is there no cir- 
cumflex on the last syllable ? 

XIII. 1. icipSoc tcXm 'yJ. Give instances from the play of a 
similar form of the future. By what Dialect is it thus written ? 

2. €v\ofmi BiovQ 

fiifr aporov avrdic y5c dvUvai rcya, 
/ufr* oiv yvyaucQy vatBac' dXXo rf iroV^ 
rf rvy ^eptitrdcu* 
Translate this. What if it were yrjy instead of y^c? Illustrate 
this mode of connection between one word and sundry parts of a 
sentence by Greek and Latin quotations. 

3. The Scholiast proposes ^op^i^ai for ^ipeiffdai. On 
what general principles ? Why does not Elmsley adopt it ? 

iyu 2*, ov fjLti irore, 
rafJL 6^ ay eiwiay fui ra v exfi^yw ccuca. 
Translate and explain the construction. ' 

4. fuac rpi^p wpoc wm^. Explain this, 

XIV. Matthise lays down generally that a reference to a person 
or thing is implied in *aU verbs where such reference is admissible. 
Is it so in the foUowing passage ? Translate it. 

ayhpa ^ iJ^eXeiv a^' uy 
ixot re ical Bvycuro KoXXurro^ voyuty, 

XV. 1. 'paylff^e Kviay, 

Had the word niwv particular force ? Illustrate it. 

2. mSdc r ay ovk ay dkyvyat£ wXeoy. 
With what limitation should ay be thus twice used ? 

3. olffO* wc woiiiffoy ; 

Explain this construction. Why would not the participle be sub- 

8T. John's coll. 315 

stknted lor the imperative? olaSa yvp df iioi yevioBta ; is tliii a 
timilar construction ? 

4. ral vvy iff avroc tlfu, 

Hermann proposes er avroc* What is the objection ? In what 
Dialect would the two be identical ? Why is it not written uMcl 

Translate, and explain the construction according to Matthise. 

Xyi. 1 • ^pacroi SiKatoi Suoiv dfroKplvaq KOKoiy, 

Scan this line, and aeeount for the irregularity. What is the 
quantity of the antipenultima of aVorp/vac ? 

2. Explain by Latin words the difference between oc, Sfryt, 
00nc Bnd Sort and also of xal and ri, 

3', Aatov yap fv, 

tiTTcp rcc <SfXXoc, iri(rroca ^ rofwic dyijp. 
What is the meaning of the last expression? Mention any Herds- 
men famous for fidelity. 

4. e{ ffpOQ c2c *ApKrovpoy. 

How long was this ? When did Arcturus rise according to PUny ? 
What is the derivation of 'Aprrcwpoc ? 

XVII. OJfJuu ydp ovT ay^ltrrpoVf ovre ^wny ay 

N/i//ac KoBapfif rriyie njv tniyriy. 

Quote similar passages from English authors. 

XVIII. Translate: 

• ahX €t n|c oKOVovffiyc er rir 

Vffyrj^ ^i irwy f^payfioct ^'^ ^^ ^^^ftriy 
TO fr/f diroK\eur€u rovfwy aOXiov Se/iaci 
ly i rvifiKoQ re ral rXvfti v iiiitiy* 
Give Dawes's rule generally on the government of verbs by Xya^ 
S^pa. Shew how it applies to the passage quoted. 

2. When ovk tHy precedes a future, what is the general rule 
of stopping at the end of the sentence ? 

XIX. Kpdri<rros fy aviyp, 

SoTiQ ov (ifK^ iro\ir£y xal rv^atc ciri/9Xcirfi»y, r. r. X. 
Scan this, and translate it. What according to Cicero is the ety- 
mology of invideo ? ^ 

XX. r/c irapa^iylfti rtKya 
rmavT oyilhri Xafifidy^tv d role ifuiit 
itrrly yoytvn t/'^fv ff Ofiov ^lyXiffiara. 

Stop this passage and translate it 



XXI. Explain the following words and phrases, ififidnitf irofMi- 
/kurcc, ra e{ dfjLoiuyf irofAtrevuVf ov^iy ^pos toy ^iiwvor^ KPP^^ ^^' 

CAIUS COLL. 1829. 

1 • On what do the plots of the Greek Tragedies usually turn, and 
what is the moral principally intended to be conveyed by them ? 
By what circumstances of contrast does Sophocles in the (Edipus 
Tyrannus contrive to enforce this moral very powerfully, and also 
to excite a high degree of "pity and terror/' Shew on the 
principles of Aristotle that the character of CEdipus is peculiarly 
well fitted for Tragedy : and also the great excellence of the dyayyti- 
piaii and wepivlnia of this play. Can any improbabilities (though 
not of a very important kind) be detected in the conduct of it ? 
Where do we find the first traces of the story of QSdipus? 

S. From considering the origin of Tragedy how does it appear 
that the Chorus was neither an ornament added to it, nor a con- 
trivance designed to* render it more perfect ? Mention instances of 
the great inconveniences to which the ancient Tragedies were 
subjected by the perpetual presence of the Chorus. Enumerate, as 
Horace has done, its various offices. In which of his plays has 
Sophocles departed throughout from the leading precept, ''lUe 
bonis faveatque et consilietur amic^." Can any thing in this case 
be urged in justification of the Poet ? 

8* What is meant by '* unity of action?** Are under-plots incon- 
sistent with it ? What are the unities of time and place ? Which of 
these is not noticed by Aristotle ? From what circumstance was a 
much more strict observance of the two last unities required on the 
Greek, than is necessary on the modern, Stage ? Quote instances 
from the ancient Tragedians of decided violations of them. 

4. riyac iroff i^pat rdv^c fwi dod^trip 

hcniploiQ xXd^ouny iletrrefAfiiyot ; 

What is the exact meaning of dodi^ere ? Are the Um/iploi cXa2ot 
here spoken of the same as the elptvuayii of Aristophanes ? 

5. • wc dikoyroc ay 

ifiov wpotrapKeiy wdv. 


Translate this. Under what circumstancea are absolute cases 
introduced? What cases are commonly used absolutely? To 
what may the nominative absolute usually be referred? What 
difference is there between the genitive absolute with and without 
«Sc ? Is the accusative absolute ever found without this particle ? 

6. ivffdXyrfroc yap of 
ei^K, roidy^€ /L117 ov Karouerdpfav ehpay. 

Why are fiij and ov used together in this place ? Explain the 
difference between their meanings when used separately. Dis- 
tinguish between ipa fiif and ipa ov, also between ^eSouca ov and 
iihouca fATi ov. 

7. Translate, 

^ivovaa jtiv KoXv^y iyKOfncoit yfiov6^, 
^iyowra h* dyiXai/Q jiovvofwi^, roKOtal n 
dyoyoi^ yvyaucuiy* iv d* o irvp^opos deoc 
irK»;i//a( iXavyei, Xoc^c ex^t^roc, iroXtv. 

. ci yap oW Sri 

vootirt irdvTiQy Koi yomvmCf wq iyia 
ovK iariy vfimy Strric i^ (<rov vovet. 
Give the original, and the various significations of mcn^mf and 
Skaiyti. Explain the exact construction of the latter passage. 

8. ^puiy ^ W ^vQy niylt pv^aifAtiy iroKty, 

State the rule for the prolongation of a short vowel before fl. 
Does it hold in Homeric verse ? 

9. TOVT diro<rK€^iS fAwro^. 

Explain the formation of the Attic Futures corresponding to the 
Ionic terminations in a<rw, eirw, and ivta. 

10. ayaKT* aycucri ravff opHyr itriarafiat 

puiXiara ^ol^ Tetpefflay, 

In what terms, similar to these, does Horace celebrate the skill of 
Tiresias? How may we infer from a passage of ^schylus the 
nature of the divination employed by him ? 

11. OI. aXX* J2* areyrroc '^arcXevnyroc 0ayci ; 
iti, opytiv €fAefi\l/u niv tfiriy niy (n\v Ofwv 

yalovtray ov i:aref2ec» dXX* ifu i^cycic* 
Translate this. Give the derivation of areyicroc ; ^oA explain the 
jllnsion contained in ofiov raloveay. 


12. del ^ ov nHovrw, aXX* oiri#£ rd rav Btov 

/lavrci* dpivfXL Xvtfo/icy, ro& mcatruv. 
When if the Future, and when the Suhjunctive Aorist, med 

after mrwc? 

Id. Jot' ov Kpioyro^ irpom-arov yeyptalfofiai. 

ap olae of* Jy $1; Kok Xihfia^ iySpoe iv 
role voiffiy avrov yipOf, Kawl yrje ^y«« 

Toibc KtOai^K oir^2 mifi^yoQ rax^' 

orav raro/o^ rov vjuvawv^ oy hofwi^ 

ciyopfwy iltrivXevvaCf evwXolac rv^ciiy ; 

cXXMy Si irX^fOoc owe ertuoQdyet KtucAv^ 

d a iiunifni ooi rt koX toic «oic rcicyocc* 
Transhite accurately these passages* Explain the oonstruction of 
Kpiorro^ irpoardrw* How is ovrov governed ? Produce an instance 
of a parallel construction from a Latin Poet. 

14. ov yap re (r jf^ fuSpa t^yijvoyrf iirel 
^0^ y ay otxouc rov^ c'/iovc itrrttkifaiy. 

In what other passage of Sophocles is ^oXf used in the same 
sense as in this ? Is a similar expression to he found in Shakes- 
peare 1 

15. Translate, 

ov ydp ri ool (^ SovXnc, ctXXa Ao(lf. 

i| rf noXv/3ov yelKoc wtr, ovrc vdpotdiy 

TOT iyuy\ ovrt rayvy irt* 

ifiuBoy, irpoc orov irj (iatrdy^ 

iwl ray MSofwy ^arty elfi OtSiwoia 

A€i/32our/3cuc eVdcDiipoc diiiXmy Qayar^y, 

1 6. ripayyoQ civat fiaXXoy^ i| rvpavva Spdy. 

What was the original signification of Tvpayyao^ and how did it 
become changed ? 

17. State Dawes's Canon with respect to the quantity of a short 
or doubtful vowel before /3, y, and ^, accompanied by any liquid 
except p. What exceptions to it occur in Sophocles ? St#te also 
the quantity of ai, u and oi, before vowels in AtUc Greek. Wliat 
are the rules and licences of Anapsestic Metre. 


Explain the construction ofeiriv. On what general principle is 
this osage founded ? 

19. avTpoiQ TO Xoiirov iKfierpovfuvoQ \B6ra, 

Explain fully this passage, and illustrate it from other authors* 

90. Translate, 

wiBQv TOiovff' oOmlytK ovk o\(Kuyr6 yiv. 

Ofifipoi xtiKd(ri^ aifiuriay iriyyiro, v. 1271— 9. 

21. Mention the difference between odrioc and ^jcoioc, y^^fin 
and ^povriixay iepoVf vooc, rifuro^ and tnjKoe — also Bvfioe, ^liv, kovc and 
^Inrxji' What is the usual force ofirapd in composition with Vierbs 1 

22. In what cases may the Article be used as a Pronoun in 
Attic Greek, (1) in Poetry, and (2) in Prose? 



1 . What is Aristotle's definition of tragedy ? What is his 
division of it into parts of quantity and parts of qiiality ? What 
character and what catastrophe are best suited to it ? What are the 
different provinces of the Poet and the Historian ? 

2. Give a brief account of the dramatic contests^ and a de- 
scription of a Grecian theatre. How were the performances 
conducted 7 

8. Mention some particulars in whidi the language of the 
tragedians differed from the ordinary language of their Athenian 

4. What was the expense of a tragic chorus? Quote the 
words in which Horace complains that the splendour of the deco- 
rations, rather than the merits of the poet, engaged the applause of 
an audience. 

6, State distinctly the rules and licenses of Tragic Iambic and 


Trodiaic verses, and specify the distincdons between Tragic and 
Comic metre. 

6. Give a brief sketch of the life of Sophocles, mention the 
improvements in the dramatic art which he introduced, and compare 
his merits as a dramatist with ^schylus and Euripides. 

7. When, and by whom, was the CEdipus Coloneus first repre- 

8. V. 12. fiavSdyetv yap ^ko/xcv. 

In what constructions are ^rciv, icveu and similar verbs used ? 
V. 91. Illustrate the metaphorical expression Kafiyf/tiv fiiov. 
V. 104. €l fiti &>icw rt /letoVitfc cx"''* 

What rendering of these words do you adopts and why ? 
V. 138. 01. SF iKiivoc iyia. i^vf yap ofm 

TO <paTiii6fi£yoy» 
XO. Scivoc fiiy opaVf leivoQ U KXvety. 
01. /ill fit iKtTivta, irpo9ilf(r avofioy* 
XO. Zev dXdiJTop, Wc iroff 6 trpevfive ; 
OI. ov wdyv.fiolpaQ Ev^aifioylirat 
Tpw-tiQ^ i ryv^ iiJKfpot x«^f>«tC* 
hrfKu ^'* ov yap ay cSS* dXXorploit 

Ofifiany eipiroy^ 
rairl vfUKpoic fuyat i^pfumv, 
X0« dXattiy OfifiaTutv 

apa xai ^fvda t^vToKfuog, ^veraiwyj 
fiaxpaiufy r it iwetxdvai. 
Translate this accurately ; in the last line another reading pro- 
posed is 

liaxpaLiay y ot, ewtiicdtrai. 

What sense is thus given to the passage ? 
V. 228. ovhyl /ioipcj^a tIitic cpx^rac, 

Jk TpoiraOp, TO Ttytiy. airara K and' 
race iTtpaic mpa irapaliaWofAe' 
va woyoy ov ydp^v dyriil^iaeiy c- 

Translate and explain the constructions of this passage, and sup- 
port that which you select. What are the senses of irof>oj3c{XXo/Mu ? 


Quote instances in which other poets maintain the justice of reta- 

V. 284. aXX' iStfirep cXajScc rov eiccrfjv ixiyyvov. 

It has heen proposed to read ex^yyvoQ : retaining cxcyyvov, to 
what class of adjectives must we refer it ? Is there any objection 
to this ? 

V. 538. i TcdvT tKtlvia toiq iy Aiyvurf vopoiQ 

Translate the following account from Herodotus: 
AlyvnTioc tt/ia rif ovpayf Tf Kara fffiac tovri irtpolifp taX rf iro- 
ra/i^ fiviv dXKolriy wape\Ofiiyf rj oi oXAoc irorafMoif rd woXKa xctira 
ifjLvaXiy Toiai oXXoccri dySpiiwoun iimiaayro ffied re ral yOfwvQ, iy 
Toiai at fiiy yvydiKiQ dyopdl^ovvi ical KowriXivovaC ol ^ dy^p€Q, Kar 
Oijcovc eoiT'CCt vfoiyovat. v^alyovm £c oi fuy oXXiHi avw rriy icpoaiy 

MeoyT€c$ AiyvwTioi ^c, icarta Ol Ipiee detiy rp fiiy aXkg KOfiiovtrC 

iy Alyvury hi^ {vpevvrcu. roivi dXkouri dySpiOTOKn yofioc ^fui K^^ii 
KiKOpBai Tac iCc^oXac rove fidXiara ucylercu' Alyvwrtot Sc vwo rm)c 
Oaydrov^ dyuitn ra( rplya^ avi/E€fBai, rdc re iy rf ite^oXp xal rf ye* 
velff riiaQ iiufnifiiyoi* roi<n fiiv aXXoicri dySptiumtn X^^^ Sripliay 
iiaira dirorerpcrcu* AiyvTrrloim Bi Ofiov Orfptoun ij iiturd itrri, diro 
Tvpiuy Kid KpSifay JXXoc i^iaovaC Aiywrliay Be rf muvfuyf dvd 
Tovrwy rrjy iof^Vy ovec^oc fuyioroy itrri' dXXd dwo oKvpitty iroicvtrai 

mrlay rdc (eidt penlirtpoi KoXiovat etfioray rHy fiiy driptiy 

CKamoQ cx^^ ^^^' ^^^ ^^ yvyaucwy iy eicaoriy. ruiy larl^y rove Kp/aeovc 
Koi raXovci oi fiiy aXKoi e£w6ev vpotrhiowi* Alywrrioi Se, itnoBey* 
ypdfAfiora ypd/^own koI Xoylioyrai if/if^«(ri, "EXXtfyE^ fiiy^ dwo rwy 
dpiarepiiy iwl rd le^td ^poyrec njv X^lpa' Aiyvrmoi ^e, airo r£y ^efiiSfy 
ixl rd dptm-epd* Koi irouvyrec rawra, avrol fiiy fatn eVi ^e(ca xoieecy^ 
"EXXii^ac ^ iw dpimepd, Btipaalottn Bi ypdfjLfiatn ^pitayrai* tal rd 
fiiy avrHyf ipd' rd Bi, ^fifiorixd KoXierai, 

V. 859* ^icecc ydp ov Keyri ye, rovr eyo) cra^c 
e^ocoa, ^17 ovx^ de</i Cf(o< <p€pov<ra ri, 
C£d. Tyr. v. •! 2, Bv<rdXyrfrot ydp ay 

iifiy roidy^e fifj ov Karoucnipiay ihpay* 
Demofith. ot xoXetc xaKtiral Xtifieiy fitj ov ^poyf koI woXwpd^, 
Eur. Or, 766. Pors. /iiy otJ Xc^^i ^ ao/uvoc* 

MattI). /bii| Xdfliaal tr dvfxfyot' 
Plato, fiiy Kadapf Kadapov ifdimaBai firj ov Ot^iroy f' 



Translate each of these extracts, and explain the eonstnotioo. 

V. 361. cyiJ rd fuy irad^fiaff, d eiraOoy, irarep, 

(ifrcvaa njy ^i^Vf mw rarouco/i|Cf rpo^¥f 

Eur. Hec. 295. to ^ dU^fM^ Kav kokAq XiypC) ro m^y 

Translate these* and quote instances which confirm the mle by 
which KormKolriQi Xcyi^c are lo be preferred to icaroucoiiy, X/yp. 
V. 377. d ^1 <Jc Koff lifidf ia& 6 wk/fivuv \iyoQ, 

ro KotKoy" AfiyoQ fids ^vydsy vpovXafifidtfu 
Kvi^C re Kcuvov Kcd fffyamnardg ^Xovc» 
ciic avrU: "hpyoq ^if ro KnBfAiitty in^or 
rtfi^ Kodifpyf Ktd irpos o^pay^v /3c/3wv. 
Render this reading of the passage, and also that of f— if £>r 
&f-^r«o2 in the two last lines* 

V. 401. What are the adverbs from Ovpa, olnoc> correapcMidiiig 
10 irov, iroi, iro6ev, and what is their diflferenoe of significatioB ? 
V. 402. Ktivois o Tvfjtfios hfOTvx^Sy 6 ^s /3a/9tfc« 
What was the oracular declaration respecting the corpse of 
GSdipiis as given by the Scholiast, and what are the remarks of the 
Scholiast upon it ? Quote instances of that practice among the Trsp 
gedians which corroborates these observations. What was the widi 
of the Theba98 with regard to his interment ? Explain 2v0rvx«»r. 
V, 503. Toy roKoy ? lya 

ypii&Tai fA i^evfitly^ tovto /3ovXo/mu fuidtiy. 
Thus Hermann. x/>*i m/i/i' Elms. How may the first readiag be 
rendered, and what is the objection to the conjecture of Ehnsley f 
V. 539. il^fiiiy 

d«Slpov, o fjLipnr iyi rakaKopitoc 
iirw^iXriaa woXeoc e{eXc90ac. 
What two explanations are given of the construction t 
V, 694. ioriv 8*, oloy eyw 

Translate this, and exphdn the allusions contained in it. 
V. 755. aXX' ov yap iim rdft^yij xpvirrecv, ov yvy^ 


8T. pbtee'8 goix. S28 

What is the empbatic word here omitted ; quote insti^oes of the 
same kind of omissioQ. 

V. 808. Xf^p^ t4 r elwtiy waXXd xal to KoLpia. 
The reading of the copies is rcc ica^Ma ; what determines the truth 
of the correction ? 
V. 91 9« jca/roc 91 Onfiai y ovk hr^dZtvva^v ffunV* 
Phfl. ▼. 1S44# (Jc yap n yvt^f^ kokHv 

fofrrip yivrgrait raXXa Tottcvci icaxa. 
Transbte these passages* 
V. 1081. etO* acXXa/a rtv^^piutnro^ ircXfuic 
aidepiae V€^iKtic 
KvfMfmfii avr«#v S* dyvrun^ 
Oeiapiiaatra rovfwr ofAjna, 
yfhat is the construction ? What ve the seqs^^ of OcuyifVf and 
how do you here render it 7 

V. 1 1 76. Tranalate rl aoi voir ifn-l Xtfs^v kI^^v \ 
V* 150d. yriQ Swnir^ 'Aviaf' 

Whence is this i^uaoe derived accprdiug to ^sdiylfis ? 
V. 1 380. Toiydp TO my Bdxnfua xiu tqv^ ffcrvc ^QfiiiyoyiC 
KparaSffiVf rivcp irAr 9 ^raXol^KfTOi 
Mai iuytipo^ Zi|yoc upx^iois yo/uoic* 
What is the government of jcparcw ? What is t\^ construction of 
the kst line ? 

V. 1697. ANT. irdaoc ral Ktuemy Ap iy rt(. 

KoH yap d fiti^fid ^ to ^(^y$ j^iX^v» 
oiroTv yc ico2 tov iv xspoly vareTxoy. 
Translate and explain this passage. 

St. PETER'S COLL. 1828. 

I. (a) Mention the moat remarlqtble circumstances in tlie life of 
Sophocles, and give a brief abstract of the affiurs of 
Greece during th^t pforipd, assigning dates. 
(A) Enumerate the dramatic writers of Greece previous to .the 
time of Sophocles, tracing the growth oi Tragedy as 
ypu proceed. 



(e) How does Aristotle assign the difiexent provinces ' of 
Historian and Poet ? Illustrate diis in the historical 
and poetical treatment of the life of QSdipus. 

2. Deriye and fully explain the following words and phrases : 

Tpay^ia, rpvy^/a, avroa\ehd<rfiarap ^ihdtmtr rpayfUaVf 
XOpov hdoyaif \opriyla^ dvrihddirKaXot, iinviKia^ Xoyclov^ 

3. Give the readings of MSS. and remarks of various 

Critics on the following passages, and translate them 
accurately as they here stand, 
(a) 01 5e irXj|artoc yvai 

TOvB* iinronyy KoXmvop £v)(ovrai o^mr 
dp\fiy6y eJvai, 
(6) K€pSrj fAtv olKlvavra roic ^eieyfuvoiQt 

arriv ^c rolg wifArpainy, o1 fi dtrijiXairay, 

(c) Kal firi 6covc n/«3vr€C, cTra rove 6eo»c 
fioipav wouioBe firjiafiWQ, 

(d) ra XoiaBi atrcT rov (ilov' rd 5' iy fuof 
ij XfjoTiy 1^«c> V ^** owSewc ^oul, 

(e) iroXXai 3* dirccXac iroXXa 5if futTtiy imi 
dvfif KaTrprtlXfffFay' dXX 6 vovc Bray 
avTttv yiyrfrat, ^povha raxeiXiy/iara. 

If) i^v^f^C avroy* ^mt fiij yc hpwyrd tre 

Ta ruy Kaxlanay httroi^mdr^av^ wdrip, 

BifUQ et y tlyai Ktivoy dyridpdy koxwc* 
(g) o ^ iwlmvpoQ 

ifforiXtaroQ "AiSoCi ore Mdip 

dyvfiiyatoct ctXvpoc> i^xopoc 

ddyaroQ ec TtXevrdy, 
(h) Kol fitiprvpui KaKiarog dySpwiriity rpofaiQ 

race vaitrty ifK€iv raXXa ^ij *£ SXXuty irciOi;. 

(f) ov yap icff &K'fac roKiy 
KEiyriy cpet rtc. 

(k) tI ^ ay OcXoiC ro wttrroy ifi^vyat ^peyl ; 
k Derive and explain the following words ; particularly the 
rites alluded to in the last : 
aXaffrvp^eype/idxav, SuroXovcy d/iirvKrf|p(a, wvKyovTUr^ty^ 


TTpocwoksiffdiUj KVfJMToirXrjlf OKTivt&roQf KTeplofiaTa^ hia- 

vpvmo^f fyiirdrifjLara, ^vainvei^t Xyyiriv^ aXirif/MOc» r^fntVy 

Draw a map, which shall contain Thehes and Athena, and 

all the intermediate and adjacent cities. How are 

Boeotia and Attica bounded, and what account of 

Colonos is derived from this Play ? 
Write down the laws of the Tragic lambici Trochaic, and 

Anapsestic metres. 



I. Are there any pretensions to the invention of Tragedy prior 
to Thespis 7 Define the date of its origin ; and shew how it bears 
upon the question of the authenticity of the Letters of Phalaris. 

II. What is th^ root of the word Drama ? And what argument 
is thence derived relative to the invention of Tragedy and Comedy ? 
Is this argument strengthened by any collateral evidence ? 

III. 1. What was the prize of the Dithyrambic Chorus ? 
2. What, of Comedy ? 

d. Translate and explain Aristoph. Achanu 1 S — 4. 
ciXX' trtpov yoBriy, ^vIk cVc fi6o\i^ irori 
Ac£/Ococ eltn[\ff ^aofuvot "BoMTtov. 

IV. I • What was the nature of Thespis*8 pieces ? 

2, Is there any thing of thp same kind to be found among 

the works of the three great Tragedians ? 
S. With whom did serious Tragedy commence ? 
V* What was the original metre of Tragedy, and why chosen ? 
Who introduced written Tragedy, female characters, a second and 
third actor, respectively ? 

VI. I . Enumerate and explain the chief parts and divisions of 
the Greek Theatre. 


2. To tflax ftsMtvafc #ere dfttnutlc ^thlbitlcmr at first con- 

fltied at Atheftt? To whM were they afterwards 

9. What was the nature of the cotnpetitioiis of tlie Tr^^ 

dians ? With what pieces did they eontend ? And 

fa6w was the prize adjudged ? 

4. Who was the Kopv^albc ? And whence is the word 

derived ? 

5. What was xopov iMyai ? What was the expence of a 

Tragic Chorus ? 

6. What was the office of the XopottldmcaXoc ? Was it 

usual for the Tragedians to perform that office for 
themselves t 

7. What was the number of the Chorus in the time of 

Sophocles 1 What is the common account given of 
the reduction of its number ? And la there any thing 
in the character and genius of Aschylus which makes 
that account probable, or otherwise ? 

8. Define the eircMrodiov, irc^oo&Vi c^o^, trrdaifioyf KOfiftoe. 

VII. Explain and illustrate by examples the epithet ko/iito^cuci- 
\0pp1ifwya9 applied to £schylus (Barp. 863); and give a brief account 
of the plot and condusion of the Bdrpa\oi of Aristophanes. 

VIII. h At what period did Sophocles live ? What public office 

did he bear ? At what age did he die ? 
2. What is known of his general feelings and conduct to^ 
wards ^schylus ? 

9. Are any traces of a contrary feeling discennble in the 

writings of Euripides ? 

IX. 1. Arrange the Plays of Sophocles in the chronological 

order of their subjects, and mention those of iBschylus 
and Euripides which are written on the same subjects 
with any of them. 
- ^ Was the Philoctetes of Sophocles successful ? Did 
either of the other Tragedians write on the same 
subject ? 
Xtf 1. What catastrophe does Aristotle consider best for Tra- 
gedy ? Which of the three Tragedians most generslly 
accords with his opinion on this point ? 


2. Wfaal fpeoies of charaoter does tbe wne Critic eoDsider 
as best adi^ed for Tragedy ? Compare the cha- 
racter of Philoctetes in this respect with the Timon of 

8. Define the Uiptwmta and 'Av€tyrmpwH\ and say if 
there be aay example of either or both in the Phi- 

XI. 1. Explain the CsBsuras of an Iambic Senarius — the rule 

rehuing to an Anapaest in the case of a proper name — 

and that respecting a whole metre being included in 

a siogle word. 
2. Define the Pause ; and say whether it is violated by any 

of the following lines. If by any, correct them* 
(a) lihff rixpoy, tniXKeoBe ; — iccupoQ yap xakgu v* 466« 
{b) ^/\u he yavroX, irw^ av vfur c/j^i^c* y,53l, 

(c) Iw/ticy, i xac, ^pootevaavrt^ ttJv iaw» v. 5SS* 

{d) W won Xfiyeic, i rixyor ; tig ov ftayOdita, ▼. 914. 

XII. Define the metrical Ictus ; and say, where it falls in the 
words hxoiovf dxpartipf and irpoiiiofiai in the following lines : 

vevtroVf irpog avrov Zrirog IkeoIov^ rtKyov* v. 484. 

OKpanap 6 TXiifMaVf xtttkoQ, cEXXct /uj /i* d^£. ▼. 486. 

dwoKulka rXif/iwv, irpoiiSofiai. ri fi\ i £eVc. y* 923. 

XIII. oooQ o^iiwor ifXOcv dBpovQ cic ri|y Ilyvica. 

1 . How does this line violate the laws of a Tragic Senarius ? 
2. ' How, of a Comic ? 

8. Is there any other fault besides that of metre ? 

XIV. Where was Lemnos ? What is its modem name ? How 
is the corruption accounted for 1 Explain the proverbial expression, 
*' Lemnia facinora.*' 

XV. 1. V. 178. yoml yoaov. Are there any instances of a 

different construction of this phrase in the Tragedians? 

2. V. 201. fv^ofi* lx£- Explain this construction. 

8. Do the same with my ixoyrtcy v. 258, and supply the 
elision and the accent in aiy • 

XVI. V. 226. ewrXay^rc. V. 267. xXijyciro. 

1. Account for the difierence in the antepenultima of these 

two words. 

2. Which of the Aorist tenses did the Tragedians generally 

prefer ? and why ? 


XVII. V. 251. avyofia. What dialect is this ? How do you 
account for its admission in the Tragedians ? In what other word 
do they preserve the same dialect ? 

XVIII. 1. ^taKov€iaB€u. What is the quantity of the second sylla- 

ble of this word ? How accounted for ? 
2. What is the quantity of the final syllable of 'AxiXXf'a, 

and similar accusatives ? Are there any violations 

of the rule, either real or apparent, in Attic writers ? 
d. Give a general account of the usage of the Tragedians 

in respect of the quantity of the second syllable of 

dyla and its derivatives. 

4. Mark the quantity of the former syllable in X/av, irupoc> 

fOKpoc, — of TToc, and the latter syllable in /leyact 
raXac, rciKav. 

5. How do the Tragedians scan ftij ov ? Is their practice 

invariable ? 

XIX. Accentuate ovrc and ovh, and account for the difference. 
Mark the difference of accent, according to the different significa- 
tions, in Toviipoc, Biay^ koXiuq, di^ofuv ; and of accent and breathing 
in eic, airXooc, lyv, ckc. 

XX. 1. Mention by what moods and tenses the particles ov /iij 

are necessarily followed. 

2. Shew generally the difference of construction between 
Xf>ii and dcT ; and illustrate particularly the Attic 
usage of the latter word. 

S. V. 1086. Oiolviy el SIktiq fiiXiu Give different con- 
structions of this phrase. 

XXI. V. 1092. tW aWipoi avm 

irXiiNiScc ofynovtuv hd in^ev/iaroc 

Translate and explain this. Support your interpretation of xXoKi^ec, 
or of any other words you may adopt in its place as the true reading. 

XXII. hpamUiQ. What verb is this called ? Shew how it is 
formed ; and adduce other words of the same kind. Compare them 
with similar verbs in the Latin language. 

XXIII. V. 1007. Jc /i* cdiypoVw, Xa/9«V 

irpdISKrifML travrov iral^a ror^ dyvQr ifiotf 
oc ovhiv y^ri itXtJv to irporra'xBiv xouiv. 


Is p3i| the right reading here ? Investigate the point hy the analogy 
of Attic usage, and explain accurately the difference between the 
form of the first and third persons. 
.XXIV. V. 1469. x^^iuv yyv mvrtQ ooXXeec* 

yvfu^tQ dXicutriy iveviidfieyoip 
vooTov (ri#rjpac udoBaim 

1 . Correct this passagCiand state the ground of the correction. 

2. What is the last line called, and why ? To what pecu- 

liar restrictions is its metre subject ? 

XXV. Shew on what grounds the following passages are objec- 
tionable, and correct them : 

1. i 9irap/A"Ax<XXeMc» /W fu hajidSXrtQ ^rpaTf. v. 582. 

2. ecoira, finr' diKoyra^ fiffie ry ^^Xl?* v. 771. 

3. 4L itxivt^ rw /i* ixtiffe, NE. ttov Xiyecc ; 41. ai^w. v. 814. 

4. ecu irfS( 3/iniiOK, a y iXafie^ /SovXaif Cfiaic, 

iraXii^ fuOioOai ravra ; v. 1247, 8. 

XXVI. Give a brief general account of the state of the Athenian 
llieatre in the time of Sophocles, and the feeling that existed 
between the Tragedians, Comedians, and Philosophers. 



1 . Distinguish between History, Epic Poetry, Tragedy and 
Comedy — in what do they agree ? In what do they differ? 

2. In Tragedy what are the instruments, the manner, and 
the objects of imitation ? In what order of importance does 
Aristotle place these last ? 

5, Was the law of the three Um^lies a law of the Greek 
school 1 State your opinion, and with it examples, either con- 
firming that opinion, or exceptions to it. — Did the Roman 
school admit the law ? What modem school has most strictly 


confonned to it? State tbe ineonvenieiioes of a rigid adr 
herence to the law. What does GorneiUe mean by la tioMn 
des scenes ? 
B. 1. In what maflaery and by what fiuids was the Athenian 
stage supported? t. What is the greatest amount on secord 
of their theatrical expeoaes in one year ? 3. Were these funds 
ever infringed ? What was the difficulty ia infringing them ? 
4. Give the meaning of the terms : Xeirmffyylcu eyrvxXiocy xopn- 
yla^ Xopnyov iviyKtip, yoft^v ^Mrm, xofny/tlp rpayf^lff dirt- 

5. Explain the following inscription : 

r. 1 . To whom do die Arundel marbles ascribe the invention of 
tragedy ? Between what two events is the epoch of its inven- 
tion placed ? Approximate by this means to the date of the 
invention. Does the authority of Plutarch or of Plato coincide 
with the marbles? When and under what king were the 
Arundel marbles engraved ? On what subjects are they most 
particular 1 

2. To whom has the invention of comedy been ascribed ? 
What is the opinion of Theocritus ? of Aristotle ? Who is 
named by the Arundel marbles as the inventor 1 Which way 
does the etymology of certain scenic words lean ? What is the 
reason that so little is known of the^ progress of comedy 1 
S, Translate and explain, 

(1) y€VOfiiyri ovv d^ ^V^^C avnoflr^e^caflTuni kqjL avrri Kot 

(2) cviiv wpo^ rov Atowaov, 

(3) Bcuexoc ^re rpirroy Kordyoi X'^^''^^ Tpdyoc iSXov 

X* ^ *micoc ^y ovKt^v a^iypiy vOXoc Iru 

(4) /3oac pvird koX aj^tfra 6vofid(uty ttimp i{ dfuit^t 

— ye^i^/^etc — iro^ircveic>— Daraosth. de Cor. 
4. Give an account of the regular anapsestic verse used by 
the Tragedians. Is the anapeestic verse of Aristophanes sub* 
ject to the same rules? Does Seneca observe the law of ^vra* 

^ca ? 


A. 1 . Eitftathitts has the expreflrion 6 ^Mfiripoi 2o^okXi$c* Make 
good the epithet. 2. In what rank aa a tragedian waa 8opho- 
elea held by hia ocmtemporariea? Quote Aristophanes in 
parttenlar. 9. What other arts reaehed their perfectk>n at 
Athens at the same time with Tragedy? 4. Mention the 
HistoHans, Poets, PhOosophera, Statesmen, and Artists of 
note who were contemporary with Sophodes, and dtisens of 

B. 1 . Give a succinct aocoont of the Post^Homeric History of the 
Trojan War, up to the taking of Troy. 

t. Which were the two cities that furnished the hurgest pro- 
portion of subjects for Grreek Tragedy ? 

8. Mention the titles, and the places where the scenes lay, 
of those tragedies, the chief characters in which were con- 
cerned in the Trojan War. 

4. Shew from a topographical error in the Ajax, that 
Sophocles was not acquainted with the site of the plain of Troy. 

5. State and confute very briefly the principal arguments 
by which Bryant contends that the Trojan War was never un- 
dertaken ; and that the city of Troy never existed in Phrygia. 
Who was the first person that held this opinion ? 

6. Mention the names of such heroes as lie buried in the 
plain of Troy. 

Z. 1 . Give a short criticism of the plot of the Ajax. 

2. Is it evffvyowroyl 3. Is the character of Ajax that 
which Aristotle prefers for tragedy T Are you aware of any 
circumstance that might have induced Sophocles to deviate in 
this play from the general rule of removing the death of an 
actor from the stage? 5. Are there any other plays, the 
names of which only have come down to us, on the same sub- 
ject with the Ajax? 

6. What events are introduced as probable futurities which 
the Poet knew had actually taken place ? 

7. Are there in this, or in other plays of Sophocles, passa- 
ges of national flattery ? 

8. Quote any sentiments that Sophodesputs into the mouth 
of Ajax that mark his character. 

9. Construe rov 3e fuinovc Spot vpoc piy rove dy^vag kqI ri|V 


aioBtinp, ov rqfc rixtmit iariv cl yop c^£ iKarop rpayfilac 
dykfyiieaOcUf irpoc icXof/vSpoc iv ^yiavlCoyro, 
itrrt 2c ^Ooc ftiv to roiovroy o 2i|XoT nfv fcpo€U(>€9ty orola rlc iariv. 
U. 1 . ConBtruct a system of the Greek tenses referable to three 

2. Resolve, language into its oonstitaent parts under two 
general heads. 

1. Shew the propriety of the Greek names for article, noun, 
pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, prepositiim. 
2. Do the Greek grammarians allow interjections as a separate 
class 7 S, Shew the importance of the article in the terms to 
irXoiby— oi IvhcKa — o avQpwiro^. 
9. V. 12. OTW. Decline this pronoun, in the contracted and ex- 
panded form, both in the singular and in the plural. 
V. 1 7. Aca>T( Tf acucea^pf. Quote Homer's description 

of the shield. 
V. 75. 2<ya receives four different accents. Give the 
meanings and quantities of the word so accentuated. 
Distinguish between oloc and oloc, el/it and ecfil, vvy and 
yvK, vfAiy and vfuy. What rule does Porson lay down for 
the quantity of dvijp ? Give Clarke's rule for the quantity 
of the final syllable of accusatives of nouns ending in cvc. 
V. 282. rlt yop TOT a^iy tov kokov irponirraro. Account 
for the existence of irpooewrdfArfy and wponwTOfuiy. 
Which does Porson prefer ? . 
V. 430. aI oI* Wc ay wot ftff J^ iwiirvfwy 

Tovfidy fyyolvtiy oyofta toIq ifwic icaxotc t 
Explain the construction of ewi^yvjwy. Shew, by ex- 
amples from £schylu8 and Euripides, that they were not 
less ambitious than Sophocles of this drivelling species of 
wit What example does Quindlian quote from Euripi- 
des ; and what judgment does he pass on it ? Did Cicero 
or Ovid stoop to the same meanness of conceit? Quote 
from Ovid the lines ending, 

Ipse suos gemitus foliis inscribit — et ai ai 
Flos habet inscriptum. 
V. 468. — eira XolaBtoy dayw. Correct this reading. Whence 
did the error of a second future arise 7 Mention the 


different Ionic futures, both active and middle, which the 
Attic dialect contracted. Assign a reason for the differ- 
ence of the futures of the two dialects. Will this reason 
apply |o the termination laut 1 Why are not Ionic and 
Attic futures always different ? 
V, 634. Kpelooiav yap'^At^g, KtvBfoVf tj votrbiv fLorav* Quote 
Homer's comparison of the happiness of the dead and the 
V. 579. Correct and translate, ical iQfi dwdKrw, iiifff eiri- 
' ffjciyVovc yoovQ Acucpvc. How did the error arise ? Trans- 
late Aristoph. Vesp. 

i/^cc ^\ &<r ffy rerpfifuvaf 
'Eye/3v(ra/i£F pwcioiai KowaxriifnLfur, 
y. 804. raxcwc* In how many different ways may the 
same meaning be expressed by the use of raxoc with pre- 
positions ? 
V. 877. Translate : 

HM. aXX' ovf ifioi h) Trjv off ifklov PoXjuy 
xiXevBoy ayrjp ov^ftov ^riXoi ^ydt* 
XO. tIc av fjioi, rlt ok 

^uXoTToyiav dXiciBdv 
i\iav dvirrovc aypac, 
^ Wc 'OXvfiTid^w 
dtbiv, Tf pyrHv 
(iotnropltav mrafitiv 
"i^Q, Toy iJfiodvfiBy ci 
wov wort wXai^Ofievoy 
TpotrfiXitrti, dwvoi ; 
erxerXia yap fiaicpwy dkdray iroywy 
ovpiif firj ireXaffac ^pofi^, 
ifi€ ^ dfiiyrivoy ay^pa fiij Xevomy Hwov. 
V. 1049. Totroy^ dyaXbitraQ \6yoy. Why has not this verb 
the augment ? Give some account of the reason and 
manner of the formation of irregular verbs. 
V. llll. oi3 TO o6y hltrai frrofLa. Does this account of the 
cause which induced the Greeks to foUow Agamenmon 
to Troy agree with Thucydides ? Docs it agree with 
Achilles' speech in Homer ? 


1. V. 1225. i wov rpa^c iv fiTp^C cvycMwc axo 

v)f^X' MfiTUCt K aV oKpwp iJ&tiropecc* 

2. V. 1 £07. If v-— c>q|My cXXoic ^x^Vc ^uufSopdv. 

Translate these passages* 9M illustrate the first by an 
Athenian law, the second by a Turldsh custom. 

V. 1^127. dyoifittMcrh — When adverbs are derived from sub- 
stantives — ^from which case is it that they are derived 1 
Shew the manner of their formation. In the form dvot" 
^Krl, dfioxj^lg how do you ascertain whether the termina- 
tion is ec or c ? What is the quantity of the final t ? 

V. 1303. ^laprffi ixelyf "^wKcy.-^Is the augment elided in 
Tragedy 1 Is a diphthong ever elided? Is ac elided in 
the case of the third persons^ or the infinitives of verbs 7 
State the opinions of Dawes, Tyrwhitt and Lobeck. 



1. Give a short account of tlie life of Sophocles. In what 
Olympiad, and what year before Christ, does the play of Antigone 
appear to have been first acted ? Mention the historical fact by 
which the date is determined. 

2. Translate the following passage : 

Ac. ' iiofjuu xoirfrov &(u}v, 

ol fuv yap ovicir eioly' o< 5* oireCi kokoI. 

Hf>. tI 2* ; ovK lo^y (y ; 

At. rovTo yap rot koI fwvov 

ir iarl \oiirdy dyadoy, etKol tovt Spa' 
ov yap (rdxf ow ov^ avro rovO* otwq ixci» 

Hp. fir' ov\i JtOi^Kkia, wporepoy oyr Evpiirlhnf, 
piXKtit dyayayelVf eiircp eKeiBey Sti 9 aytiy\ 

Ac. ov, ^piy y ay lofwyr\ airoXa/Uv avroy poyoyf 
aytv So^icX^ovc o re toccc KwiwylffUf. 

Aristoph. Ranse. 71. 


ExplttB tlic ladinadon eonteined in these lines. Has a sinular 
charge been any where advanced against a son of ^schylus ? 

d. Give briefly an account of the rise and progress of Tragedy. 
Point out the error committed by Boyle in his interpretadon of the 
provob ^rrcp c{ a^a{i|c* 

Translate and explain. 

rijc hi iroftire^ac ravn^ ^ff dvaZifv ovrwfl yeytvqfuvtfQy iartpov^ 
iv jiovXofuvoit y rovroit^Kovetv, fjtyria^oofiai, Dem. de. Cor. §. 5. 

When is it probable that the word rpay^a was first used? 
What name, according to Bentley, was originally common to both 
Tragedy and Comedy ? 

4. In what state does Tn^edy appear to have been in the time 
of Phrynicus ? What was the subject of his play which is men- 
tioned by Herodotus? State a remarkable circumstance which 
attended its performance at Athens. What was the name and 
subject of ^e play with which he is said to have contended against 
^schylus for the prize, and what was the result of the contest? 

5. At what festival did the dramatic contest at Athens take 
place ? Why were the new plays produced at this time rather than 
at any other? How were the expences of paying and equipping 
the choruses defrayed ? What is meant by x^pov hihovat ? State 
the nature of the duties enumerated in the following passage : 

Eti hi Kol rijy toKiv aiaSdvoficu rd fuv Ijhri irol TpoffTarrovaav 
jiiyaka reXziVf Iinror|oo0/ac re, Kal x<^'7y<0£» ^al yv/ivaffcapxaC) Kol 
itpoaraTtla/Q, Xen. (£con. §. ft, 

6. To what regulations were (he competitors for the prises 
subject in producing their dramas? Whence arose the necessity 
of Horace's precept, 

Nee quarta loqui persona laboret. 
Transhite and explain, 
litTtVKfiafniu 6 £$ayycXoc elc IlvXadiyv tva iiri S Xeyioviy. 

SchoL in Choeph. 
Can you point out any instances where this regulation has had 
any influence on the economy of the piece? 

7. In what manner were the dramas brought forward in the con- 
tests for the prize ? 


vpwTov hi fioi Toy ii Opttrreiac \ey€. Ran. 1124. 


What length of time is it probable that the audience were kept 
at one sitting ? 
. Translate the following : 

AX\a fuaSiaaaQ aavroy toiq f^apvarovoiQ cTtraXov/icvoic ixilvoic 
vTOKpiTatQ 2i/ivXy Kal ISuncpdrtif irpirayiavifrTeitt ovKa teal fiorpvc, mt 
iXdag mtXkiywvy wairep orufpiavriQ eKeivoQ ek twv dXXorpliav \it^lmy^ 
irXctfti . Xafifidrwy avo rovrf^y rpav/LtarOi 17 Toiv dyiarwv ovc vfuig wepl 
rijg yj^vx^Q ijywylitode' ^y yap acnroF^oc ^ dxiipvicrog vfiiy 6 fcpoc 
Tovg dtardc iroXc/ioCi v^' iy woXKa rpavfiara eiXrf^g^ tlxontg rove 
dictipovg T^y TotovTuy Kiy^vywyj tag ^tiKovg OKtifrrug, 

Dexn. de Cor. §. 79. 

How do you explain the passage irvKa kqX PorpvCf xal iXdat nrX- 
Xcyoiv ? Illustrate it from Aristophanes. 

8. What is meant by the term Pause in Iambic verse ? 

Is tf yov£ iyeariy ovnc vfjAy iyytyfjg a violation of the rule ? 

What argument is used by Porson, and what by Elmdey, lo 
prove that ovhlg was written ovh* cic by the Attics ? 

Define the term ervydfeia. In what species of verse is it found ? 
Are there any examples of elisions at the end of Iambic lines, and 
under what circumstances ? 

9. What is the quantity of a syllable consisting of a short vowel 
followed by a mute and liquid in Homer ? what in Tragic 1 what 
in Comic verse ? 


Xovyioy axpoy Adriyuiy, Nub. 400* 
and drapf cl wdrep rifuripE Kpoyl^ri* Vesp. 650. 
instances or exceptions to the general rule ? 

What is Dawes's Canon respecting a syllable in which a short 
vowel precedes one of the middle consonants* /3, y* ^, followed by 
any of the liquids except p ? Are there any cases in which the rule 
is violated ? 

10. V. 21. ov ydp TdifMv yfy ria Katnyy^TW Kpewy, 

Toy fiiy TporlaaQ^ toy V dnfidaaQ e\ei ; 
Explain the peculiarity here, and quote instances of a similar 
construction. Has it been imitated by any Latin poet ? 

iroXXa^ yap ly/LUuv, ai fjiiy Aa iirL^oyoi^ 

at 5* f Ic dpiOfWy TiHy KaKuiy irc^vVa/uv, Hec. 1 1 67. 


11. V. 25. Kara j(doy6s 

iicpwffty roic iytpBtv ivniiov yiKpolc* 
Explain this 8uper8tition» and illustrate it from Homer, or else- 

1 2. V. 36. <p6vov wpoKtioBm ^fioXivarovm 

Does death, by stoning, appear to have been a judicial punish- 
ment in the earlier times ? 

13. V. 41. ^vfjLiroyiia€ic* 

Wiiat are the principal usages of aiy in composition ? 
Translate and explain, 

Ai^x* i^vXo fitly fiiy ay ovk ipititiy iyOdhe* 

owe i^ ttroy yap itniy dyuv v^y' 
' Aioy, ri lai ; 

Ac9)(. on 1} froiiiin^ ovy^ avyriOytiici fMOi' 

Ran. 868. 

14. Explain the term 2€£to<reipoc. 
Translate and explain the following : 

mKoc ^ vir' avri| V ifiyan\y tnrlKi\y i)(iay 
i')(pifiirr <Ul mipiyyaf he^y ^ dyelc 
tretpaloy iinroK, cipyc roy wpoimlfuyoy, 

Electr. 712. 

— eihofiav 

• irwXovg 

xivrp^^ dtiyofUyovc' rove 
fiiy fiitravQf (vyiovc, Xev- 
KoarlxTf Tpt^i j3aXim/c* 

dynipeic KafiTalvi ^fuay» 

Iph. in Aul. 228. 

15. V. 256. XtTrnij ^, ayoc ^evyovroc w£,iirrjy Koyit* 
Explain this passage fully, and illustrate it from other authors, 

16. V. 260. What cases are commonly used absolutely ? To 
what may the nominative absolute iisually be referred? What 
distinction is made by Elmsley between the genitive and the ac- 
cusative absolute? What difference is there between the geni- 
tive absolute without and with uq 1 Is the accusative absolute ever 
found without this particle ? 




Doe, the uao. rullob^" " 4"**''^"''' "^ «^' •*- «-«« 
19 V 851 . , Homenc verse? 

'« there „, oufer^^^^trj'"* '"'^'^' " "-^ «" 
P^y ? What tenses .« ^l *" "'^ T '^ ~ ««» » "^ 
•motion has been oonvev^ T ^ ? ^"P'^y*^ ^ Shew h«r dd. 

««• V.48, l?'?.''r,r^'»«"'^"• 
Translate «,d expll 1°"^' •^"r ^"^^ '^«'- '^'• 


Who, accordinff to D»».^ *i ^'"- ^uthyd. 

•tance 7 *"^' '*•« '»««>• account for the drcum. 

"flat 18 the oriffinal ».- • 

Translate.*^ "'"""« ''''^•' ' What i, its m«„ring he« f 

**• V. 606 „„„ . Nub. 761. 

What.-. A f*VM<H>ot<T^y. 

«*• V.988. Translate. ^^' '^ '^^ '^tnry. 
dyvuT iiKoHu <kfU^ 

*^"i any peciri; ;7"^'^^^'-/«V 

y '» *e construction, an<l explain ^^ 

at ."• - 



fiap^ftivf. In what seivie did the Greeks use the term (iap(iapot, 
and in opposition to what word 7 

Translate and explain the point of the following : 
Istros, Hispanos, Massilienses^ lUurtosy 
Mare superum omnct Grseciainque exoticam, 
Orasque Italicas omnes, qua adgreditur mare, 
Sumus drcumvecti. 

Piaut. Menaech. 
^5. V. 1025. Ktp^yeTf ifimXdre roy irpdc XtapSttav 

Between what metals does Homer place ^Xeicrpovl In what 
proportion according to Pliny* were they mixed in order to pro- 
duce it? 

26. Translate and explain, 

fliXX' c{ ye roi icdriaBi fiif iroXAovc iri 
rpoxovc dfuXKfp^pac 'HX/ov reX^, v. 1051, 2« 
527. V. 1107. What deities were celebrated in the Eleusinian 
mysteries; and under what characters? Quote the passage of 
Vvgil on the subject. 

St. PETER'S COLL. 1825. 

I. Give an account of the roXXol fUTCL^Xai^ which Greek 
Tragedy is said by Aristotle to have undergone, and mention the 
political circumstances of Athens at the different periods of your 

II. ErcofcXfa /xcv, iiic Xcyoverc, trvv hicji 
j(priaB€it lucaig, kcu vofi^, Kara xBoroc 
CKfnnf/r, toiq tvipBtv evrifiov Beotg. 

1. Accentuate and mark the spiritus of these lines: define 
accent, spiritus and quantity : give some account of the con- 
troversy respecting the place of accents and write down the Greek 

2. Shew how the Anapaest is admissible in Iambic Trimeter 
Acatalectic verse, quoting instances ; and explain Porson's canon 
relative to the pause in the fifth foot. 

z 2 


3, Translate this passage : explain fully the allusion contained in 
the word irrifwy, and confirm your explanation by parallel passages 
from Grreek and Latin authors. 

III. ^fuv ^* eroi/wi koI /iv^povc aiptiv X^poiv 
KoX wvp hupirny, kcu Oeovc opKiafurrtiv^ 
TO fJflTe ^pdtrat, firiTt rfi btvti'^ycu 

TO Tpdyfia fiovXjEvaavTif fnjT dfyyaafUvf. 
Translate this passage and mention the different purgation-oaths of 
the Greeks : quote authorities,^ which prove such ordeals to have 
prevailed in other countries, and state the origin assigned by Grotius 
to them aU. 

IV. Tax dtrofuada fmyTtoty vvipvepoy. 
la iraT, TtKtiay yj/fii^y ipa firj K\vwy 

riJQ fuXXoyvfjufwv^ irarpc Xvtroalywy irapet, 
17 trol fiiy li^ccc irayTayrj ^pwyng 4^\oi ; 

1 . Give the derivation and the superlatives of vreprepoy : men- 
tion from what other sources besides adjectives we may derive 
comparatives, and state the reasons why such sources are preferable 
to obsolete adjectives. 

2. Translate the passage and explain the construction of rijfc 
fuWoyvfupov : giving the other readings of apa fiij jcXvii»v. Defend 
the vulgate, and explain the use of fiij in interrogatory propositions. 
What is the force of fuy in the last line ? 

V. 01/^ opyic evaijfiovg drop^tfi^ei jSoac, 
dy^pof^Bopov )3c/3p<Jrec atfiaTog Xlirog. 

Translate this. — Explain the pecularity of the construction of the 
verb and participle here ; and mention briefly the mode of divination 
by birds adopted by the Greeks and Romans, and the words con- 
sequently used by both to express good or bad luck. Can you 
account for the origin of this divination ? 

VI. UoXwayvfie^ Kahfielac 

iiruTKoirovyT. dyviaQ. v, 1102 — 23. 

.1. Give the metrical names to each verse, and state the method in 
which the Chorus was recited. 

2. Point out the Doricisms, and mention the extent of their 
admission into the Tragic Chorus : state whence the Doric genitive 
in d arose, and the age of that dialect in which it first was used. 

ST. Peter's coll. 341 

d. Explain accurately the geographical allusions, and quote 
parallel passages which connect the worship of Bacchus with the 
places here mentioned, and also such as will confirm the epithets 
here applied to those places. 

4. Mention the Egyptian, Asiatic and Grecian mythological 
accounts of Bacchus and Dionysius, and shew the connection of each 
account with Sacred History. 

5. Translate the whole extract into literal English prose. 

6. Translate the following into Latin hexameter, or English 
blank verse. 

Xppror rd^' ^y rotrovroy, cc r iv aWipi 

\odltn rpunroydotn top yiicvy m^t. v. 411 — ^27. 

VII. Translate the following into Latin Lyric verse. 

"ErXa Koi AaydaQ ovpdyioy fUt 
aXXa{ai Hfiac er y(aXjco^TOic 
avKaic' Kpywrofuya V iy 
TVftfiiip€i daXdfif Kare(ev\&ri, 
Kal roi ytyiq, rlfiioc Z irai, iraT, 

Kal Zriyog rafiuvvKe 

yoydc ^(pvaopvrovQ. 

aXX' a fjuMpiBla rig ^vyavig htiyd* 

ovr &y yiy ofiPpogf owr* "Afwyc, 

o^ irvpyogf ov\ aXiKTvirot 

KeXatyal ydeg iicfvyouy* 

VIII. To be translated into Ghreek Tragic Iambics. 
"Death, that hath 8uck*d the honey of thy breath. 
Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty : 

Thou art not conquer'd ; beauty's ensign yet 
Is crimson in thy lips, and in thy cheeks, 
And death's pale flag is not advanced there. 

««_ Eyes, look your last ! 

Arms* take your last embrace ! and lips, O you 
The doors of breath, seal with a righteous kiss 
A dateless bargain to engrossing death!" 





A* 1. In what Olympiad and where was Euripides bom ? How 
old were ^schylus and Sophocles at that time ? 

2. From what circumstance did Euripides derive his name? 

and who was his instructor ? 

3. State the principal incidents of his life. 

4. Where did he die? and what honours were paid to his 

memory ? 

5. Give the opinions of some of the ancients on the respective 

merits of the three Tragedians. 

6. Explain Aristotle's meaning when he says of Euripides, 

rpayiKwrar<ic yc rcSv mMfyrftiv ^iwrau 
B, 1. State the origin and progress of Tragedy, with the improve- 
ments introduced by /Esdiylus, Sophocles and Euripides 
2. Give some account of the feasts at which the trsgic contests 
took place. What was the tcrpoXoy/a ? 

5. Shew the distinct meaning of the terms, rpayf»2ca, tpvy^hia, 

Ktafi^laf xapriyott xopodiicurKaKoQf Kopv^loCf viroicpcnyct 
irpitfrayMvtflTiiCt xopov alT€iyf yppoy Sihovaij \op6v ixuv. 
4. Of what number was the Tragic Chorus composed at differ- 
ent periods ? Shew that the common reason assigned for 
diminishing the number is false. 

6, What were the principal duties of the Chorus ? What are 

the advantages and disadvantages of its introduction into 
Tragedy ? 
ۥ Explain the terms irtpiirmta^ dvayywpitnq and iraBo^* Can 
any of them be appropriated to the Hecuba ? 


C. 1 . Give a short analysis of the plot of the Hecuba. 

2. Where is the scene laid? Quote the passages on which 

you found your opinion. 

3. From what subjects chiefly were the best Tragedies com- 

posed according to Aristotle ? 

4. What is there peculiar in the manner in which Euripides 

opens his plays? Quote the passage of Aristophanes 
which refers to this point. 

5. What are the accounts given by Ovid and Virgil respecting 

the manner of Polydorus's death ? 

6. Arrange in the chronological order of their subjects, those 

plays of the three Tragedians now remaining, which refer 
to the Trojan war — and give an account of the plot of the 

D. 1. In an Iambic senary what feet are admissible, and in what 

places ? What are the rules laid down by Horace for this 

metre ? 
2. What is the caesura, the quasi-ceesura, and the pause? Give 

instances of each from the Hecuba. 
S. When is a system of anapsests most perfect? What is the 

paroemiac, and why so called? What is the anapaestic 

base ? Explain the term ovva^ia — to what species of 

metre is it applied ? 

4. In what metre was Tragedy originally written ? Whence 

did that metre derive its name ? and by whom was it first 

5. Against what canons laid down by Professor Porson do any 

of the following lines offend ? 
V. 543. Kpvitroyra X^H^* ^ v^owkov rovftircLKiv, 
717. ijftctc fMV oiy ibtfievj cv^ ypavofur, 
144. \C *A.yajiiftyoyoc IceVcs yordriap, 
782. (cWac T dpiOfif rd irp^ra rtHv ifiMV i^CKtav. 

E. 1. What are the general laws of Greek accentuation ? 

2. How are dissyllabic prepositions accentuated, when placed 
before and when after the nouns which they govern? 
State the exceptions to the latter case, and the reason 
for them. 


3. Why is the last syllable of the Attic futures, trtifuivQ, cfaXJ, 

&c. circumflexed ? 

4. Distinguish between enclitics and atonies. Write down the 


5. How is ioTi accentuated in different parts of a sentence ? 

6. Give the difference of meaning made by the diacritic marks 

in the following words: fiayla^ and /toyiac — reiOia and 

irtiBd — woirly and iroViv^— <Iv£ and eliri — yeHy and veuty 

opoQ and opoc — ovKovy and ovKovy — oAXa and dXXd—f^ 
and 0iJc — <fiyo. and alya — Ihov and Ihov — eifyyeiy and 
eipyay — /3/oc and /3coc. 
F» Mention the customs and historical facts to which the subse* 
quent passages severally allude, and illustrate them by 
quotations from Greek and Latin authors. 

1. V» 147. — — 8fi u eTTiieiy 

rvfifiov irpoTcr^ ^lyitraofiiyay 
atfAon vapOiyoy etc y^tro^pov 
Scif>^c yaofif fiekaravyti* 

2. 57 1 » aXX* 01 fuy avrwy rrjy Oayoviray €k XH^y 

^vXXoic ifiaXXoy, 
$• 874. rl ^ ; cv yvyauctQ cIXov Aiyvmrov riKyay 

4. ical Afjfiyoydphriy dptnytay e^fKiaay ; 

5. 1255. KvvoQ Tokaiyfii tnjfia yavrCXoiQ rixfiap, 

6. Sd9. oltrff fjy'iK lyXOcc 'iX/ov mrairxoTroc ; — addressed to 

G. Give the various readings and a translation of the following 

1. V. 187. tr^^ai a ^Apytiwy Koiy^ 

ivyreiyei irpoc rvfifioy yy^^ 
IlcXe/Sa yiyya* 

2. . 293. TO ^ diiiwfia, Kay kclk£q ^yjf to oov 

S. 817. ral ftrjy ifwiyt (wyri fiey Kctff ijfjiipay 

Kol <TfUKp6y e^oifu vdyr $y apKOvyTia^ ^X^' 
4. 1 009. oiirw ^eSwjcac, aXX* tfrtac iiiffnt hxiiy' 

dKifjxyoy tiq wc 

c'c ayrXoy ifiirefyMy 

Xixpio^f EKirtffri 


dpipirac fiioroy. 
5. Shew the objection to, and correct the following readings : 
V, 876. f^ipei fuy^ d\yei ^ ai\iv (for ov)(evi) ckWOcic (vyov* 
578. toUl^ dfi^ oiic \iyov 

iroi^C dayovfnie. 
H, 1. Distinguish between x^*^ a^<^ ivcKa — ftuverm and &>iccc — 
Tpiroc and rpiraloQ — ra^c and rcu^ii — eXiric and ho^ — 
irdpOeyoci vvfi^rf and yvvi| — hovXevt* and &)vXoii»— 6coc and 
halfjuay — iroXic and atrrv — (ci^oc* <^C\oq and craipoc> 
2. Derive and explain adiyc* dX^avroC) oxpat^viic* alxfMkwott 

^pvwTOfjuu and ofyOfMixoc* 
d. What is the full force of the prepositions in vireieirc/uif/e, 
iiiourioftai, mrainv, trpoKOTTta^ dyritniKow, 
L Explain and illustrate by quotations the following idiomatic 
expressions : 
1 . yvfju^iv ayvfupoy» 2. olaB^ ovy o Bpd<roy y 3, ov yap JlZa 
Scoirorac Kticrrifuyoc. 4. TtpiSara rtry\dyEi, 5. rv\aQ viBty 

li oixTov ix^* ^' <^^^^ ^^^ XP^^^ ^' ^M^ » ^* oiTO£, ri wdtr^ 
\€iQ ; 8. Cp cal dayovtnic ofifia tntyKKtlirii to a6y. 
Which of these forms have been imitated by the Latin poets ? 


I. In what places of an Iambic Trimeter do the tragic poets 
admit Anapsests, Dactyls, and Spondees ? What exception is there 
to the rule concerning Anapaests ? And what limitations to the ad- 
missibility of a Spondee in the fifth place of the verse ? 

%. State the rules applicable to a regular system of Anapsestic 
Dimeters. What is meant by the term avydji^ia ? 
3. Translate v. 258—73. 

drdp ri ^17 tr6i^iafm rovff i^yovfuyoi 

. • • . . 

Explain the syntax of v. 260. 


4. V. 298. K\vov<ra dptjyovtt ovk ay cjcjSaXoc hdicpv ; 

yKnvovQ is a conjecture proposed by Musgrave. What metrical rule 
of Dawes would this reading violate? And what remarks has 
Porson made upon that rule ? 

5. Explain the construction of v. 370, 1. 

oir iXirlioQ yap, ovre rov ho^fic opQ 
Odpaoc ^ap' lifiiVf wc fror' e! irpa£ai /ic )(^. 

6. Translate v. 379— 8 1 . 

hivoc \apaKT7ipf KarritniftoQ eV fiporoict 
iffdXtiv ytviodaij KairX fiEii^ov ipxerai 
rrjc evytvelac ovofia Toiaiv a££oic. 

7. V. 509, 10. £K. oc/ioc, WXe£ecc; ovk op oic Baycvfuvovg 

fjLoiiXOei ij/MKc, dXXa (niftapwy Koxd ; 
Aliter dayovfiivag. Which is the right reading, and why ? 

8. Translate v. 683—6. 

airiffT, airiffra, xaiyd Kaivd ^epco/iai. 
ir€pa d* a^' ireptav Koxd gaKvv Kvptl' 
ovSiiroT a^«pvroCt aorcvaicroc 
dfupa fi iirur)(^a€i, 

9. Translate v. 773 — 807. 

AT. ^cv, ifiev' tIq ovrw ^vmv^ijg eifw yvv^ ; 

veOiiy a Tig ^vXoirOf Tvyxdveiv 6" a/ia ; 

In V. 782. Aliter irpiSra raiv ifiiiy. To what objections is this 
reading liable ? 

How does Porson explain the construction of v. 800 ? Shew that 
his explanation is agreeable to Attic usage. Mention any other 
mode in which the passage admits of being explained. Which 
mode do you prefer, and on what grounds ? 

10. V. 870. £vv ralah toy ifiop <^via TifiiapijaofiaA, 
Is there any peculiarity in the prosody of this verse ? 

11. Translate v. 893—930. 

XO. (TV fuVf la TcarpiQ 'lAiaCf 
. • • . 

TokaiVf direiirov aXyei. 

12. Translate V. ?005 — 17. 

aXX' epir c'c oIkovc' koi yap 'Apyceoi vwy 

dwoXifAf hi xc<p^ Xc/i^cic jiioy. 


Explain the double sense in v. 1007 — 8. 
How has Hemsterhuis explained the passage 

TO yap wriyyvovy k, r. X. 
If you think this explanation liable to any objections, mention 
them. Is there any other mode of explaining the passage ? 
15. V. 1052, «. 

KjfiviiTav )3aaiv aiaddpofuu 
rav^c yvvtwcdv. 
yvvaixav Aid. Why is this reading erroneous ? 

14. How does Porson discriminate the adverbs, irov, irol, mi ? 

15. Translate ▼• 1183—41. 

yivotrOf BiaSoxatic dfuifiovaat ya^pdiv. 
V. 1141. ykvoiro. In what number is the verb generally 
put in Attic Syntax, when the nominative is a Neuter Plural ? 
What is the principal class of exceptions to this rule ? 



1. 1 . Where was Euripides bom, in what Olympiad, and year 
before Christ ? Give an accurate rule, illustrated by examples, for 
converting dates before Christ into the corresponding period of 
Olympiads ; and the contrary. 

2. Who was his philosophical preceptor? What other illus- 
trious persons studied under the same master ? Refer to some of 
the peculiar tenets in his writings, which he is supposed to have 
derived from this source. (Valcken. Diatrib. cap. 4. &c.) 

II. How often, and at what times, did the tragic contests take 


place at Athens ? With what pieces did they contend ? Trans- 
late the following lines, and explain the last. 

01} yap fu Kol vvv hiafiaXBi KXe«^v, on 

iiviay TrapovTWV rf{v irokiv jccucfjc Xiyiii' 

avTOi yap itrfuv, ovirl Ativalf r dyiav, 

Aristoph. Acharn. 502 — 4. 

III. Explain the parabaais of Comedy ; and say in what manner 
Euripides is supposed to have supplied its place ; referring to 
examples. ^ 

IV. Translate the following passage, and explain the allusions 
to the writings of Euripides : 

£vp. fufivrifuvoc yvy rvy de^y, ovq Afiotra^, 

17 fAijy aird{civ fi oiica^, alpov rove ^/Xov£. 

Aio. 17 yXjurr o/iof/xoic*, A(9)^Xov ^ jalpiitrofiau 

Evp. tI itdpaKas, J fuapiiirar dyOpiiriay ; Aio. *Eyw ; 
ixpiya yiK^y Alv^Xoy' rltf yap ov; 

£ Jp. acff^^ifrrov epyoy fi ipyatrdfuyoc frpotrpkiintQ ; 

Aio. ri ^* aiffXpoF, rjy firj toIq dewfuvoif: ^ok^; 

Evp, J ayirXuj vepw\f/ei^fu ^r} reByiiKora ; 

Aio. Tig oT^cv, ei to l^rjy fiiy iari KarOayelyf 

TO wyeiy ^i ^enryeiyf xal to KaOtvZtiy Kfahtoy ; 

Aristoph. Ran. 1517 — 26. 

V. What stage of the Attic dialect was in use at Athens in the 
time of Euripides ? How does his language vary from it, and why ? 
Explain what is meant by the middle Attic, and how fieur it is a 
distinct branch from both Old and New. 

VI. Explain the principle of attraction between the relative and 
its antecedent. State the utmost extent to which it is carried ; 
and produce instances of the more unusual cases. 

VII. An interchange of sense sometimes takes place between the 
different voices of verbs. State what tenses, in each respectively, 
most frequently change their sense* and how 1 

VIII. Translate, to hpojka Twy eirt aicfiyrji: d^oKifiovyTmy^ ^cl- 
pioToy hi To'iQ rfitvi, Argum. in Orest. What are Aristotle's 
rules respecting the jOv}? Which of the characters of this plmy 
does he censure as faulty in this point, and on what ground ? 

IX. 1 . t/c ovK ay apaiT a\0o£ dyBpiairov ^v^ic* v. 3. Is this the 
proper quantity of apairo ? Compare it with the use of the same 


or other tenses of the same verb in Attic or other writers. 

2. Give the metrical names of the following lines, explaining 
any anomalies : 

(a) rlSeret fjalj \pofeiTEf fAri^ iartit ktvitoq, v* 141. 

(6) viryo^reipa T(Sy iroKviroybfy fiftordy, V. 175* 

(c) dfH}fldh££ W WTEpOipOpOi, V. dll. 

(d) ^iWa if^^oc cV iroXcc. v. 964. 
S* Mark the quantity of Tory la, veKvy,^ airav^ Xiay, \vw» 

X. ^ arififiara ^tiyatr irciKKtafrty 6ca 
IpiVi Gvecn^ iroXefwy oyri crvyyovf 
Qta^ai. V, 12 — 4. 

Translate this. Who is the Btdl Is there a propriety in the 
use of the middle verb QioBai ? Explain the ypvtrtiaQ eptc dpyo^, 
V. 802. 

XI. Translate and explain the construction of, 

irwcy <S rdXaiva, av re KatrlyytirSc re. aoc 
rXiJuwy *OpetnrfiQ firirpoQ SBe ^ytv{ l^v; V. 73, 4. 
'£\£ v]|, ri oroi \iyoifjL av, aye Trapcver op^Q, 
iy bffJupopain roy *Aya fUfiyoyoc yeyov ; v. 81, 2. 

XII. airayff vma^yov yepripwy hwpiifiara, v. 1 2d. 
Translate. What were these ^tapiifiara, and what their object ? 

Compare the expression in this passage with other instances of the 
genitive expressing the object of an action or feeling. Give the 
correct English of Soph. EL 543. dwayrd aoi rdfid vovBerjjfiaray 
and Tacitus's expression, " odio humani generis." Does ro Tpo/ac 
fiiabtt ▼• 426. come under the same rule ? 

XIII. Translate the following — mark the precise sense of oVc- 
Opmy — and refer to a similar exclamation in an English poet : 

w ipviriif iy dydpwfrotaiy wg fUy tl Koxoy^ 

ffiMtrtipioy re roTc koXwq KeicrrifUyoig* 

"i^ere yap axpag tag dwidpicrey rpl^aQ^ 

tni^ovva coXXoc* tart d' ij irdXai yvyij. v. 126 — 9. 

XIV. V. 238. ^(dpirai ^X"^ irarpoQ. Translate this ; and give 
the senses of 'xdpiy ix^*'^» t^^yca^ ^c^vot, d^c/XeiV, dircZiloyoA, 

XV. V.346. i xCKdyavy trrparoy opfiiiffas, 1. Give the accurate 
sense of opftdw, opfuia, 6pfil(wy and of opfi-qaac in this passage. 
2. What was the exact number of ships in this expedition, and 
"what the computed number of men, and how calculated ? 


XVI. * AyaiUfJLVovoQ fiiy yap rv^ac ifiriffra/if^v, 
Koi ddyarovt oi^ TpoQ IdfiaproQ iKero, 
MaXc^ TTfioerltrxiay vptifKiv' Ik Zt KVfiarwv 
6 yavrlXoun ftdvrit ii'^yyeiXt fioi 
Nfjpcoic vpo^^nii: TXavKoc- v. 354—8. 

1 . Translate the above. 2. Give the geographical explanation 
of MaXf^, and of the course which brought him thither ? d. 6 . . . . 
luLvTiQ, State the rule applying to the case of the article disjoined 
from its substantive ; and say whether it is invariable, or by whom 

XVII. (a) IV y elvac' ov yap Sui icoicocc* ^oc 2* opw. v. 380. 
(6) iriJc ^^c; (nx^y toi to ora^c> ov ro /iij tra^q, v. 391 . 
(c) o'c/iva^ yap* tvirallevra ^ dirorpeirei Xiyeiv. v. 404. 
(J) cJc ra^v fiirri\66y tr al/ia firp-epoc BiaL v. 417. 

Translate these lines; and illustrate the first and last by ex* 
amples of similar syntax. 

XVIII. . . . .ro ew^poy r eXajSev ay rrjc ttVyn^opaQt 

Kai rov yofi€v r ay ccx^r« tvetpti^ r ay ^f. v. 490y o. 
Translate; explain and justify the government of ^vfifopdc- 
How does ecx^^o get the sense it bears here ? and how is ixofupoc 
used, with the same government, by Thucydides and others ? 

XIX. avrawoKreyii. v. 502* What is Dawes's metrical canon 
respecting the soft mutes 1 Does it apply to this word f And could 
the o here be shortened ? Is the same law applicable to fif/npa 
Kvavvyl V. 539. 

XX. Translate, BvyaTrip ^ ifiij Bavovtr cirpofrv ev^um. v. 531. 
With what restriction is frpdaaia used in this sense 7 Is that re- 
striction either really or apparently violated here ? 

XXI. iKKkriToy 'Apye/bfv 6j(\oy. v. 604. What appears to have 
been the nature of the Argive government at this time ? How soon 
afler did it undergo any change ? What particulars are known of 
it, as it existed in the time of Thucydides ? 

XXII. €Kovtray^ o»V* dKoviray^ hcuriler^ iroXiK, 

vol a^ T dBeXK^y XBvtrtftoy Zovyat ^/jci/r. v. 605,6. 

** iovycu ^Ktiy hic rarissimo usu ponitur pro eodem prope^ 

quod Latin^ dicitur j'tM dare vel redderey — Porson. Are there any 
instances found of this rarissimus usus ? How may the passage be 
construed without admitting it? Produce examples of simil 


XXIII. MfycXae, edi. ^e rode Xiyia. v. 614. In Porson's note 
on this passage, what is the canon laid down respecting the con- 
currence of cai hiin the same sentence ? Is there any reason 

to question its accuracy, or to restrict its application ? Does Porson 
restrict it to any particular age, or kind, of writing ? Refer to 
instances in which it has been applied with apparent harshness. 

XXI V-* • ec yap dpvivtifv tpovoi 

iffrai yvyatQ.y otrioc, ov ^BdvoiT tr ay 
dyiftrKovTECt V yvy^^ dovXsvetv ^(petay, v. 924—6. 
Translate this accurately ; and produce examples from this play 
and others of a similar use o£ipddy<o. 

XXV. Translate, irwc ay iftpot yf ravVov, ei Oifug, crdyoi ; 

V. 1050. 
Quote instances of the same use of irulc dy, and mention in what 
writers it is found. 

XXVI. MeyiXxwy Bi TlaofjLatf V. 1169. Give the sense of r/- 
^ofju/if and shew how it derives it from the active verb. Justify this 
sense by comparing it with the sattie idea expressed in different 
language ; and justify the use of the accusative after it, by pointing 
out a similar ellipsis in other verbs. 

XXVII. JT^'^'y. } aVayinjc ^ dc (liyov Kaditrrafuy. V. 1323. 

"Which is the right reading, and why? What tense is it? What 
voice? What dialect? What other instances of the same dialect 
in the Tragedians does Porson enumerate in his notes on this play ? 

XXVIII. ovKovy, V. 1623. What is the received opinion of 
grammarians on the different senses of this word ? How is it con- 
troverted by Mr. Elmsley ? How can you translate the following 
passage consistently with Mr. E.'s hypothesis ? ovKovy ircp2 rovrwy 
yt avToy dii^UT€» Demosth. ircpl TLapav, 

XXIX. Translate the following : 

^ (iovXofiai yap ij^v icai ^id (nofia 
imfydiffi fivdoiQ d^airdywc ripypai i^ya, v. 1173, 4. 
.... *0p, ircTO' £C ^ApyelovQ fwXtoy, 
Me. ireidta rly ; 'Op. if/xac f"? Bayely alrov voXty. v. 1626, 7. 

XXX. Give the meaning and derivation of the following words : 
ojQ^dl^eiti i^fiiXXuyrai (in rov^ i^cifJi* ^'/%)» vpiMrrdXeia {yoydruy 
frpkn',)^ dy€'^p€V€ [ovk ay fit fiKriHy dyex* *l^iyyvaiy)t viroirreXXec (ovV 


vwoa. Xo'yy), vapepyov, dwe^oro (different senses), irpo^avrec, vi^cX^, 

XXXI. What was the object probably aimed at by Euripides 
in the character of the Phrygian ? What similar instances are found 
in the Tragedians ? Is there any thing like it in Homer ? 



1. What is the chief character and excellence of Euripides, as a 
writer ? Mention the passages in Longinus and Quintilian in which 
he is commended. To what class of students are his writings par- 
ticularly serviceable in the opinion of Quintilian ? 

2. What was the state of Greece when Euripides flourished? 
Who were his contemporaries? Where did he die? and what 
honours were paid to his memory ? 

3. What comic poet has ridiculed Euripides? Give an analysis 
of the play in which he is principally attacked. 

4. What was the origin and progress of the Grecian drama ? 
What improvements were introduced by ^schylus and Sophocles ? 
Of what cast was the genius of each of those writers ? and in what 
order does Aristophanes place the three Tragedians ? 

5» What Greek plays on the subject of (Edipus and his family are 
now remaining ? By whom were they severally written ? Give the 
plots of each, and the principal beauties and defects. 

6. Explain the fable of the Sphinx ; and give the Greek hexa- 
meters which contain the enigma. 

7. To whom did Polynices address his prayer before his combat 
with his brother ? Whom also did Eteocles address ? and give the 
reasons. ^ 

8. Give the definition of tragedy, according to Aristotle. Men* 
tion the unities. Are there any instances of their being violated ? 



9. Describe the office of the Chorus, from Horace. Is there any 
Chorus in the Phoenissae which violates the rules he has laid down ? 

10. What remarkable difierence is there in the manner of open- 
ing the plays of Sophocles and Euripides ? and what reasons may 
be assigned for the practice of Euripides ? 

11. Give the definition of a " whole*' in the words of Aristotle ; 
and explain the terms. Shew, also» whether the play of the Phce- 
nissse has been constructed in conformity with Aristotle's precept* 

12. Trace the voyage of the ** Phoenician virgins." Give the 
ancient divisions of the Mediterranean sea ; and mention the cir- 
cumstances from whence their names were derived. Was there any 
difference between the " mare lonidm** and the sea of Ionia ? 

13. What is meant by rhythm in poetry ? How is it distinguish- 
ed from metre ? In what does the melody of language consist ? 

14. Explain the terms, trpovji^laf cVtraortc, iyetrict o^vtijq, ficLpi- 
nic, and translate the following passage : 

Oornlc Kivrierti^ tltri hvo' ij /xcf tntytyri^ re Kol Xoycjqj KoXov/Uyvi* if 
2c Siaox>?/iarucif re kcu fuX^Sixii* 

' 15. What are the general rules of accent with regard to dissylla- 
bles and polysyllables ? Define an enclitic, and give the atonies. 
By Ivhat name might the latter be called ? 

16. What is the rule with regard to the accent of prepoaitioQs 
when placed after their easel Why are dva and hia excepted,? 
Does the position of e<n-i in a sentence produce any change in its 

17» Give the different signification of the following words, ac- 
cording to the position or difference of the accent: irfmruroKot, &xiq- 
ro/ioc, yeXoioCy dpyoCf /3coc, kv3oc, (nHiy, 

18. Define a middle verb, and give some examples of its use. 

1 9. Mention some of the principal advantages which the Greek 
language possesses above all other. 

fiO, Give the origin and progress of the Greek dialects. 

21. 'EofbI y d^idti Tvpooc <^c Tvp^ytK^Q 

2aXircyyoc i?X»?. 
Point the line as it stands in Porson's edition, and give the reasons 
for not adopting the common punctuation. 

22. *'Oira>c vUripoc ii/o\iffddvoi fuirny. What is the reading of 



lifiXiMiyot in tht fotiter editions, and upon what grounds is the 
present adopted f 

23. What canon has Dawes established for the use of the opta- 
tive and subjunctive moods ? 

24. Explain the following periphrases : 

'xBoytOQ Beoc iron^iaScc frwXoi ifiirvpoi wcfioX 

ivaXioc MaivaKov Kopa BierffaXov ^o^^pa 

imrioc dpfMTUfy S^w Ka^fuia fiipifiva. 

is. Explain the terms, trpomniyiovt 6f>xn^^V^ vmmciipiovf X^^pfl^^^ 
XOpoSiSttfficaXoci KOpvfdiot, xopoy ^Myat, x^p^v XafiPdyeiy, 

26. Give the meaning of these tenns in the Scholia. 

To e^ijfc, dca fjtitnv, dro xoiyov, ypoK^ai irpJc n|V ^imjry ^^^"^^ 
dvrl pniiMTOi, 

27. What are the laws of the Iambic and Anapeestic measures f 
What is Bentley*s canon in a system of anapsrats ? Quote a Paroe- 
miac verse and an anapaestic base ; and explain the terms. 

28. In trittieter Iambics where is the caesura plao^ ? What are 
the different kinds of caesura ? Give an example of the " quasi 
•caesura" and of the ^' pause.*' What canon is established by the 

29. Give the quantity of the following feet : lonieus a nugor% 
lonicus a minore, Peeon secundus, Epitritus tertiusy Proceleusmati- 
eus, Antispastus, Bacchius, Creticus ; and explain the terms, Heph- 
ihemimer» Hemiholius, Brachycatalectic. 

SO. What are the laws of the Trochaic measure 7 Where is the 
csesura placed? What &ult is observable in the following verse, 
and how should it be corrected ? 

Tavra pM dcirXf ftipifiy* a^poffroc tmiv iw ^pitfL 

31* What is the metrical law of the comparatives in UlN among 
the Attic poets ? What among the Doric and lonie ? What dif- 
ference is mi^e in the quantity of ^fuy and vfuv by the accentua- 

32. Translate the following passage Uteially : and give alsa a 
version of it in Horatian measures : 

i iroXvfiox^''Api|c, rl w<0 atfimrt 

If K wvrmfioy Ux^K ^XBiy. ▼. 7M— ^3 1. 



Sine CoU, et armo, 

1. To whom is the inventioii of Tragedy to be asoribed? To 
whom that of Comedy ? On what account does Athenaeiis call the 
more ancient Tragedians dpxn^if^o^ ? Who introdueed Dialogue 
into Tragedy? 

2. Translate, and shew from the following passage of Plolarchi 
what was the subject and style of the Plays of Thespis : 
^pvyl')(pv Koi Ai9)^Xov njv rpayf^iay iIq fivdovt Koi iraOi} irpoayoyrtitp* 

3. Explain the terms irtpiirmia and dvayviapieric* How is the 
latter introduced with the greatest effect ? 

4. Write down the precepts of Horace, relating to the office of 
the Chorus. 

5. Of whom does the Chorus in this Play consist ? How has its 
moral character been attacked ? and how may it be vindicated ? 

6. What are the parts of tragedy Kara icoaov ? what are those 
Kara irolov ? In which of the former does Euripides chiefly fail ? 
and in which of the latter does he excel ? 

7. Construct a scheme for Iamb. Trim. Acat. apud Tragicos ; 

for Troch. Tetram. Cat. . 

* for aregular system of Anapaest. Dim. Acat. 

Mention any of Porson's canons which you may recollect in each 
species of verse. 

8. Toyariav rt rmv trQv iKBtrla ^rj yiyvofiai. 
Hackee ^ iirwQ av iicrpafuieriy crp X^P^' 

If you see any metrical faults in these lines, as edited by Beck, 
correct them. 

9. 0\nv oire fiwfioct ovrt r/oric* 066* 6pK0£ /icVei. 

Distinguish accurately between the words /Jttf/ioc frlortc and tpKo^ in 
this line quoted and explained by Porson. 

What is the usual difference between ya^Ty and yafuttAai T Is 

A a2 


this distinction preserved in this play? if not, quote the instances 
where it is neglected. 

10* Keiyf Toht fitf \afiderffOV, 

Musgrave, to preserve the metre, has altered this line to ^ecyJc roSi 
fuj ^cifxiordw. Why cannot the emendation be received ? 

/ii| irpoc ffi yovvuty rrjc te vtoydfwv Koprfc* 
by what is the word cri governed ? In these forms of obtestaticHiv 
what is the general rule for the collocation of the Noun, Pronoun, and 
Preposition ? Do die Latins follow the same rule ? if so, quote 
instances of it 

^e^ouca a ovBev ^el tripiafncLvytiv Xoyouc- 
How has Brunck altered this line ? What reason does Porsoo give 
in favour of his emendation. 

11. V. 216. KopLvdiatyvvaiKM^ iifiKBov loiMty 

• • • • • 

Translate this passage into English ; notice the peculiar construction 
in the last. three lines, and illustrate it by examples from the Tra- 

1 2. V. 643« ^O irarpif, w ZQfid r ifwyt 

• • • • 

V y^Q irarp/ac orifiiaBaA, 
Turn these lines into any Latin Lyric metre. 
Id. V. 193. aKauwQ ^e Xeyuyicovhiy rt ero^vQ 

• • . • 
^euroc 'JtXiipoifia fiporoivi. 

Turn this passage into English Verse or Prose^ or into Latin 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. sine anno. 

L How far, according to Aristotle, do Epic and Tragic poetry 
agree with each other 2 In what respects do they differ ? Give 
an opinion, supported by the authority of any ancient critics, upon 
ihe respective merits of the three Tragedians. What 
of Euripides have been ridiculed by Aristophanes? 

ST. John's coll. 357 

II. To what deities were the theatres consecrated at Athens, 
and at what festivals did the dramatic performances take place ? 
By whom was the expense defrayed ? Wh^t Plays were united 
with the Medea to form the rirpaXoyia ? 

III. Translate and explain the following passage : — ^avt(H)y mv 
€ifn Kai rac Av^ecc Ttov MvOcav c£ atrrov Set rov MvOov (rv/ijSatveiy, rai ^ii, 
wnrtp cv rp Mij^ci^, airo firi\avTit, Arist. Poet. §• 22. Define the 
terms frepifrereia, avayvtapurtct and iraOoc, as applied to Tragedy, and 
give an example of each. Derive the words r/Mxyw^Ki, rpvyutSiOf 
icopv^oioc, viroKpii^c* and rrpwraytayiorfjc- 

IV. Trace hriefly the different variations in lamhic Metre from 
the time of the lambographi to the age of Aristophanes, and shew 
that they took place both in manner and extent pretty nearly as might 
have been expected. Institute a brief comparison between the ac- 
counts of Aristotle and Horace respecting this metre. 

V. Aei^btQ ^£ yevofupfig avrri ri i^vtns to oucewv furpov evpe, fto- 
Xiora yap XeicriKoy riav furpiav to lafijietor ttni, ^rijutoy it tovtov, 
TrXgiffTa yap lafifiiia Xtyofuv cv Tp haXeicr^ rp irpoi oXXi^Xovc* Arist* 
§. 6. Illustrate this passage by pointing out any fortuitous Iambic 
lines you may recollect. From what arguments does it appear pro- 
bable that the Iambic senarian was first introduced into Tragedy by 
fschylus ? 

VI. ''Longa natur^ ante finalem brevem, si tonum habuent, 
circumflectitur.** Give the reason of this rule, and apply it to the 
accentuation of the word erwfia (anciently aoofia). Distinguish 
between rhythm and metre, accent and qtumtitiff and accent the fol- 
lowing words according to their different meanings: eori, ovkow, 
oXXo, oreya. 

VII. What are the T€o<rapt£ x^'P^^^'^f'^ ^^ ^^^ Ionic dialect 
mentioned by Herodotus ? What are the pecuHarities of the Attic ? 
Which of the two is the most ancient ? What Doric words are 
enumerated by Porson as admissible in the dialogue of Tragedy ? 
How do you account for their admission ? 

VIII. Translate and accent the following lines : 

oida yap ttoXXovc Pporwy 
tnfiyouc ycywrac, rovf ftey Oftfiartity airo, 
Tovt 3* ev dvpaioic" oi 2* d^* rimf\ov ToioQ 
iv9K\itay eicnjtrayro nai paOvfiiay, 


Explain tlie tonus ofMftart^r cnro» uf* nw^fm wdoCf and 

IX. rta yap fp^rrig ovr mkyttr ^cXe<. CriTe an instance 
where amal is put for wolet, Nefoc oifMyifCy — cXvSwa 
xXifc^a fpiruty, — atdtpoc pado^» Simflar expiessions 
Ea^ish Poetry. Quote instances. 

X. Explain the nature of the middle verb* and shew the fime 
of it in the following words : fuOufuUf aydawTOfiat^ c<2i3<i0iD/iai« In 
what tenses are the verbs avaXocCi nQvatn, cfpi|^cnut Which 
most used by the Tragedians ? Assign a reason for this prefc 

XI. Distinguish between irmrx^ ^^ *'cvifCf nnpoc and )( y > o c, 
yufuiv and yafinadai. When was rvpavyoc first used in a had 
sense ? What is Dawes's canon respecting a woman ■p^^Vir'g of 
herself in the plural number ? What is the effect of two negatxrcs 
in Greek ? What of three f 

XII. Translate accurately the following lines. 

itVTOiva 2*1 iiv wv am aov (1) dav^iol^ofHP 
irptr fuv TtKvtav trufv utnZ^iv iwk^Zof 
irpo&vfior cix* o^oXfwv cic laoovo. 
iirttra luvroi irpowcaKv^tar ofifiaTOf 
Xewair r airtinpt'^f tincaXiv Topiiiia^ 
waiiwf fiwayfitiv cccroSov^* tcovtJQ It 00c 
opyac T tupiripei Kai j(p\oy veavc^oc, 
\tyvr TQ^. ov (2) fiif Sv^fun^c c^cc ^iXoic^ 
wavfnt 2c &»fWVf k€u iraXiv orpcif/Cic <capc^ 
^cXov( vofu(ova\ ovenrtp ay iroirtc vtBtv* 
2cSei 2e Swpa, xai irapcun^mi ^rarpoc 
^vyac a^ciKm ^ractrc rocffS*, </ii|y (5) X^''* 
1} 2*, oic latili (4) KOtrficVf ovk fivta^tro, 
aXX* pvtff* avSpt Tan-a* icai wpiv ac SofUiv 
pLOKpay awtiyai (5) irorcfMi reu irotSac orcOcv 
Xo)3(lv<m ir£irXovc ^ouciXovc iifiirt9j(m> 
j(pvmnfy re dccaa mi^vov afi^ (6) fioarpv^oig 
XaftTTpf Karonrp^ (rx<}fuxrif crat KOfiriyf 
a}fnr)(pv iucta wpoirytkutra aw^roQ, 
KaiTBiT ayaaraa tK dpoywy ^upxerai 
oreyaQf afipoy (iaiyovaa (7) iroXXcv^y voJi^ 
Sbipoic viripx^^H'^^^* iroXXa iroXXajcic 

9T. JOHN'S CQLli. Mi 

1 . Quote an instance where " fntror** ia used in the same sense. 

2. Explain the force of the particles ov /<ty, first, when followed 
by a future indicative, and secondly by a subjunctive aorist. 

d. tfiiiy xapiy* What word is here understood 7 

4. By whom, and with what idea, was lUHrjtOQ first employed to 
signify "the world?" What Latin word corresponds to both iu 
senses ? 

5. irarepa. Why is the regular accusative of this word not in use 7 

6. fiooTpvxoic* What is the primary meaning of the word? 
Illustrate its present signification by a passage from the Paradise 

7. What is the force of ^ac in composition? Give examples. 
Oive instances in the above passage of the hepthemimeral, penthe- 
mimeral» and quasi caesuras, and of the pause* 

XIII. Translate the following lines into English or Latin verse. 

tncatovs 2c Xcyoiv, k ovity ri €fo^o9£ 

rove Trpoffde fiporoyct ovjc av afjMpTOi£f 

oiriv€Q vfAvovQ circ fuy BaKuuSp 

fwi T tikaviyatQ^ accu wapa 2ccirvoif 

evpovro, j3iov rcpirvac cueoac* 

crvytovs It fiporvy ovSctc Xuiroc 

tvpero fuvffjf koi irokuxopioie 

|>3aic iravciv, e('fay ^yarotf 

itiycu T€ Tv\cu c^aiKkoviri ^fujvg, 

KoiTtH raSc fjtey Kspio^ OKturGai 

/M>\T€un /3porovc* iva V fvBiiiryoi 

^rcca Ti fiarriy niycvtn fioay ; 

TO frapoy yap c^^i rtp/t^fiy a^' avrov 
* ioifOQ irXfipiafAa fiporouny. 
Which is the " versus Paroemiacus V Why was it so called, and 
when is it the most perfect ? What is the Anapaestic wraftm ? 

XIV. Mention any of the critical discoveries of Bentl^y, Dawes, 
or Porson, which you may recoUect. 



A 4 1. Aristotle (Poet. Ktn) calls Euripides rpayuctarinroc r^ 
iroiTirQr, Aristophanes calls him (Pac. 584.) iroujniv 
prifiarlfov ^txayiKoiv. 
Translate these epithets, and shew how they correspond 
with the character of his writings given by Quintilian. 

2. " Sit Medea ferox» mvictaque.''-^//or. Explain this pre- 

cept, and shew how it was mistaken by Seneca. 

3. Horace says of the chorus, " llle tegat commissa, &c.'' 

Can the conduct of the chorus in the Medea be reconciled 
to the iabove rule ? Is any sanction afforded to that 
conduct by the following lines, rightly interpreted ? 

Xe£eic Zk iirfiiv Ttav ifwl ZtZoynivtav 

ctirep 6(toyeic y ev hetnroratQ, yvvrf r ?0wc« ▼• 818, 19, 

4. Quote Aristotle's objection to Euripides for his general 

management of the chorus. 

5. Respecting the murder of the children how is tradition at 

variance with the story told in this play ? How was this 
variation accounted for ? Do you percei^ any contra* 
diction or inconsistency on this point in the play itself? 

6. What is meant by Oeoc ^o firrx,avriQ ? Is any use made of 

it here ? 7. In what other plays, and how is it used ? 
B. 1 . What is the origin of the term. Tragedy ? 

2. On what ancient authorities is your derivation founded ? 

3. What was the nature of the Greek Sarvptjcif ? * 
• 4. Give a short account of a work of this kind now extant. 

5. What does Quintilian (X. I.) mean by "Satira tota nostra 

est." ? 

6. Name the Greek plays extant on the subject of the Trojan 

war, and its consequences. 

7. Also those referring to any of the Argonauts. 

8. How does Herodotus connect the story of Medea with the 

Trojan war ? 



C. 1 . Give a scheme of the Iambic Trimeter of the Tragic writers. 

2. Explain the word la/i/SeioK. Who was the inventor of Limbics 

according to Horace ? and of what country ? 

3. Explain the terms ^'csesuraf" '' quasi-caesura," "pause/' 

'* ictus," and uvvi^ui, 

4. On what syllable in each foot does the ictus fall in Iambic. 

Trochaic, and Anapsestic measure ? 

D. 1 . Mention some of the general laws of accentuation. 

2. How does the Greek differ from the Latin accentuation ? 

3. Write down the Greek atonies. Under what circumstances 

do they assume the accent? 

4. What is meant by an enclitic ? 

E. 1. Translate these lines. What difference of meaning is made 

by the change of a single accent in the second ? 
Ofiyvfit ydiay, 'HX/ov 0* ayvov tri^aQ, 
QtovQ re irdvraC) ififiiviiVf a trov xXvia. v. 750, 1. 

2. Is the augment ever omitted by the Tragic writers ? Accen- 

tuate and translate v. 1138, according to your opinion. 
Kvvei 3* o fiEv nc X'f ' ^ ^^ ^avBov xapa Ilat^aii'. 

3. Quote authorities for the quantity of comparatives in cwk 

from writers in Doric, Ionic, and Attic Greek. 

4. ^hat Ionic and what Doric forms occur in the Tragedians? 

5. Translate the foUowing passage, having corrected the first 

line : 

rlc y ovj(l Brriruiv apri yiyviaoKei ro^e, 
*Jc ^oc TIC avToy rov ireXac fiaXXov ^Xely 
ot fiiy ^iicaliot, oi ^c ical icepSovc X^'^' 
ei Tovtr^e y evyfjc ovytK ov aripyEi vanip. v. 84—7. 
What is the emendation in the last line proposed by Mr. 
Elmsley, and on what ground is it false as well as unne- 
cessary ? 

6. V. 56. uiaff 'ifupoc ft' viniXBt y^ rt Kovpay^ 

Xe^at, fioXovtray itvpo, Scvtoivi^c Tu\ac. 
Mention the old reading of this passage : and give instances 
of simOar construction in both cases. 

7. Translate the following verses ; and illustrate your inter- 


iySpoi yap il^aot trdyra ^ij KiilKt^y, v. 280« 

ov yap^\aipiay tiq avrwy rovfwy dXyvyil Ktap, v. 399* 


F. ExpUins and exemplify the following conitructions, trunaladi^ 

each passage. 

py iror cyw yvfi^v r etricoifi 

avVoifi fukudpoie ^icLKyatofUvovQ, v- 164» 5. 
2. iv rfhi ^d^ irfMtfra /ici/ <ro^c ycV'^C* '^' ^' ^* ^* ^^* 
S. MH. ical mne dpaia y oiaa rvyy^avia Zoymo^ 

I A. oic ov KpiyoviMU tQyhi 90i ra irXf/ova. ▼. 608, 9. 

4. rovroic • • • / Ayovotv ov ^cOct* av Ik yalag ifu, T. 734 

5. (vXXififw/iai Sc rov3e <rot K^yw iroyov, T. 942. 

(?. On what ground of criticism have alterations been proposed in 
the following passages 7 Assign your reasons for that 
mode which you prefer, in each case. 

1. iUfi yelp ovK iveoTiv o^6aX/xoIc liporwv, 
otrriff miiy dr^po^ (nrXdy)(vov iKfidBjf aa^Ci 
vrvyei ^cBbpicwc* v. 221 — 3. 

2. oppw^ia fioi, pri ri /3ovXcvo^c kokov, y. 318. 

3. KP* €pir\ i fjiarala, KtU fi airdWaioy voywv, 

MH* woyovfuv ijficlci kov iroyiay X^XP''/^^^* ^* ^^^i ^* 

4. ^^Ci Tvpdyywy iorlay ^Kiafuyrfy^ 
Xalptie Kkvovtra, T. 1127» 8. 

5. i}^i| ^ dyiXmty koiXok, iinrXidpov ipofiov 

ra^vc /3a2tcrnic repfwwy avOfynrero. T. 1178| 9. 

6. ifAkiy a vaihiiy ^\doy tKatatnu (iloy, T. 1300. 

/T. 1. Write down the derivation and precise meaning of the fol« 
lowing words : yovdenifuyfif lAtriyviav^ avOaZia^ ffKvBp^^" 
iroci olcucoarpoi^ef c{i}vrX]}iceyat, irXij/ijucXcCy affvXov, CX'^7* 
yvoci aff^oXi/cy c(viri|pcrcw, furevifi, diaXKdeffOfuu^ (wMp/ct 

2. Explain the dramatic terms, ircpcircr£ta» di^oyvi^'piffici X^'P'O^'^* 
irapa/3aanc> irpdXoyoc* 
/. 1. Sv/iirXi^yo^ec. How are these rocks named by Pindar, 
Valerius Flaccus, Juvenal, and Milton ? Quote a des- 
cription of them from ApoUonius Rhodius. 

2. /LM|r* 'Op^wc, . ..fuXos. V. 543. Describe from some andent 

writer the effects produced by the " Orphean lyre." 

3. * irpiv yufj^riKiovc 

Evyfic ciy^Xoi, Xa/xiraBac r dyair\iQn.y* v. 1082, 3. 
Exemplify the custom here alluded to from ancient authors. 


4. tI 2* ofi^aKiy yqc ; v. 666. S^ew by quotatioD what place is 

here meant? To what other place did the same epithet 
attach ? 

/iijre vatap drQKi/K. v. 1119, SO. 

Explain this phrase : and give instances of the same com- 
bination from Greek and Latin authors. 

5. Illustrate by quotation the following sentiments : 

irXiJv yap Wicvaiv, ifioiyt ^iKrarov woKlq, t. 330. 
arw irorafiwy leptiv Xii)pov<rc irayal* • • • V. 411> 12. 
J Zev, tI ^ 'Xjpvtrov fiiy, oc iclfiBiikoe jf> jc. r. X. ¥• 51€. 
K. 1. Give a short account of the plot of the ^BaVfioxot. When 
was it acted ? and with what success ? 
ft. Translate the following lines of that play into English Prose : 

Moucapu(v y dnip ij(wy 

• • • • 
Uopaj^poyovyro^ dy^pot^ v. 1530 — 47. 


1. At what festival did the dramatic contests at Athens take 
place, and to what regulations were the competitors for the prizes 
subject in producing their dramas? How were the expenses of 
paying and equipping the choruses defrayed ? 

2. (a) What were the principal auties of the Chorus, and how 
are these exemplified by the chorus in the Medea ? 

(h) To what sort of chorus, and to what period of time 
does Horace refer, when he says 

** choTUsque 
Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure nocendi." 

3. (a) What are the rules which, according to Aristotle, are 
to be observed in the manners in Tragedy ? 

(^) Mrij(ayf ^priariov hrl rd e^oi rov 2pa/iaroc, { oaa vpo 
rov yiyovty, d ovk olov rt dt'Opioirov clSeVac, rj Sara ^ortpoy^ d ^cirac 
irpoaT^cvo^coiC Koi dyytKia^' avavra yap dirohihofity rdig 6eotg opdy, 
^AKoyov W fifihiy clvai iy role irpdyfiaffiv' £i li fiij, ci« Tfj^ rpo- 
yfilaQ. Arist. Ilcpc Ilotyyr. $. 28. 


Translate and explain these words. How is the precept here 
delivered by Aristotle violated in the Medea ? 

4. (a) Give an account of the Argonautic expedition. When, 
according to Sir I. Newton and others, did it take place ; and by 
what is it supposed to have been occasioned ? 

(b) Bryant considers that the history of it is fiibulous, and 
that it is to be referred to im obscure tradition of the Deluge. By 
what reasonings does he support diis opinion ? 

5. (a) Where are the rocks formerly called Symplegades, and 
what is the origin of that name ? 

(6) What are the modern names of Colchis and of the river 
Phasis ? 

(c) According to Herodotus the Golchians were a colony 
from Egypt (0a<Vovrai iovnc oIKj^\oi 'Aiyvirrioi, Eut. {. 104). 
What are the circumstances upon which he founds this opinion ? 

6. Give an account of the regular Anapaestic verse used by the 
Tragedians. What is the Swa^cia ? 

7. V, 5 m . , . , mol TO wdyjapvaroy ^epog 

Translate these words, explain the use of the clative case in this 
instance, and quote some instances of the same construction. 

8. V. 77. dvuikofuffff ap\ el kokov vpotroltroiuv 
• vioy vaXcuf^ irplv rod* eJiyvrXijiccVat. 

(a) Translate these words, and quote other passages in 
which dyrXEiy or e^avTkeiy are used in the same sense as in this. 
What is the Latin word corresponding to it ? 

(6) Illustrate the use of vply with the present, perfect and 
aorist infinitive : and give Elmsley's canon respecting its use with 
the subjunctive. 

(c) What is the force of this same particle joined with the 
present indicative, as in 

V. 11 70. vply y 6p^ ^id orofia , 

X^apovyra XevKoy df^poy, 

9. V. 217 oKa yap iroXXovc (iportay 

trefxyovQ ycytlirac, rove /^v OfAfidray dwo, 
rovQ S' iy Ovpaloic* oi ^' a^' i^tTvypv iro3oc 
^v<rK\eiay itcnitrayro Koi paBvfiiay, 
Translate and explain these lines. 



10^ Translate* > 

djfipoi yap ii/iaffi wdvra 3i} icaXwv, 

KO^K iuTiv arrii ivwpoaoieroc eicjSoffic* v. 280, 1. 

And state whether ifjiaai or c&d^i be proper, and why. 

11. V. 289. xprj 2* ovvofff oarii dpri^fmv wi^vK dyrjpf 

(a) Translate these words, and explain the force of the 
9niddle verb hhitdirKeadaL in this passage. 

(6) Give the etymology of dprl^v, and point out the 
difference of signification between it, aia^pvv and ififpvy. 

12. Translate, 

aXX* oiri ravry ravra, /irj loKeiri ir«». v. 366* 
and supply the ellipses. 

ld« V. 378. Kpdrurra, rjv evOtiavp ^ wt^vKafuv 

eofol /laXcflTO, ^apfuixoic avrovc iXiiv, 
clev. ral Btj rtOyd<n, tIq fu %{crcu irdXic i 
r/c yfv aovXov Kal ^/lovc iy^tyyvcvQ 
{croc ipapaa\iav pvmrai rovfiov hifiac* 
Ttimslate this passage, and explain the force of the particle dty 
in V. 380. 

Some editions have tro^ in v. 379. What are the objections 
which have been urged against this reading ? 

14. V. 458. ot) ^ ovK dyletc fuapidQf Xiyova acl 

KOKwt rvpdyyov^, 

(a) Translate these words, and point out the peculiarity 
in the construction. 

(6) How do Xiytty and tltreiy differ in sense when con- 
atrued with a dative and an accusative? 

15. V. 612. Xcy" ^^ irQifWQ d^Q^y^ hovyai XiEph 

iiyoic re irc/iirecr ivjjLlio\\ ol Zpdtrovirl 9 eS. 
(a) Translate this, and explain the custom alluded to. 
(6) State also in the case of what other adjectives besides 
Inu/ioc the verb el;i2 is very frequently omitted. 

16. Translate, 

etc roi^o ydp qj} <ppov^c tifit wdc iyia, v. 719. 

avrri ^ idy inp e«c c/iovV eXOpc ^Ofiovc, 

fieyeit iavKoCf kov ve fjoj fte6w riyl. v. 725, 6. 


(a) Give Elmsley's rule respecting the use of 06 /uf with 
the second aorist subjunctive and the future indicative. 

(6) What are the adjectives <rf two terminations in oc ? 

17. Translate, 

rwc oSf up^y TTtrrtLfMy 

ri froXtCf ^ ^X»v 
wofiwifiot at X^P^ 
rdv waidoKETttpay e{ei ; 
rdv ovx oelay ; fitr dWjuy 
iric€}l/at TtKtiay irXaydy 
axiypat. ^yoy oloy alpei, v, 842 — 8. 
Explain the construction 0/Xwv TrofitrifioQ. How could Athens 
be called UpHy trorapMy toXic ? 

18. V. 1272. irap£X6« Upwc; ap${ae ^yoy 

ioKti ftoi rcKvocc* 
Translate these words. How will you render wapiXBw UfwvQ if 
written without the interrogation ? 



h Translate the following passage ; and mention the characters 
in which the truth of the former part is chiefly exemplified : 

"EoTi fiiy cZy ^iXoiroviJraripc £vpiiriSi|c ^vo ravrl irdO^p fiatdo/c 
re Kol cfKi»rqca cicrpay^qiffai, jcdv rovroic* wc ovk oIS* ei ueiy irtpotQ^ 
erirvxifrraTOC* ou fiiqy aXXa iccU rale aXXaic anrlBto^t fayrofflaic 
OVK iroXpo^' fJKiard ye rot ^eyaXo^iJc (Sv, ^/iwc W'' <*^Q ovrov ^v- 
fftv eV ToXXoTc ytyeoBai rpayiKfjy TpomiydyKaee, jc«2 ««ip* %Kaara iml 
ruty /ieycOwv, cJc o 70inWc» 

ot){f>p 2c tXci^'c re koX lv\^oy dfi^oripufSty 
fAaerUtai, ee 8* avVov iirorpvyti fia\i(ratrdat, — 

Longin. de Sublim. §• 15. 
II. Who was the preceptor of Euripides in philosophy ? Point 


dtit MHne of th« taoit inqporttAit ftentiniflntf in hii writitigs, which 
he appears to have borrowed from his master. 

III. At what Festivals were dramatic pieces exhibited at Athens ? 
What difference was there among those festivals in respect (l)to 
the pieces acted ; and (2) to the persons present ? 

IV. What was the vift^vit viroKjpirwv! And by what laws was 
it regulated ? Explain the proverb* rot)c irlpovQ rpayioiovQ dyw 

V. What was the origin and nature of the fund called Ta Oew- 
pijcct ? What were the laws relating tb it proposed by Pericles and 
Eubulus ; and when passed ? 

VI. Enumerate the contemporary characters whom Aristophanes 
has introduced in his comedies, either in action or descHption ; spe- 
cifying tlie pieces in which they respectively appear, and the timetf 
and places of the deaths of the most remarkable. 

VII. Apa^Qujv Trie Vf^P^C \axtiy, 
iua%6v tf^epoyrae ^vo ^pccxyitac Ttjc lifUp^Q* — 

Ari8toph.-Acharn* 66. 
htivov yap, el rpicii/SoXov /lev (AviKti 
^miiofiiffet iicdaTOT '- Plut. 329, 30. 

What are the sums spoken of in these lines ? And what are the 

offices respectively designated by them ? 

VIII. Give a brief account df the rise and character of the 
Sophists at Athens. How are they stigmatized by Aristophanes ? 
Are there any supposed allusions to them in the writings of Euri- 
pides ? In what sense does Herodotus use the term ^o^eon/c ? 

IX. Mention some usages respecting the Dual number, either 
as peculiar to Attic writers, or as differing from the general system 
of Ghrammarians. 

X. By what limitations is the use of neuter adjectives in an ad- 
verbial sense restricted ? Of the following expressions, which are 
legitimate, and which otherwise ? (1) ninpayey tvTvx^tnaToy. 
(^) KaKiara dwoKoi^y. (3) KaxCk of«K. (4) ildiffToy ol^ety, (5) 
iralc dySpixtSe* (6) irale av^ucwrarov. 

XI. Who was the inventor of Iambic verse ? For what purpose 
did he use it ? What other kind of verse did he invent ? Explain 
its formation. 

XII. Explain the quasi-csesura, and the pause. Quote one or 


two lines from the TragediaoB, in which, a« they now staadi th« 
pause is violated. 

XIII. Explain the construction of the verse called Anapiestictts 

XIV. 1. Give very briefly a rule and illustration for the use of 

moods, &c. following ira^ o^pa, cJc* 

2. What is the mixed force of tra with an imperfect tense 
in Attic writers ? Translate, tya wepl xOUwy ckifWcvo- 

S, In what cases is the particle ai^ joined with a subjunc- 
tive ? 

XV. Explain the formation of the Attic Futures corresponding 
to the Ionic terminations in aeta, tma^ c^ai, c(i», &c. Mark the ex- 
cepted case ; and the exceptions to the exception* 

XVI. 1. When was Tragedy invented ? What was the prise of 

the old Tragedy ? And why? 
2. When, and by whom, was Comedy invented ? How 
many gradations of Comedy were there? And to 
which of them did Menander, Eupdis, Eubulus, Aris- 
tophanes, and Phrynichus severally belong ? 
5, Translate : 

KaBaptartpov yap tov Ktpafwy tlpya(6/i>ir, 
i Qripikkiic rdc cvXucac, tyv/c fiv yioQ. Eubul* 
Mention the age, trade, and country of Thericles. What were the 
'H^tnrorihc ? And what was the error of Boyle about the 'A>Tiyo* 
vllac and SeXfvW^ac ? 

XVII. Did Euripides write any other drama on the subject of 
Hippolytus ? Or what are we to understand by'ImroXtlroc ^tvrtpoct 
What other dramatic writers, in different languages, have written on 
the same subject, and with what material variation from Euripides? 

XVIII. Give a brief summary of the exploits of Theseus. 
Where did he die ; and whither, when, why, and by whom were 
his bones removed? In Hec. 125. roi Qri<rtl^a ^, o^ai 'ABtir^r — 
who are spoken of? 

XIX. 1 . ov r av dfidproii rovhe, Eur. Med. 863. 

Kcu ^ij 7riir€fiirr\ ov KOfitrov — ^sch. Theb. 469. 
Are these two passages correct ? Explain the principle relating to 
them, and say whether it is admissible in both cases. 


2. ical ffv ff ffii^v yevov. v. 289* On wbat ground has this 
reading been objected to ? Is the objection valid ? 

3. How do the Tragedians scan fifj ov? Does the same 
rulie apply to /ii| ovj(l and /iij oZv 1 

'4, What dialect adopts the termination of o/iyv in Optatives ? 
To what dass of verbs is this form limited? Mark those 
which are incorrect of the following : hiholriy, ^tkoirfy, rpe- 
^oLriv^ TifAftiVf (icvXoli^v, BaptnUtfv, 

XX. j(jpri he evyyrwfiriv exciv, v. 1 16. What is the force of ovy- 
yrtifAfiy e^'tv ? Has it any other meaning ? Produce instances of 
a similar use of ex^* ^^^ ^J ^Y ^^^ English word it is properly 
rendered in such cases ? Is there any thing corresponding to this 
usage in Latin ? 

XXI. If the Article were inserted in v. 189. irdc ^ ohfyripoi 6 
fiioc ay6^irwK, — what would be the effect on the metre and the 

XXIL X'^P^^ TUKorlaQ irpoyiiiirtoy, v. 876. 

1. What does irpoytaTruoy signify? Whence deriyed ? And 
what is the situation of die place expressed by it ? 

2. What was the ancient name of Peloponnesus ? On what i 
occasion changed ? What were the pretensions of the 
Heraclidas to the sovereignty of it ? When, under whom, 

and in what generation from Hercules, did they gain pos- 
session of it ? And how did they divide it among them- 
selves ? 

XXIII. XP^^ ^ ^'''^ ^yt^ol^ apa , 

Traripa ^vr€ijcii', if VI heairorai^ decile 

oXXotffiv, el fAfj Tovirle ye ffrepi,eic ySfiovQ, v. 461 — 3. 
Translate this passage. Is the metre of the first line correct? Ex- 
plain the rule bearing upon it, marking its limitations. 

XXIV. irpoc TTJy Trapovaray ^vfupopdy' alyS ^e <re, v. 485. Is 
this correct ? Give a rule for determining the final quantity of accu- 
satives in ay, 

XXV. Mcvvv)(ov S* dicraiariy. v. 758. 

1. From whom was this place named ? What festival was 
celebrated here, and in commemoration of what event I 

2. Wh^t other harbours were there at Athens? How con- 
nected with the city? Which of them was the largest ? 

B B 


And what proportion of the Athenian population was it 
computed to contain ? 
XXVI. ayMi^ac . . . . 'EXXif ycinwc* V. 1020. What were the 
Grecian Games, and where respectiTely celebrated ? How many 
of them were probably existing in the time of Theseus ? And 
what probability do the writings of Homer furnish as to the consti- 
tution of any of them in his age ? 
XXVn. Translate the following : 
Jceovov nc i^^upp 0ra- 
{ovcra wirpa Xeycrai /Jair- ** 

rdr KoKinei pvrdy 
waydv wpoulffa Kfnifiyuiy, ▼• 120—8. 
rlya yvy ^ riyyay 
ij(pfuyf if \6yoy 
ofoKiieai, KoBaftfia \vety Xoyov ; 666— -8, 
ov r* opo \vn rote epwffi rkiy ireXacy 
imi re fUXXmNT, tl daveiy avtWc ypitiy* 44S, 4. 
wf ixwoytlv rot xpif jSioy Xiay fiporov^' 
ovj* ai' ariy^y yop, ^c Konipe^ic Sofioc» 
coXmc dxptfitimay* etc ^ niy rvxtiy 
iriaovVf onfy «v, iriSc ^y iicyeveai &nc€cc > 469—72. 

o ToXXfi •< ^^ > ovK cV atftioXci Biov, 785. 
t irparrciv J r r- 

Which is ri^t» vpdirfftiy or irpcfrrccF, and why ? Illustrate rd woSXd «p. 

XXVIIL riya \6yov raXac> Wva n^ar triSey 

fiapvKOTfwy^ yvvcu, ir/BO^av&tfF av rvxtf ; 82 7| 8. 

Translate this, and supply the ellipsis. Is the reading correct? 

Give the metrical names of the verses. 

XXIX. If Si| yvy av)(tif icaX hi dy\fiypv flopaQ 
<riroic KOKfiMv , Opfta r ayaxr €X^^» 

Baff)(cve, iroXXSy ypafAfAaruiy rifuSy icairiWc. 956 — 8. 
Translate this passage. Explain the origin and connection of tlie 
sects referred to in it What succeeding denominations of philoso- 
phers adopted the same sentiments respecting the aif/uxoc j3opa? Do 
they prevail among any class of religionists at the present day ? And 
can it with any appearance of probability be traced to the same origin? 

XXX. Give the correct signification of the words ryMraloc. 
^C) irpoKoimit, iraf>a«9irrW| ^'^X'^^' fya'^airlliia, iyni, WrvXoc* 



St. PETER'S COLL. 1826. 

1. State briefly the circumstance of the origin, the aenith, and 
the extincticMi of the Greek Drama, giving the date of each period. 

9. Mention the opinions, to which the title of 2rc^i^poc, 
prefixed to this play, has given rise, and prove by sufficient 
arguments which is the most satisfactory. 
3. cirei & Bfieevt KtKpowiav Xetirci 'xSorat 

'^atffia ^vyiay ac/ioroc IlaXXayn^y, 
KOI rtiv^e ovy Bafiapri vavoroXfc 'xfioftOf 
triavmay iKltifiov acvctfac f vyi?v, 
€VTavBa ^ ^rcvMfmx, kdiarvirKfiyfuyii 
KtvTpoiQ tpvroQf n raXaiv airoXXvrai 

(1) Accentuate and mark the spiritus of thesei lines: define 
accent and quantity, and point out their comparative usage. 

(2) Give an account of the various fua^/iara among the 
Greeks, and the requisites for purification. 

(d) Trace geographically the probable course of Theseus 
here aUuded to, and write down with dates the Kings of 
Athens previous to Theseus. 

4. Correct the following verses, giving your reasons : 

tliv' rl 9iyq.q ; oi ct ')(fni myfvp rixvoy. 


ovKovy \iyovaa rifittrnpa ^m* 

et rot '^ojcct croc, ^(pffy fiiy oi tr dfAOfrdyeiy 

rl Tov0\ S h) Xiycvtriy iy dyBpiairoic ipfy ; 

5. ^eI f c£ ixelyov ^ij ri rov wodovftiyov 
^fuioyf ij Xoyoy riy\ ^ iriirXuy aTO, 
XajSetf, fyyd\l/ai r ex ivoiy fjUay X^^* 

Construe this passage;— explain fully the practice to which it alludes, 
and confirm your explanation by pandlel passages. 

6. at, al* ri 3$ra rdlir^ dyiorefifiat icdpa 
xXEKToiei ^XXocc, iv€rrv\iic 0cwpoc £y ; 
j(akar€ icXei6/>a, ^fmoifoXoi, irvXai/xarwy' 
,f icXveO* op/iovc fie iSv xucpdy Stay 
yvyaixocf V f^ KardayoSv inroiXeffcv. 



Translate this : enumerate the Oracles consulted by the Greeks, 
stating the causes of the origin and decline of each. 

7. ical fufy rvwoi ye a^yhovric j(pvafi\drov 
rfJQ ovxir ovmyc tfj^c vpomraivovel fu, 

c2<t> tI Xefai SekrvQ if2e fwi OiKei, 
Construe this» and explain fully the words rvroc, tf^y2oKi|c and 
^cXroc* Give the derivation of wpoainUvovn, and tUustrate its 
meaning herd by parallel passages. 

8. ^dfi wy ai\€i, xal ^l iuj/vxov fiopd^ 

Bdcxcve, wdXXuy ypafifiormy ri/i»v icairyovc* 
Paraphrase this passage, and confirm the explanations you may 
introduce by other authority. Explain the construction with viroic 
and with alrovQ, 

9. ov^ el yvyaiKwy vdy xpEfiatrBtlfi yiyoif 
Kol nfy ey^lSp ypafifuirtty tXi^ocu tiq 
ircvjciiv, £ire/ viv i(r&Xny ovr eriorafMu 

Construe this, and state fully the mode of writing among the Greeks 
and Romans. 

1 0. Kol firiv 6 raXac cf^e Iri orelxeii 

vapKaq ytttpaQ 
l,ayQ6y re xdpa htaXvfuiydelc. 
Mention the metre (and its laws) in which this passage is written. 
Mark the quantity of each syllable, and explain the arrangement of 
the chorus on the stage. 

1 1 . i;^, etc cXeyx^'' H'^ tritr^, ^fiovfuyfi, 
4«vSc7c ypa^Q lypayl/ty. 

Explain the general distinction between the use of the optative and 
conjunctive moods after conjunctions, and state whether that dis- 
tinction has been preserved in the present instance. 

12. State the philosophical tenets of Euripides, and point 
out die instances, confirming your statement, which occur in this 




L 1. . Qive the dates of the birth and death of Euripides. 

ft. Mention the leading events in the History of Greece 
which took place during his life-time. » 

S. Translate : "Hfifaro dc {6 "EvpiTrlhriQ) ^lid^Kiir iirl KaXX/ov 
apXPvroCi Kara '0Xv|iircd3a dyloriKoarriy wpwniy* wpuroy hi ihliaf/E^ 
mc IleXca^acy on ra^ rplroc iyivero, rd Trdrra S* ^v oury ipdfiara 
hfi. otiitTQi ^ oiy. rovroiv yoBeverai rpla. 

it. In one of Aristophanes*s plays, a woman says of Eu- 

aypca yap tffi&Cf i yvvaiiccc» hpi kolko^ 
dr cV dyploiffi rdif \a)^avoic avroc rpa^tlt. 
Translate these lines, and explain the allusions contained in 
II. 1« Translate the following lines {Aristoph, Ran. 945.): 
Evfuir/2f^. elr* ovk eXijpovv o n rvxoc^i* ovS* ifiwtirf^y c^vpoi^, 
aXX* ov£iA»v wptirwra ftiy fwi to yivoQ ilicty evBvt 
rov Ipdfiarof. 

2. Is the practice here referred to exemplified in the Iphi- 
genia in Tauris? 

3. Mention any reasons that have been given in explanation 
or defence of it. 

4. What other remarks are made upon Euripides* prologues^ 
in the same play of Aristophanes ? 

5. Transkte the following lines (Ran. J 227.) : 
Acowffoc* S Zatfwyi dvip^y, dirowplv njy XjiKuOoy, 

tya fifi SccucKo/^ rove irpoKiyovQ lyiktv. 

Evpiwihtf£, ' TO tI\ 

iyu vpliafAOA ryd* ; 
Ai. idy vdBjf y i^o(. 


£v. ov hJTf iwii iroXXovc irpoXoyovc c{w Xiytiy, 

* IleXoif' ^ TarraKuoQ dc lU^ay ftoXuy 
Boaiaty tmrott — 

Ac. ^P9Cff irpo^qi^cv avOcc of niK XiixvOov ^ 

* (6) From what play of Eoripidm if tUi line quoted? 

III. 1. On what public occasiooe did the Dramatic contests 
take place at Athens ? 

2. Explain the expressions x^^^^''* X^'' BiWvai, xojpor 
hUderKtiy, Kopv^loQt rtrpaXoyla, ircfM«creca» dvaynifnnc* 

3. Give some account of the improvements introduced by 
JEscbylus into Tragic representations ? Did Phrynichus write before 
or after him ? 

4. Mention one or two of the most striking particulars in 
which the costume of Greek Tragic actors differed from that used 
in modem times. 

5. To what sort of chorus, and to what period of time does 
Horace refer» when he says 

•* chor usque 

Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure nocendi." 

6. What difference has been observed between the general 
character of the Choric Odes of Euripides, and those of the preceding 

IV. 1. V. 90. Tat/pii^v x^KO. 410. ^cvei&c aicrac. 422. 
Xevicdy dicrdv — *Ax^y)oc ^/iovc. 

Explain the position of each of the above places, by drawing a 

2. Translate the following passage firom Strabo (VIL p.307.) 
£lr' o *A\CKK£ioc ip6fjuK§ oXcrcvi^c ')(^ppoyfioof ion yap rtuvlaTi^t iooy 
^iKlfav OTOjtlw fifJKOc iwl njy ?«' wXaroc 3c to fuyiorov^ Ivotv ^ro- 
ilt»y t\d\i9royf rtcoapiay TrKiBpwy. 

3. Translate the following from Herodotus (IV. 99.) 

Kal irapoirXijo'ict ravrji Kal oi Tavpoc yi^ovrm. r^c Sn^Ouc^c* ^C c( rifc 
'Amie7c SXXo tOyoQ koX fiij 'A6riyaioi vifiotaro roy ycvyor roy Sov- 
yicucoy, ftoXXov €*c Toy noyroy njy wcpviy dyiy^yray r^y dro 9opc 
Kov fiexp^ Avo^Xvorov SfifwV Xiyoi 8c\ iJc civac ravTa irfUKpd /uyct- 
Xem Wft/SoXECtv. 


V. ▼• 494. OP. TO K:Xiiv6p "Apyos worplV tfajp circv^offcu. 

OP. ix Tm¥ "MvaiprnVf at iror* {miy oX/9cai. 

1. How are the statements made in the first and last of these 
lines tp be reooneikd ? 

S. What is the tneaning of the expression KvkKmrliec 
iarim^ applied to MiFoense, v. 895. f Give some account of the 
persons alluded to in this expression, their works, and style of 

S. When and by whom, was Mycense destroyed ? 

VI. ▼• 795. OP. 'ArpcMc OveWov r ola$a ytwfutniy tfHv ; 

M. {fKOvaOf ypwnit djpvoc q Wk* ^y Ktpi. 

1. What is the story here alluded to ? 

2. Give the full meam'ng of the expression ^kov^o, irUa — 
S. How is the word ircpc, to be accented in this place, and why? 

VII. V. 91 3. dymyvfMHs Oeoic* 

1. Explain this appellation, and give some account of the 
names, attributes, and offices assigned to these deities in the writings 
of the Tragoedians and of the reverence described to have been paid 
to them, re&rring to any particular plays or passages that you may 
recollect on the subject. 

ft. How many of them were there according to the commonly 
received account ? Can you infer from any passage in this play 
whether Euripides agreed with that account of their number or not! 

VIII. 1. Translate (v. 914.) 

ivrly yap oaia i|n|^0c, Hv "Apei wori 
Zcvy cfear cc rov Sif xtptir /buav/iaroc* 
S. What institution is here referred to ? 

3. What is the drcumstance alluded to respecting Mars! 

4. What account does JEschylus give of the origin of this 
Institution and of its name ? 

5. Whom does he represent to have sat as judges in the 
case of Orestes? What tradition on this point is mentioned by 

6. What were the results of the proceedings to Orestes and 
lo his adversaries, according to JEschylus? What according to 

7. Sute briefly the power entrusted to this Ck>urt by Solon. 
Of whom was it composed ? 


B. When and by whom were its powers first diminished f 

9. What particular, crimes does Demosthenes say had always 
remained under its sole cognizance.? State very briefly the forms 
and ceremonies which he describes to have been observed in it 

10. Translate, Ivravdoi fiovov oviilt wirore ovrc ^tvymr, 

JX. V. 927. icXvM ^ *Adripaloun rdfid hnmrxji 

rcXcniF ytyeoBaif xari tov vofiov /teVciF, 
Xo$^c iyyoQ IlaXXaSoc ^^fJ^^ X£wv. 
I . Translate these b'nes. 

ft. What was the name and what the distinguishing ceremony 
of the festival here alluded to? At what time of the year was it 
celebrated ? 

S, V. 59. icaTdf>j(pftai fiiy, o^ytn ^ dXXoitnr pi\€i* 
Explain the rites denoted by the word KaTopxofiau Illustrate 
them by reference to passages in this play and elsewhere. 
X. V. 1099. \tirapdy. . . ,*Adrfvttliify ivt yay. 

1. Translate the following lines from Aristophanes {Achamm 

frialv ^ tlyai woWwy ayaBviy o^coc Vfiiy 6 xoufniCf 
irav^ac vfioe ^yucoivt Xoyoig firj \iay i^aftardffBaif 
fiTJd' fiZtffBai Owrevofuyov^t fjoir elyai j(avyaK'oklra^. 
wpoTepoy ^ vfiac dwo Tuy woXttity ol irpeo/Jecc cfairarwfrtfc 
wp^roy fjLcy loore^Votic emXovV Kairecdiy tovto nc etwoi, 
CV0VC ^Mx rovi trre^yovs iir oKfHoy riiy mtythUiv ccaftyode* 
tl hi ric vfidc vwoBiairEVffatf Xciropac KaXia^iey *A6i|vac, 
evpero tray ay Zta rac Xivapdc, d^Hy rifitiy irepiat^c* 

2. What poet and what circumstances respecting him are 
more particularly referred to in these lines ? 

'■' XI. Sophocl. Ajac. 172. . 

H pd at TavpoiroXa Aioc "Aprejug. • • .upfjUKre. 
' 1. What derivation does Euripides assign in this play for 

the title given to Diana in the above line ? 

2. Mention any places where she was worshipped under thai 
title or any similar appellation. ' 

3. What remarkable custom at Sparta is said to have been 
derived from the rites of the Tauric Deity ? How did it thence ori* 


• XII. V. 141S8. at ^ dfi^ tnfivdQ, l^cy^vcctt, ffXi/ioxac 

BpaiYNtfWocy del rijahi KKpiovxtiy Bgae*- 
oi icaX nSdiffti Kardavcvaa, leal wiwXMy 
ayoXfid wn Bivawnv cvin|>wc v^€» 

1. Translate these lines. 

2. Is Iphigenia mentioned by Homer ? 

3. What circumstance does he relate to have taken place at 
Aulis ? 

4. Mention any other account of proceedings at Aniis given 
by a poet earlier than Euripides. 

5. What became of Iphigenia at last, according to Hesiod ? 

6. What account does Herodotus give of honors paid to her ? 

7. Mention any instances from other writers of similar 
honors offered to her. 

8. When and by whom was the image of the Goddess re- 
moved from Brauron ? 

XIII. V. 1177. 

I*. Ktu woXii 'K^ifiipoy rtv* 6(mc aniftayei — GO. iro/oc rvx^c; 
I*. cV &>/Liocc fdfiyity dirayrac. 60. |ii| trvyayrfey ^yf ; 
[*. fivtrapd yap rd rotd^iarl* 90. ffreixc, rai tr^fiaiyt av — 
[*. iiviHy €lc i^ifty vzKditiy. 60. cS yt xtficitiq voKgy. 
[*. red ipCkiay y oviiiq fMoKuna. 90. rowr tkd,aQ elf £^'- 
I*, av he fUywy avrov irpo ya^y, rp def—QO, rl jQnifia ipQ ; 
[*. dyyiaoy icvpaf fuXaOpoy, 90. KuBapdy mc fwkgg vdXiy ; 

1. Transkte these lines. 

2. In what metre are they ? What are its laws ? 

3. In the last line, do you prefer /loX^c or /ioXoic? Give the 
reason of your preference. 

4. In V. 1178 what appears to be the precise force ofwyay- 
rfty^ as distinguished from ovyayriSffiy, which it has been proposed 
to introduce ? 

5. In V. 1181 some supply the first sentence thus: ovhlg 
{7r€\a(irJ) : Why is this wrong ? What other explanations have 
been proposed ? 

6. ayyiooy irvpa^ fiiXaBpov. Mention any other instances 
of a similar rite of purification. How does Ulysses purify his 
house in the Odyssey ? 


XIV. 1. Difftioguish between irov and iroc, 6wo9 and 2xo^ •{ and 
ol, and explain the force of these particles in each of the following 

V. 113. ipa ii y* cIm* rfHyhi^ttrt Swot Ktvor^ 

Sirot x^'^C Kpwpavrt XifffOfUF ^'/lac* 
548. Tfiy ivBaV AvXiv drriBtoa r^c f««*> 

ol ft* «i0rc fMO\oy £iayatiat. yupaiiuvoi 
io^Coy — 
S. From what verbs and in what tenses are KoBiUuy^ nu 
(what is there peculiar in the use of this latter fonn» and of jco T), 
iri0aay ? 

3. Explain the meaning and derivation of the words nyXvyi- 
TOCi ff-tX«ipcoc, yvoXoi', Cadeoci ft^pcnrec* airei^raro. Quote instances 
of the use of any of them in Homer. 

Translate closely the following passages, and explain any 
peculiarities in the construction. 

4. V. 406. yytifia 8* olg /iiy aiaxipoQ oX- 

5. V. 437. Kol yap oyeipaai trvyfiainy 

otcocc iroXec t€ icurf^" 
f Ttpwymy vfiv«r diroXov* 
CIV, Kotrdy yppiv oX^. 

6. V. 864. r/c ov oJf roi' ay ^ 6coc i| /Sporoc, q 

n r«7v aSonirwy 

SvoiF Vo«F fwyoiy 'Arpcti^aly ^m 
rcuniiv crXvffiv ; 

7. V. 901 . ravr ip Ik a'lcraic Kavda^ ^yyekiK /"irc/c. 

8. V. 235. ovV av ^Oavocc ov cvr/Kn/ woiWftiyfi ; 
Heraclid. 721 . ^mmc 2' ov ovk ay roiate avyxpiinwy 2e/ui^. 

9. V. 1 171. tSoBa yvy a/ioc yevioBt* ; 

742. ciXX* olff^^ o Spa^w ; 
Hecub. 225. oTo^ ovi^ o Spa^ov ; 

XV. 1. V. 54. TifAw vSpaiyoy avroy Wc Bayovfuyoy, al. vj^Mtf- 
yt<i/ — Why is this latter reading preferable ? 


* t. V. S1S5. cc yipvi^AQ r^iccU a^yu iwifairi aou 

al* iJc X^P^^fi^ ^^ '^ ^^y^ ii/hnfjuri croc* 
What reasons are assigned in favour of the former reading ? 
3. ▼. 808. iaiiaaff 'IfnroM|ic<ay, OM^ooy Kravtiy — 
What peculiarities are there in the metre of this line, and 
^ on what grounds are they admitted ? 

XVL V. 1063. ffdpucd 9 dfipoKOfMop 

iafvar r cvcpWa koX 
yXavfcac OoXAor Upoy iXal" 
oc, Aarovc wi^ya ^/Xay, 
XtfArav 9 iiKiffawaay vhttp 
Kvtcrtuty — 
1. Translate these Ibes. 

2« What placesy event and oircumstances are here alluded 

3. Can you refer to any description similar to this, from 
Euripides or any other Greek poet ? 



1. Translate the following passages, and explain the allusions 
contained in them : 

Uo\vtiyvfji€, KadfulaQ 
Nv/i^C ayaXfta, cal Acoc 
/3apv/3p€/i€ra ye^oc, 
jcXvrai' oc ci/i^Vecc 
'IraXtav, fu^eic H iray- 
Koivotc EXcvffiVf'ac 

Ai^C c'' m>Xirocc* 

• • * • 

•t 2* virep iiXo^v rirpa^ 


m-ipo^ oTtitTi Xiyyv^, fy- 
6a Kwpvnat ^tifi^i 

• • • • ' 

X^p^y currpkiVf vv\l^y * 

ipdeyfidTfov Mmeomj 

iroi Acoc yivtSkov^ 

wpo^vflOi Nci£<aic 

dfia TTcptiroXotcrc (rat* * 

<riv, at at fiaiyofuyai Trdyyvxpt 

XPp€vov<n roy Tafilay^laicxpy* 

Soph. Antig. 1102 — 59. 
Dicam ego maternos JEtnado fulmine partus, 

Indica Nysaeis arma fugata choris : 
Vesanumque nova nequicquam ip vite Lycurgnm, 
Pentheos in triplices fonera grata greges : ' • 
Curvaque Tyrrhenos Delpbinum corpora nautaa 

In vada pampinea desiluisse rate. ProperL iii. 1 7 — 2 1 . 

2. Distinguish the character, attributes, and history of Bacchus, 
as he is represented in the popular and in the Mystic Mythology. 
What allusions to the latter occur in this play ? What notice does 
Homer take of the fable of Bacchus? 

3. (a) By what names was Bacchus distinguished in the Cretan, 
Thracian, and Eleusinian mysteries ? Explain the epithets Elfw 
^iwTriQ, ^Xtfay, Aev^p/nyc, AccWnyc, Alyofiopoc, 'O/xifffnyc* 

(6) On what occasion in Grecian history are human victims 
said to have been offered to Bacchus ? What was the probable 
origin of this rite ? 

(c) By what eminent persons was the name of Aiorv^oc 
assumed ? 

4. Explain Virgil's invocation 

O clarissima mundi 
Lumina, labentem coelo quae ducitis annum, 
Liber et alma Ceres. 
And shew how it is to be reconciled with the Egyptian doctrine 
(Herod, ii. 123) apxtfyirviuy rCiv Korta Wywnioi \iyovai Aiy^iyrjpa 
Koi ^loyvffoy. 


5. (a) " Cererem cum Rhea confundere solet Euripides." ElmsL 
Is Eurii»de8 singular in this identification 1 Point out the most 
prominent circumstances of resemblance in the mythology of these 
deities. . 

{h) What Grecian rites did those of the Bona Dea resemble ? 
Why did the Greeks call her rtir ^wwvecv fiirripiay r^y a^riroy. 
(Plutarch Caesar, c. ix.) 

(c) Deduce from their etymologies the meaning of the words, 
Ceritus, Larvatus, Lymphatns, Fanadcus. 

6. (a) Enumerate and describe the mythological persons who 
compose the train of Bacchus ? 

(6) Translate and explain the following passage. (Plato Conviv. 
p> 221./ 

doc ovToal ykyoyt n}y drowiay arOpcinroc* ^^ ai/roc tiol ol \6yoi 
«vr«V| 0v^ iyyvc &y tvpoi rig ^VfrAyy ovre rwv yvv ovrc rwy iraXacwK, 
tl fiij a(KL dc eya» Xiyi^ OTCcieo^ot rcc adriv, dyBfMiirvy fur /if|deW| nocc 
2e SeiXifi^oic koI SarvpcNc* avrov cai rwg Xoyovc* on jca2 oi Xiyoi 
(orrov ofiommroi iitn roic 2£iXi7»tuc rocc ^ioiyofiiyoic, 

(c) How do the Sileni differ from the Satyri? Is the epithet 
Capripedes, applied to the latter by Horace and Lucretius, justified 
by the usage o£ the «arly Greek poets and artists ? Support your 
<^union by reasons and authorities. 

7. (a) What proofs do we possess of the existence of a rpayy^ca 
and KttfifHa in Greece, independent of the Attic stage ? 

[b) Mention the diilferent derivations of the word rpayfdla, 
and explain the objections to wkych Bentley's is liable. 

' (c) What is the meaning of fiotikdnis hBvpafi^ in Pindar ? 
M^at was the prize in the Dithyrambic contests ? 

((Q In what. sense might Arion be said rpayucov rpowov evpenyc 

(e) Explain the words dpfxpfuyuy rHy irepl Oiairiy Ij^ri n}F 
T^tay^iay KiyCiy (Plutarch Sol. xxix.) State the principal objections 
to Bentley's assertion, that all the plays of Thespis were ludicrous, 
and that none of them were committed to writing. 

8. Translate and explain the following passage : ( Aristot Poet. 

Ka) Toy yopoy It iva lii viroXa/9ciy r^y vieoKpir^yf kqI fwptoy tlvtu 
Tov Aovy xai ovraykiylitvdaif fitf fScirep wap* Evpcir/^]}, aXX' vcirep wapd 


lofoxKu. Shew that these words do not at all countenanee the as- 
sertion, that the chorus was originally performed by one penon, and 
point out the inconsistency of this supposition with the original sig* 
nification of the word x^^9 ^^ <uialogy, and with the early hiafeory 
of the Attic drama. 

9. (a) Mention the most material points in which the construction 
of a Greek, and that of a Roman theatre differed* 

(6) Distinguish between opxiorpa and orchestra, wpaKoyoc and 
prologus, ii/oStoy and exodium. 

(c) What is meant by protasis and persona protatica on the 
Roman stage ? What instances of the latter occur in Euripides ? 

10. (a) Explain the cause of the Doric dialect being used in the 
choruses of the Attic drama, and produce some parallel inatanoea. 

(6) How did the Doric dialect of the tragedians differ from 
that of Pindar 7 Quote aome forms peculiar to the latter. In what 
sense is he said to have used Kounf SfoXecroc ? 

11. What are the characters attributed by the ancienta to the 
following apfwylai : — (a) ij ^impiarl, (h) li la^rt, (c) ij AloKtarlf {d) 

1 2. Name the metre of the following lines : 

(a) ovr^ylfay rpccnipi&tfi', (jb) rtKtvrtimy iy oXfift (c) SXfi^ ad 
hfya/uivapriXBtyt {d] wyrdyy hpo^niiMa Kvymv^ («)<V Mmi^y ^foaimy* 

(/) Give a scheme and a specimen of the Catullian Galliambic 
How does it differ from the Saturnian of Nsevius t 

(g) How do you account for the quantity of the long syllable 
in KepaTM ? 

1 3. (a) Who are the Kovpifrec of Homer ? In what sense does he 
use the word as an epithet ? 

(6) What derivations of the word were given by the ancients ? 
How did they connect the national name with the epithet ? 

(c) To what class in the Roman priesthood have they been 
compared ? What is meant by hrtxtifHoy *Pm/uui/o(c coi wdwu rlfmr 
6 Kovpifrcff/ioc ? (Dionys. Ant. ii. 71.) 

14. (a) Quote instances from the Tragedians in which 'Aeia is an 

(6) To what part of the continent was the word originally 
applied ? In what senses is it used by Euripides t 


(e) Mention the two derivations which have been given of it, 
and the reasons or authority on which they rest. 

15. (a) Transkte 

'Off/a, Ttorya Bt^v, 
oiria ^, cE Kara ydr 
ypvaiav irripivya ^p€ic* 
Point out the objections to Elmsley's reading and interpretation. 
(6) Deduce from the original meaning of j^ioc the senses in 
which it is equivalent to <2ycoc and to /3c/3i|\oc* Explain the phrases 
o^ac evcjcoi and voiUJ^uv ^oXXifv ovlav wpdyfiaTOQ. 

(c) What is the meaning of the substantive irorvra ? What is 
the peculiarity of the adjective ? 

16. (a) Transkte 

miTpiovc iropaSoxoCf dfc ff o/ii|Xi<ac XP^^f 
KtKtiifufff ov2eic avrd iraro/SaXei Xoyoct 
ov^ el hi axpwv to ao^iv €{l/>i|rai ^eywv. 
Explain the construction of this passage. 

{h) What is the mood and tense of tvfnrrait Why might not 
fiv be used here instead of tl ? 

(c) What is Hermann's distinction between irarpcoci varp^, 


1 7. (a) Translate 

ov /jai BeXiitrei diiXvv iy^vvm ffroXijv* 
What difference does Elmsley lay down between ov fjLti with the 
future indicative and the subjunctive ? Explain how far and why it 
is correct. 

(b) Explain the difference between ^^ouca fii^ BiktiQ and hiiouca 
fui OcX^c '• between fxi^ BtXuv and /xij ov OcXmk : between wply wouiyt 
wfAy woifjvaif and vpiy TtwiMiiciyai, 

18. Translate 

ei6c iracc ifWC 
evOifpoc €417, ftifrpoc c2araff0e2c rporocci 
or* ffv vcaWoiOi OrifialotQ dfui 
Biiptiy SpiyyfT, 
In what cases is Jrav joined with an optative ? Why would it be 
misplaced here ? 


19. Translate accurately and explain the peculiaritiea of con- 
struction that occur in the following passages : 
(a) Ifff i Bdcxei Biipaypirq, BaK^O'' 

irpooiavf ircf>(/3aXc fiftaypv IfcX dardai' 
fioy aycXay ircoovra rdv NLaiva^y, 

(6) ov /Ai| wpoffolveif X^M^9 fiaK}(evv€iQ ^ Iwv, 
firi^ ifpfjiopi/ei fjuapiay njy tnjy ifwi ; 

(c) r^c evffc/Se/act i i/Ey\ ovk al^ 6covci 
Kdi^fwy T€ roy airelpayra yfiyevi} ord^vy, 
*R\loy&i S* iy vaitf Karaier)(yy€iy yiyoQ ; 

(d) |y{avv xeXc^c wKVTrfr ov^ V^ffoye^ 
iro^y i\ovtnUf irvvroyoi^ ipoft^fiaunv, 

(e) kvkKouto ^f ia9T€ rd^y, rj miproc TpoxoCt 
Topyf ypa^fjLeyog TCpc^opdv, eXjcp ^pofioy. 





JESUS COLL. 1824. 

1. What appears to have been the doctrine of a future state in 
the time of Homer ? (State this fully). 

2, What is the peculiar excellence of Homer, and what the chief 
advantages to be derived from his works ? 

S. What characteristic features distinguished the Greeks, as 
described by Homer* from the Teutonic nations, when in the same 
rude state of society ? 

4. State what you know of the^a^e of Homer's poems* 

5. What is the probable date of the Trojan War, and of 
Homer's birth; and what the corresponding period in Scripture 

6. What is the dlgamma, and whence arises the importance 
attached to it by critics on Homer ? 

7* ^fjiiyQev. What is the origin of this name of Apollo? 

8. arc/ioCf drifda, ri^ij, rcftoy. State the two distinct classes of 
the senses of these words in Homer, and shew how they may both 
be derived from the meaning of the root. 

9. Give the site of Homer's Olympus, and the probable causes why 
it occupies so distinguished a place in his Mythological scenery. 

10. afjL^ffuu, Trace the origin, and mention the two distinct 
applications of the word found in Homer. 

1 1 • Mention the peculiarities which distinguish Homer's Mytho- 
logy from later systems. 

IS. Does internal evidence lead ui to assign his machinery chiefly 
to invention, or to a legendary source ? 

C C 




I. A. S7. St Xpvativ dfi^fH^Kac 

KlXXay re ^adci^v, Tevi^oto re T^i dydirtniCt 

1 . Explain the situation of these places with respect to Troy. 

2. Explain the name ZfuvBivc — also 'EiccUpyoc. ' 

3. What particulars does Homer relate of the way in which 
Chryseis and Briseis fell into the hands of the Greeks? From 
what towns were they ? 

II. A. 247. Arpc/^Y^c ^ iripiadty ifiifyU'- 
B. 769. o^* 'Aj(iXcvc fitfyUy^ 

B. 1 49. iirl T lifivei dcrrajfyiaaiy'^ 

A. 100. rore xiv fiiy iXaa^fieyoi irtrrlBoifjLty, 
386. KtKofiTfy deoy iXatyKiffBai, 

1. Give some explanation of these variations in quantity. 
S. Explain how the syllables which are marked in the lines 
below are made long : 

A.' 193. €tat 6 Tav& dtpfiaiye Kord ^cva Koi cara dvfwr. 
416. ovTi fidXd itjy. 515, iwei ov rot ivi ^coc— ' 
342. ri yap 6y oXorjat i^url dvEi, 

B. 113. "IXxoy ixiTEptrayT evTii^ioy dwoyiioBat. 

3. Explain the metre of the following lines : 

B. 651. Mfipiovrit T drdXayroc 'EwaX/y dyBpet/^yry, 
731, TiSy aSff ifyiloBriy 'AvKKrifrtov dvo ira7&. 

4. In each of the following cases state whether you approve or dis- 
approve of the addition of the final v^ and give your reasons. 

A. 2. 'ttXyc' iSriKey IIoXXoc 8 * 

333. avrup o tyyut ^nv iyl <^ivl» ^ytiviy rci 


B. 67 1. Ncpcvc o,v jSvfirfiev ayey rpeiQ yijac i'ltrciQ, 
786. Tpbtalv h* ayycXoc jX6g 

III. I. Construe each of the following passages, and notice any 
peculiarities in the construction : 

A'. 29. rrjy ^ iyta ov \vawt ^piy fuv Kal yrjpa^ ivciffiv^ 
65. ai JccV ww^ dpvtiy KviamfQ alyQv rt reXf/wv. 
PovXirai, dyridaag iffiiv dxo Xocyov djivvau 

1 70. oihi, a <Ji«, 

irOd^ arifwt cwv cu^vog ical wXovroy a^v£e<v. 
' 36d. tva eiSofuy ufM^» 
1 42« it ^* iperiic imrti^ic dyelpofuy^ 
566. fuj yv roA ov ypaltriiMtnv Stroi Geo/ civ' cv ^OXifinf, . 
itrvov tot'O*! ore kIv toi ddirrovg X^H^^ i<^elu. 
B. 290. oXXiyXoiffcv d^vpoyrai olKovht ruoBai. 

643. r^ r eirl irdrr iriTaKro dvdaoifuv AlTuikoiai, 
720. roi/uv e2 cc&)rec I^c fjui\£a6ai, 
i, A. 216. xpif /tfV irfaurtpQy ye, Oca, ciroc clpv^affOac. 
485. t^a /iiv oiye lukaivav cV ijirtlpoio ipvaaav. 
Explain the meaning, deriTation, and metrical quantity of 
wLpnoaaBai and ipvaaay, respectively. 

d. Do you write c2 yaiofuvor, tv Ktlfitvov, or eiratofuvovp 
ivKrlfuvovl and why? 

4. Explain the grammatical formation, derivation, and meaning 
of the following words : 

Hkitiv, KtxpLpoiaro, rtraywr, KaKKeiovrtgt ^vviov and tvvuv, 
dwmfpag, iXffai ('Axo/ovc)) iv^d tVe^pwcravro, voXvKKififfi, ^p^rai, 
circvifvoOc, ixiirtBiuVf iKiKatno, ifnaaaVf dtrtvavtraro, 

IV. 1. How is the article generally used in Homer ? Explain 
its use in each of the following passages : 

A. 106. fidwi kclkQv, oiwut ircri fioi to Kpviyvov elirac. 

aitl roc rd kok itrrl 0/Xa ippeoi fiamvetrBm. 
125. dSXd rd fiiy iroXiiav HjewftdBoiuv, rd iiiaorai. 
493. dkk' ore ^ri p eK rolo ^wSeKdrri ykver 'Hwc* 

B. 38. vr\fK%.og, ouhe rd y^ a pa Zcvc ftif^ero ipya. 
136. ai ^ vou lifAerepal r d\o\oi Kal vipria rixva 

Aar ivi luydpotg vonleyiuvai — 

5. What appears to have been the nature ofprcpositions originally ? 

cc 2 


Explain the use of the prepositions in each of the following pas- 
sages : 

A. 236. ovi' dyadfikrjffEi' irepl yap pa c ^^oXicoc iXe)!^ 

^vXXa Te ical ^Xoior' 
258. ol wtpl fiiv (iov\i)v AavaiJv, irepl ^ im fidxiEoBai. 
326. die tltrtaVf vpoteif Kpartpov T iirX fivdov ireXXt* 

579. firj veucel^ai iranjp, trvy ^ iffiiy 2aira rapdSig* 

309. ig 5* epirac ixpivey itlKoenv^ £c ^* iKarOfififiv 
jS^ffc dif* dvd ^ Xpvariiha KoXXiirdppoy 
-tltrey dytay' iy 5' dp^og t/3iy iroXv^iiyrcc *Ocvatrtvc* 

V. Explain the following expressions in the description of a 
sacrifice : ovXa^vrac dyiXoyro, ovXaxvrag wpofidKoyro, a5 cpvvar, 
iJfiodiTri<ray, What were the ir€^ir«j3o\«, and for what were they 

VI. A« 423. Zevc yap cc *QKeay6y fur dfivfioyag Aldior^at 

xBi(6g ififf Kara halra — 

1. In what senses is the word 'Qiceavoc used in Horner ? 

2. What appears to have heen his idea of the Ethiopians, and 
the place of their habitation ? 

VII. What is stated in the second book as to the number of 
men that each of the Greek ships carried ? Of about how many 
ships and men did the whole armament consist ? From what cause 
or by what influence were so large a number of chielhuns from 
various parts brought to join in the expedition ? 

B. 505. ot ff *Yiro6i//3ac cl^ov. 

1 . Where was this place, and why thus called ? 

2. Why is not the name of Thebes itself mentioned, among the 
cities of Boeotia, in the catalogrue ? 

9. By what tribes was Boeotia at this time occupied, and what 
change in its inhabitants took place afterwards ? 

B. 5S5, AoKpQyy oi rcUovvi fckp^y upiJQ £vj3o/]|c. 

4. What inference may be drawn from this line as to the country 
in which the. Iliad was composed ? 

5. B. 559. TlpvyOd re reixtoeway. Explain the propriety of 
this epithet. 

6. Grive a short history of the town of Mycense. 
B. 575. AlyiaiXoy r dyd wdyra, 

7. What part of Greece is here intended ! By what tribes 
it successively inhabited ? 


8. What was the country and parentage of Diomedes ? How 
did he obtain the government of Argos ? 

9. In what sense could Agamemnon be said "Apyc'i irayrl dydvauy ? 
Quote instances of the application of the name^Apyoc in Homer. 

10. What place is meant by to ncXaoycKoVApyoc (B. 681), and 
why is it so called ? 

11. B. 649. KptiTfiy iKorofiiroXiy, What account does Homer 
give elsewhere of Crete and its inhabitants ? 

12. B. 852. c{ "Eyeruiy. Where is this tribe placed by Homer ? 
What was their history afterwards ? 

B. 461. *Affl^ ly Xei^yi, Al. *Aalut. 

13. How is the latter reading to be construed and explained ? 

14. Where was the place here mentioned ? 

15. Whence was the name of the continent Asia derived? 

VIII. 1. State in what district each of the following places 
was situated, and mention the circumstances for which any of 
them became afterwards celebrated : 

Platsea, Copse* Aulis, Coronea, Pytho, Dau1is» Pylus, 
Helos, Tegea, Mantinea, Amyclse, Eretria, Pherse, Miletus, 

2. B. 714. Evfirikoif roV wr' 'A^/iijr^ reicc ^a yvyaiKfSy' 

"AXjnifrrcC) UcX/oo Ovyarpuiy el^oc dplarrf* 
Mention the circumstances on account of which each of the 
persons named in these lines was more particularly celebrated. 
B. 743. . ore i^pat iritraro Xaxyjjeyrag, 

3. What is the contest here alluded to ? On what occasion and 
in what part of Greece did it take place ? 

4. Mention any circumstances in the Iliad, in which the des- 
cendants of one of the tribes engaged in this contest were dis- 

IX. 1 . Are the words "EXXi^vec and "fiXXac of frequent use in 
the Iliad ? In what senses are they used ? 

2. What are the general terms used by Homer for ' Greek ' and 
' Greece ' ? Explain the origin of any such terms that you recollect, 
and the reasons of their being adopted in this comprehensive sense. 

3. Is the distinction of Ionian, Dorian, and iEolian tribes, 
mentioned by Homer ? Give some account of the state and extent 
of each of these tribes at the time of the Trojan War. 


X. From the names and pedigrees of persons mentioned in the 
catalogue of Grecian leaders, calculate how many generations had 
passed since each of the following events : 

1. The Argonautic expedition ; 

S. The War under the seven Chiefs against Thebes ; 
S. The contest between the Lapithee and Centaars ; 

4. The arrival of Pelops in Greece ; 

5. The Hunt of the Calydonian Boar. 

XI. 1. Investigate from internal evidence and histoijcal tes- 
timony, the date to which the composition of the Iliad is probably 
to be assigned. 

S. Shew from the Iliad, especially from these two Books, what 
state and form of government Homer appears to describe as existing 
in Greece. 

XII. 1. In how many dialects did Homer write? What is 
your idea of the language which he used, and of its subsequent 
history ? 

S. What is meant by the Digamma ? Mention one or two words 
of common occurrence to which it has been prefixed, and quote 

XIII. 1 . What is the earliest mention of writing in history, 
sacred or profane, and at what date is it ? 

2. What are the first prose writings in Greek of which we read, 
and how long afler the age of Homer were they written ? 

3. What different materials are mentioned as having been used 
for writing upon in Greece, in early times ? 

4. What does Homer himself say about writing, and the instm- 
ments and materials for it in his time ? 

5. Is it your opinion that his poems were originally written or 

6. If not, when were they probably first committed to writing? 

7. Mention any circumstances which shew that the poems of 
Homer were in general use and estimation through the various 
of Ancient History. 




1. Translate from the Ranae, 

AI2. *Op^vc fJtiy yap reXerdc ff iffuy KariSeti/E, (^ytav r dirt)(€odai, 

yiJQ ipyaffiatf Kopw^y iSpag^ dporavQ* 6 ii 6iioQ''OfArfpoe 
mo now n/iijy rai icXcoc ia^ty, irXifF rwff Sri ypiitn tlllaSji, 
rdUiCf dperaQf oirX/^cic dy^pHy ; 
AIO. KoX liriv ov Uayrai^a ye 

i^lhaifiy 6^i roy trKaioraroy' itpiaiiy yovy^ ^ylK itrtfiirey^ 
TO KpayoQ irpHroy inpihiffdfuyoQf roy \6<^y ijfuXK* iirt^ijany* 
(a) What ia known of Orpheus ? 

(fi) Express in one Greek compound the double profession of 

(y) What is meant by ^loOenyc "XPVf^^ ^ 
(i) Quote from Herodotus with respect to these oracles a 
memorable instance of fraudulent interpolation, and of the penalty 
attached to it 

2. Translate accurately, and illustrate from Longinus, 

Movoc *Hf)d^oc '0/ii|pu:wroro£ iyiyero ; 'S^vlxopOQ en jrp6ripoy, 
o re *Ap^lXoxoQ' wdyrwy he rovriay fuLXitrra 6 IlXartir, airo rov 'O^ijpf 
Kou ixelyov ydfioroQ eie avroy fwpiac oirac waparpoirdt diro\€rev<rdfw 
Foc* Kcu A(r«i>c Vf^^ dwoheiieiay e^et, el p; rd cV ciSovc xal oi wepl 'A/i/iw- 
pwy eKXiiq.yrec aFeyf>ai|/av. "'Edrrt 3* ov KXomlj ro irpdy/ia, aXX' wc 
dv6 Kokuy liO^y rj xXatf/utmiv, if itifAumpytifuirmy dirorvirfaing. Kal ovh' 
ay itraxfidffai fwi BoKil rriXucavrd rira rols rtJQ ^cXo^o^^ac ^dyfia^i^ 
Mil cic iroif^riicac vXac iroXXaxov ovve/i/S^vai Koi ^patreic, ei fiij irepl 
irpkneiuy ytj A/a iraKri BvfAf tcpoQ^Oiirfpoy^ «C avraywyiarijc yioQirpSc 
ifhri reBavfiaofUyoyf iffwQ fiey i^iKoyeucorepoyf roi oioyel hiahopaniofuroQf 
owe dyw^X^i ^ Sfi^f hiripitrrevero, 

' ctyoOij (yap icara roy 'HoloBoy) epiQ rj^t fipwolvi. 
Kol rf ovri JcaXoc oSroe ical diioyiKoraroQ evKXeiag dywy re koI trre6a- 
yoQf^iy f Kat ro ^rrdadai rwv Trpoyeveerepwy ovk aSoioy, 


S, dfii^ ^ iZofUriat yipapiaTepo^ {ev 'O^vtrocvc* iii. 211. 
Point out the peculiarity, and give instances of a similar syntax. 

4. <pairiQ K€v (oKorSy rira ififuvai, cuf^yd ff avritic- 220. 
Translate, and explain the adverb. 

5. (c^ Tia fuy dp* aypoppoi irporl "iXtoy dwoyioyro, 515, 
(fi) fi ievpo fiiy etroyro yieav M iroyrovopoitn, 240. 
(y) ^/Xf Kavlyytfrti ddyaroy tni toi opKi era/ivov. 

Point out and explain the metrical difficulties contained in these lines. 
ۥ Translate, 

(a) 01 f exec ovy tKartpBty ifiCkov diopiixBritray, 540. 
(/3) ^Arpellris de ipva<rdfieyot {«^c d^yyvporiXov, 

irXijiiy dyatrypiuyo^ KopvSoQ fdKoy' dft/fii d* dp avrif 
rptyBd rt xai rerpa^Od harpvfiy einreoc \etp6c» 561 — 3. 

7. "H^Diy 8* ovK exa^e <mido£ xp\oy, iv. 24. 
Translate, and explain the syntax. 

8. Toy y riniifiiT eiretra ^owttic irorwa "Hpij" 

^ Toi ifidi Tptit fuy iroXi) iptXraral eitri iroXifec, 
"ApyoQ r€, ^dprrj re, koI evpvdyvta Mvicifvi^. 50 — 2. 
(a) Quote from the iEneid in illustration of this passage. 
03) How do you account for the fact, that in the remaining 
plays of iEschylus, no mention occurs of Mycenae ? 

9. Zevc» o(TT dydpiavrtay ra/i/fjc iroXifMouf rervrroi. 84. 

To what nation, according to Herodotus, was the worship of Jupiter 
Irpdrioc confined ? 

1 0. wdtn ^€ Kc Tpbieffffc x^''' "^^^ kvBoq apoio* 95. 
Translate, and give instances of similar peculiarities of syntax. 

H. 'AiroXXwri Avicrfyiyii. 101. 

(a) Explain this epithet. 

09) What is meant by the 'AtroXKuy AvVecoc of the Tragedians ? 
12. Give the origin, meaning, and the formation of the following 
words : wapfidfipXtaKe, Idfuvpoc, reOijrwc, ^avrpoy, irapa/3Xi}^iyy. 

15. To what dialects are the following Homeric forms to be 
referred respectively? ihpuiy oirarpoc, oV^'> "i^fuy, rtrpdfarat^ 

To be translated into English Prose : 

wc dp* E^ov* n^/o/ioc ^ 'EXiyriy tKoKitraaTO ^v^* 

hafjp air IfMO^iffKE ifvvaiiriJoc, " vor etiy ye. iii. 161 — SO. 


To be translated into English Prose : 

ovdi otdiy, MmXac, deal fjuxKoptg XtXadorro 

avrlica ^ e^eey aifjut iceXaii'e^c <{ thtik^C iv. 1 27 — 40. 
To be turned into Latin Hexameters : 

KvaVcoi, adxttriy t€ koI cyxc^i wiippucvlai. iv. 275 — 82. 
To be turned into Greek Hexameters : 

Nor was' his name unheard, or unador'd. 

In ancient Greece ; and in Ausonian land 

Men calPd him Mulciber; and how he feU 

From heaven, they fabled, thrown by angry Jove 

Sheer o*er the crystal battlements : from morn 

To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve, 

A summer's day ; and with the setting sun 

Dropt from the zenith like a falling star. 

On Lemnos the ^gean isle : thus they relate. 

Erring ; for he with this rebellious rout 

Fell long before ; nor aught avail'd him now 

To have built in Heaven high towers ; nor did he 'scape 

By aU his engines, but was headlong sent 

With his industrious crew to build in Hell. 


JESUS COLL. 1824. 

1 . What internal evidence marks the native country of Homer ? 

2. Mention grammatical inaccuracies in regimen, in corutruciiang 
and in farm of words, which mark the rude state of language in 
Homer's time. 

3. avrap oi Upolrog Ktucd fxiitraro BvfAf' 
Zevc yap 01 VTTo omjirTp^ e^/ioaae* 

Tf ii yvyt) Upoirov m/iiyvaro' 


To whom does rf refer ? Give examples of this inartificial mode 
of reference, wliere the pronoun must be referred not to the nearer, 
but the more remote noun. 

4. C6nstrue and explain the idiom in this passage, 

• tinror yap oi drvCofuvw ircd/oio, 

o^^ iyi jiXafdivre fAVpuciyff dyKvXoy dpfia 

5. Construe 

*Qc apa ip4avii<ra£ dwifiri KopvdaioXoQ "Ecmip* 
a/i^2 de fiiv v^vpd rinrre koX av\€ya Hpfia KiXcuvovg 
avxpif f irvfidre Oiey dwl^ OfifciXptirerrfQ, 

6. TTopev r oyc enifAora \vypd 

ypdyifaQ ey irlyaKt irrvxr^ dvfUHpOopa iroXXct. 

Explain this fully. 

7. Illustrate the construction of Priam's house, and shew in 
what the Oriental buildings differ from those of the heroic age» as 
described by Homer. 

8. Explain the words 

Kprfrrjpa fmitratrBai ikivdepoy, 
and mention similar allusions in other ancient writers. 


9. oifi trip ^vXhav yeyetj^ roiii^e Kal dy^pHv, 

^vXXa rd /lev r* aye/ioc xafidBi^ )^ec(, aXXa Se 0* vXfi 
rrfXeOowaa ^vw iapOQ ^ iirtyiyyerai tSpj^' 
tSi dyhpQy y eyerie if fiiy ^vec, ij h' diroXf^yei. 

"Eicropf drdpf tni fwi itrai vrarrjp xal Toryia fiiinip, 

rXavicy Kf)oW3i}c fl>piyaQ e^Xero Zevc* 

OQ irpOQ TvZtlhjiy ^lOfJiffita Ttvyt dfitt^^ 
y(pv9ta xa\K€iiay, ixarofjifioi iyyeafiolwy. 
Do you recollect any remarkably parallel passages in other ancient 
authors, or direct imitations in later authors ? 

10. Decline the pronouns, using the Homeric forms. 

1 1 . Explain the theory which accounts for the double form of 
the four tenses, from the more ancient and Homeric form of the 

12. State the distinct sense of the Aorist, and of the Perfect. 




I. 1. When did Homer live, according to Herodotus ? 2. What 
reasons are there for supposing the art of writing invented after 
Homer's time ? 3. Does aiiy passage from an ancient writer coun- 
tenance this supposition ? 4. State the evidence of Homer himself; 
explain ypatpat and ivtypdylKu^ Iliad vi. vii. 5^ What circumstances 
were favourable to the preservation of the poems^ supposing them 
unwritten ? 6. Describe the doi^ol from Homer, the pwj/^l from 
Plato. What does Pindar call these ? Explain his expression from 
the Pseudo-Homeric hymns, and from the name given to those 
poems by Thucydides. 7. What share had Lycurgus and Pisistratus 
in the preservation of the Iliad and Odyssey ? Explain the matter, 
supposing the poems unwritten. 8. Point out a passage of Herodo- 
tus, tending to shew that he considered the Iliad to have been about 
the time of Solon much the same as it was in his own time. 

II. Give instances of verses quoted from Homer by the ancients, 
but not extant in our copies ; one from the 8th Iliad* 

III. When, and by whom was the Iliad divided into 24 books ? 


How were the different parts quoted before such division 7 Give 
£lian*s account ; and an instance from Herodotus or Thucydides* 
Does it follow that the several parts were considered as distinct 
poems ? What do you conceive Bentley to have meant by calling 
the Iliad a sequel of tongs ? 

IV. What was the ^irucoc icvcXoc ? What were the subjects of 
the KvirjfMa ''Emi, '£r/<yoM)A, IXcac /m'^ 7 ' What does Herodotus 
say concerning the two first? What is meant by ciny or cirucdv 
wolfifia ? Distinguish eiroc> oTi\OQt fukoQ* 

V. What was the date of the Trojan war, according to Herodo- 
tus ? What is the common date, and its authors ? Upon what 
grounds did they reason ? 


VI. Who were the Tpwcci Avicioc, and AopSovoi, and their 
respective leaders? Into what states was Peloponnesus divided 
at the time of the Trojan war ? Into what, at the time of Thu- 
cydides ? What does Herodotus remark concerning the 'QtceayoQ 
of Homer ? 

VII. What are Homer's expressions for " the Greeks ?*' Which 
of them was usually appropriated by later writers to the invaders 
of Troy? Give Thucydides's disquisition concerning the words 
*'£XX]}v and ^dpfiapoQ^ and explain from Strabo the word ^apfia^to^ 
^yoi, applied to the Carians in Iliad ii. Shew from the same pas- 
sage of Thucydides, that the Greeks were not called Pelasgi at the 
time of the Trojan war, and from Herodotus, that the Pelasgic 
domination was much earlier. 

VIII . 1 . Give the history of the Greek Alphabet from Herodotus. 
Write the following words with the usual capital letters, according 
to the orthography in use at Athens, in the time of JEschylus. Oiit 
dwldapoy ey Tf iroKifi^ eV Alyly^ rov avrov cFiavrov. 2. Dionysius 
describes the figure of the Digamma thus ; tiv ^crrep ydfifia hrrm^ 
iwl ftiav opOfiy iwi(evyyvfj£voy raic irXaylaiQ, Paraphrase this, 
.dearly defining the irkayiai. Add his account of the sound of that 
letter ; explain it, and prove it correct, from other authorities. 
What is to be done with this quotation from Priscian ? F jEoUcmm 
digamma^ quod apud anttquissimca Latinorum eandem vim quam apmd 
JEoles hahuit O. 3. Explain the use of the Digamma, and give 
instances from the passages quoted in this paper. 

IX. Is there any real absurdity in sending the commander-in- 
chief on the errand in Book vi. 7 Why does Ajax (Book vii.) desire 
the Greeks to pray in silence, tya /iij Tpuig ye wvBiayrai ? Why did 
the Greeks never think of fortifying their camp till the 1 0th year 
of the war ? 

X. Ovrot M (Homer and Hesiod) tltri oi woiiitrayret dioyovhfy 
"EXKritri, ical rolai dediai roc eruyvfilas ^yrcc» Koi TifJUiQ rt ical riyfyn^ 
^tcXoWec, KOLL ciSea avrdy difiijyayrec.^Herodotus, Translate this, 
and state distinctly what is meant by voaftrcu Oeoyoyitiy. Point out 
two meanings of the word rifidef and support your interpretatkm 
by some instance. 2. Is the opinion of Herodotus probable ? S. Shew 
a prima facie objection to the Greek mythology being imported 
fVom Egypt. 


XI. What 18 your notion of Homer's dialect? What were the 
three grand divisions of the Greeks, as to origin and dialect ? State 
in general terms in what parts of Greece and its colonies each dialect 
was spoken ? From which dialect was the Latin derived ? Point 
out some traces of its origin. What was the rocvi} diaXcrroc ? When 
the grammarians quote Homer as one of the iraXaioi Arrcicoi, how is 
the expression to he reconciled to the prohable fact t 

XII. Translate the following passages into literal English : 

KTtlva^ Ifjiov aydpa, y^aptiri ^ i^piva ^ifrrip* vi. 466^-81. 
H pOf Kal dfiTTtir.aXiay irpoin lo\v)^9Kiov eyxoci 

• •••••• 

juatrov tKOju^Xiov' irepi^\fiaty ^ apa p^aAjcoc. vii. 244— 67* 
£i<ro/ia() €1 ICC fi 6 TvBelhrfc Kparepo^ Aco^iy^iyc 

• • • • • • . 

WQ vvviifiipri ij^e Kaxov ^pti * ^ytlonnv, viii. 552 — 41. 

XI IL 1. Translate the following scholion to the passage last 
quoted ; 17 ^iirX^, ori rj TOVTOvt ^ec rove rpecc tnlymtq fiiveir, olc to 
dyrlffiyfAa iraparetrac, ^ rove c£4c rpccc, oTc a^ ariyfiai iropcucciKrac* 
€(c yc^ Tfjy avniv yeypafifUyoi eitrl ^idyoiay. iytplyti % /ioXXov o 
^ApiffTOpxpt rove ^cvTcpowc— ^ ^^ ZiyfoSoroc rove wpiarovc rpuc oiBc 
iypa^y. Make out from this what Aristarchus and Zenodotus 
actually had in their respective texts: and explain the terms 
irapdZoffitt 6 Biatrrevoffn/C) oi \iapi}^oyT€Qi as used in the Venetian 

2« vi. 148. ^vXXa rd yiv r Avefwc xafidhc X^'^*> aXXa ht ff ifXti 
nyXfOdwffa ^vct, capoc ^ iwiylyyerai iSI|pi|. 

Schol. 149. * kpiOTO^yrii ypa^ti TriKeBwayray koX hrl r^y i^iiXkuy 
cuoovec, Kal to tSpif fierd rov i ypd^u Kara loniajy, 150, ^vyarai fiiy 
Kal apdpa elvai* ifietyoy de trvyhltrfiOVQ avrovc iK^i\eirOai^ 

Translate these scholia, and make out the text used by the writer 
or writers. Your reasons for approving or rejecting the reading 
ipp. Supposing TriKtdoiayra a mere conjecture, what difficulty did 
Aristophanes propose to remove by it, and what else must he have 
altered, in order to complete the correction ? 


S. vi. 936. eOfXoK f axci irf>orpaireo6<u. What is the prohable 
meaning of irporpaire<r^i here, and in II. v. vporpeirovro /icXairaMv 

4. vi. 349. CTTcl radc y' J^c Oeol icam riKfAiipayro. Derive reicfuxj- 
piixOai, and deduce its meaning here from the primitive meaning of 
its root. 

5. vi. 490. rd iravr^c <f>y<i rcl/ic^c. Others read ir* avrjc* Is 
this necessary ? What does ir* stand for ? Give a similar instance. 

6. vii. S40. ^i}iy /ie^Tco^cu "Aprii Explain fuXinaBai, and quote 
a line where /ioXtti} is used in much the same sense. 

7. vii. 271. fiKwl/e ^i oi ^CKa yovvaff^ What does )3Xa^c mean 
here ? Give an instance. 

8. vii. 30. aeXirovrcc ooov cTvai. Correct the first word, and 
support your reading from Herodotus, and from analogy. 

9. viii. 185. ISdvdi re, koi <rv Uo^opye, koI Kidwv, Adfim re die, 

yvy fioi Tijy i:o/ii2i}f ctirori verov, 

State the objections to this reading, and the correction proposed ; 
and point out the probable source of the corruption. 

10. viii. 513. Se nc rovrtay ye fiekog xal oLkoOi ireVcrp. Explain 
TcVffp, and give an instance. 

XIV. Translate the following lines into Greek hexameters : 
He look't and saw what numbers numberless 
The city gates out-pour*d» light-armed troops 
In coats of mail and military pride ; 
In mail their horses clad, yet fleet and strong, 
Prancing their riders bore, the flowV and choice 
Of many provinces, from bound to bound. 
He saw them in their forms of battle rang*d, 
How quick they wheePd, and flying behind them shot 
Sharp sleet of arrowy show*r against the face 
Of their pursuers, and o'ercame by flight. 

ST. John's coll. 399 


St. JOHN'S COLL. 1827. 

1 . What is the interval, according to the received chronology, be- 
tween the fall of Troy and the sera of Homer ? What arguments 
have been brought to prove that Homer lived nearer to the time of 
the Trojan War, and how near ? What are the grounds of your 
opinion respecting the country where he wrote? State distinctly 
what you suppose his writings to owe to Pisistratus or his family ? 

2. What account do you give of the language of Homer, and by 
what name do you designate it ? In what places was it spoken ? 
Translate : ykuairay Se ov n^v avrijy oSrot (scil. "iiaveg) vtvofjdKaeri^ 
oXXa rpoirovc rcVffcpac irafMiyaiycwy. Herod, h'b. 1. Did these 
varieties affect the structure of the language, or to what do you sup- 
pose them to relate ? Adduce proofs of the general resemblance 
between the dialects of Homer and Herodotus. In what particu- 
lars do they differ ? 

3. Draw a map of ancient Troas, shewing the courses of the 
Scamander and Simois, the situation of Troy, and the position of 
the Grecian camp. From what passages in the 11th Book do we 
learn any thing respecting the interior arrangement of the latter ? 
Point out the principal features of the ground between the city and 
the fleet, as they are alluded to by Homer. 

4. "Hvirc 6ea — 6pBi ^Axatoimy* 10.. What is the meaning of 
opdil Translate the following Scholiimi ad Aristoph. Acham. 16. 
'O hi "Oftdiog avXi^rucoc yofWQ, ovrai KoKovfuyoc hid to el vac ivroyoc 
kojL dydratny execv* Explain the term yofwg* What was the num- 
ber of the principal yofioi and their names ? On what occasion was 
the one called ofSiot chiefly used ? 

5. Translate : "Oray hi fftofiepdy oyf/iy eledyriy rmy re i^ufyfiiyriay ov 
rd KfHiriara diitnt, oXXa ruy yjjvfotihtiy rf d^ytav rd hwiK^optarara 
Xif^'crat, icac KorairvKyiaati rovroie rac ffvXXa)3ac* Olcc itrri ravrl, 

Tp S* cirt liiy Fopyw pKo9v^&in^ iffre^vt^o 

Affcvov htpKOfUyrif irepi hi /ikuftoc rt ^j3oc re. Dion. Hal. 


Can you cite any other instances from Homer, in which the sound 
of the verse is adapted to the sense ? Have other poets imitated 
him in this particular ? 

6. 'H a* Eiirep re {"^""[i /i^i^a frx^d6y. 116. Would an 

Attic writer make this construction T It has been proposed to read 
« for re ; would this be Homeric ? Is it necessary ? Of the two 
forms of the verb, which is the one in Homer and Hesiod, and by 
whom was the other used ? 

7. Ver. 310. " Neutra pluralia gaudent verbo singulari." How 
is this rule observed by Homer and the Attic writers respectively ? 
Specify some of the cases in which the latter put the verb in the 
plural. Confirm your answers by quotations. 

8. 'AXX' (a) io/i€v Kaff ofiiKov. 469. 
Ai^oToc* vefutnfroQy (6) o fte wpoiriKe. 648. 

(a) How does it appear that this and similar forms are real con- 
junctive forms ? What rule was generally observed in substitutii^ 
the short vowel for the long one, o for a», in these cases ? Is tofuv 
an instance, or an exception to the rule ? 

{b) With what restrictions is this idiom admitted in Attic Greek ? 
Do all Attic writers use it ? 

9. Translate the following passage : 

Oviceri, ^loytvee IlarpdicXccc, aXxap *A)^atitfK 

Keitrdaf 6 h* iv irthl^ Tpiatav juvii ojwy opiya. 822 — 55. 
N(<r vlari \iapf' Explain the principle, on which the last sylla- 
ble of iraari is made long. Does it hold in Attic prosody? What 

metrical figure have we in UriXriMeut 'Ax'X^c XP^tref drd tnai- 

nrpf and similar passages ? With what restriction is it used in 

'Irfrpol — Tov fiiv, jc. r. X. Schol. ^Itirpoi, avri nov, larpuy' *ppA| 
dvTi yeviKric, Is this correct ? What is the name given to this 
kind of construction ? Adduce instances similar to the above both 
from Greek and Latin authors. 

1 0. Translate the following into Greek Hexameters : 

so the Eagle, 

That bears the thunder of our grandsire Jove, 
With joy beholds his hardy youthful offspring 


Forsake the nest, to try his tender pinions 
In the wide untrack'd air ; till> holder grown, 
Now, like a whirlwind on a shepherd's fold 
•He darts precipitate and gripes the prey. 
Or» fixing on some dragon's scaly hide. 
Eager of combat and his future feast, 
' Bears him aloft reluctant, and in vain 
Wreathing his spiry tail. 



1. What evidence do the Iliad and Odyssey furnish, 
(a) As to the probable birth-place of Homer ? 
(j3) The time in which he lived ? 
(y) The countries he visited ? 
S, State briefly the principal points of distinction, which have 
given rise to the opinion, that the Odyssey is the production of a 
later age than the Iliad. 

S» What other works have been ascribed to Homer besides the 
Iliad and Odyssey ? What ground does Herodotus assign for re- 
jecting the opinion prevalent in his time, that the Kvwpia hrta were 
composed by Homer? 

4. (a) What degree of progress in the Arts and Sciences do the 
poems of Homer indicate ? 

(fi) oKe ^i ical irdtrav r^v -vvy ^okmKMMiv* (Athenaeus de 
lUustrate this assertion from the Iliad and Odyssey. 

5. Give a short account of the digamma, and explain the Ho« 
meric use of the article. 

6. "OfAtffioy ^e ^ nva ruv irponpav ytyofiirkty iroiffritav Boxiia rov" 

vofia evpoyra (^CUeayoy) le Tjjy volrimy itreyslicaaOau Herodotus, IL 

23. ovroi ^ eivi (Hesiod and Homer) oi noiiiirayret Seoyoyiriy "EXXf - 



fft, If. r. X. 01 ^c Tporepoy iroiriral \£y6fuvot roiiriftv Ttay dy^tSy yivi^ 
ffdcu, vtrrepoyf ifiol ye ioKeayf iykyoyro rovriay. Ibid. o3, 

(a) How do you reconcile these two passages ? 

(/?} What poets are supposed to be alluded to? Quote the 

(y) Interpret the expression oi iroirioayTeQ-Qtoyoyiriy* 

(2) Illustrate the Homeric *Qiceavoc* 

(e) How does Herodotus criticise it ? 

(0 Oive Strabo's interpretation of the rav^Kpayo^ 'Oicfavoc* 
Eurip. Orestes. 

7. IIpo yaf> rwv TptaucHy ov^ev ^aivfrai vporepoy Koiyy ipyaou" 
fUyij 17 "EXXac* ^okcI ^6 /loi, ov^c roiyofia tovto ^vfjifraad irta et^ty' 
ctXXa ro /mV irpo "EXXiyvoc tov AevKoX/cuvoc, m^ iraw ov^e elvai f; eir/- 
icXiy^iC avrrif Kara iByrj ^| oXXa re Koi to HeXaayucdy iirl irXcirrov, 
oV eovrwv nyv iiriayvfday irap€\€aBai, Thucyd. 

(a) Tr&nslate this passage. 

(fi) Where do the Pelasgi appear to have originated, and 
over what countries did they spread ? What remains were 
there of them in the time of Herodotus ? What, when 
Thucydides wrote his history ? How is their language 
characterised by both historians ? 

(y) Give in substance the testimony of Thucydides as to 
the historical accuracy of Homer. 

{I) Translate : oic "OfitfpoQ rovro dc2i|Xwico', ct Tf crcuvc twk^ 

8. Investigate the dialect of Homer. 

9. KkH^y yap jSeXoc dy^poc dyaXxi^c* xi. 390. Give Porson's 
interpretation of ico^Cy and shew how it bears upon a passage in 
the (Ed. Tyr. 

Kal firiy rd y cCXXa ma^ koX voXoT linf. 

10. li^poc yap dy^ip iroXXwr ayra^coc aXXwv 

love T iicrdfiyeiy, iwl r ^irta ^dpfituca Trdtrtniy, 514. 

(a) To what degree of proficiency does the practice of me« 

dicine seem to have attained in early Greece ? 
03) Give a remarkable instance of , the value attached to its 

professors in the time of Polycrates. Herod, iii. 
(y) Where was their principid school ? 
(S) Translate : ov irpoc larpov tro^v 

• BpTiytiy acfld^ npog rofiwyri inifnari. Soph. 


, iirl S* alyeioy Kvij Tvpoy, 638i 
(^0/if|poc) Ka\ Tfjy evra^ay^ cJc vyitivoy itni jccU 
'V, rov fTo^TOTOv 'Setrropa irnro/iyrc Ma)^aoi'i r^ 
-^s^ Toy 2e£coF iS/iov, vpotn^poyra dvoy^ rdic 0Xcy/L(ovaic 

ra, Kal rovroi' IXjOO/ivccovy of t^/iei' ira)^v Ka\ iroXvrpo- 

(reoic oicoc oXX* ifjul>opiimiftc evera. ir£ir«M3i$ri yovv xapcuce* 

£X(Sq roHTO vouiy, av fiiy, ^tialf KaByfievog irtve.) Kol cVi- 

)oy otyeiov, eirl 2e\ Kpofivoy trofrf o^v^ Xya trXewy ir/>^« kcU 

a^ov Xeywy, roy olyoy ixXiiety njy c^X"*'* '^'<*^ diroywiov*', 

iseus, Epit. lib. i. 

ranslate accuratelyi and quote the passages alluded to by oX- 


12. (a) Toi di, irXriyiic atoyrcc* 552. 
Give a similar use of *' audire" from the Georgics. 

(fi) Translate — ^ ir 3e icv^ifioy 

iJKt KaK^y ^ayamtn, /liruyda ii yd^ero hovp6^. 589^ 

(y) o'bc *^ itrru 647. 
How is this expressed by Soph. Ajax? Fill up the line 
j(iapwfJL£yf iyKoyHfity,' 
{S) Translate fivtri iXavyofuvo^, 678* 
18. (a) oi yap oi titrarro ^mxpiioy ilvai Spttrroi. xii. 108. 

kitraro yap vifiy eV* dpuntgd* 118. 
Distinguish accurately between the two verbs. 

Q3) dyiptiy i} It tcvyQy Hxarcu xokoavprdy ioyrcu 147. 
'Give the tense of Scxarai, the etymcdogy of KoXoffvproQf and iStie 
application of the word by Aristophanes. 

14. Tpw€s ^ t^lyritrav Sfriag ih>y aUkoy o^v. 208. 

(a) Explain the peculiarity of this verse. What denomina- 
tion has been given it by grammarians ? Athemeu8» Deip« 
nos. xiv. 
(/3) Instance such lines in Homer as are called by them — 
aKt^dKatotf Xayapol, 





I. 1. When did the Attic aera commence, and how long did 
it last ? 2. Translate the following inscription : d^' o5 "Oftripoc 6 

^oiriTiJQ e^ctn} ert} lllIIIAAAAlil, (^aaiKivorroQ *AdrivCiv ^loyyipw, 
3. What is the meaning of tlie word fiatrtkivovro^ in this 
place? 4. Considering the preceding inscription as authority, 
and supposing it to have been made at the end of the Attic aera, 
what date shaU we assign to Homer ? 5. How far wiU this agree 
with the date given by Herodotus ? 6. Strabo speaks of a personal 
conference between Homer and Lycurgus : is this compatible with 
the date deduced from the preceding inscription ? 7. What date 
does Cicero give to Homer? 8. What is the event nearest to his 
own times alluded to by Homer ? 

II. 1. Who were the frrix^hoil 2. Who were the ^xj/^U 
and what other names did* they bear ? 3. Give the derivation of 
the word payp^^oc 4. When and by whom were the Rhapsodists 
first allowed to sing at the Panathenaea ? 5» How did they grow 
into disrepute? 6. Who is the earliest Rhapsodist mentioned? 
7* What prize was given to the Rhapsodists, and what name did 
they derive from it ? 8. What is the meaning of pa\//^^c» as applied 
to the Sphinx by Sophocles ? 9. Why did Clisthenes, the tyrant of 
Sicyon, banish the Rhapsodists ? 

III. 1 . From what peculiarities of description should we con- 
clude that Homer was from the coast of Asia Minor ? 2. From 
what peculiarities in the sacrifices, and in language, has it been con- 
tended that he was an ^olian ? 3. What honours did the Chians 
and Argives pay to the memory of Homer 7 

IV. 1. What is the earliest known date of writing in Greece 1 
2» How far was the earliest Greek prose writer from the time of 
Homer ? 3. How do you account for the genealogy which Homer 
gives of the Muses ? 


4. Translate BvOa wod" dyyde 

tvvia TLifpiZaz Moi/0'ac Xeycvai 
^avOdv 'Apfioylav (f^vrevcrai, Eur. Med. 810. 
How is this difference to be accounted for ? 5. What poets are 
said to have sung fivBoi relative to Troy before Homer ? 6. What 
are we to think of Heyne's opinion of Homer's claim to being the 
author of the Iliad ? 7. Mention the titles of some of the poems 
that have been ascribed to Homer, with the names of the writers to 
whom they have afterwards been attributed ? 

V. 1 . Was Helen ever at Troy ? What is Herodotus's opinion^ 
and why does he doubt Homer*s being the author of the Kmrpla 
eirifl 2. What time appears from Homer (Lib. xxiv.) to have 
elapsed between Helen's arriving at Troy and the death of Hector ? 
What time, therefore, must Agamemnon have taken in collecting 
the Grecian forces 1 S. What authority is there from Homer for 
supposing that Paris and Helen went first to Phoenicia and Egypt ? 

VI. 1 . Enumerate some of the principal passages in the three 
last books of the Iliad which are censured by Plato ; and pro- 
duce some others which might be alleged . in opposition to hia 
argument. 2* What is Longinus's opinion of Homer's introduction 
of the gods in battle ? Translate the following passage : iroXv hi 
Tbty TTEpl •nljv Beofia'xlay dfitivta rd Saa d'xpavrov re ical fUya to 
iaifwyioyj cJc dXrfiiict Kol aKparov traplariifriv^ 

VII. Translate ro 'Ofiiipov imi npowaXai ^^v oi iraXaiolf SoXoik 
^€ il viro^Xije ycypo^c ^ayp^eltrdai. Explain c( viro/3oXf Ci and give 
the meaning of the whole passage. 

VIII. 1. What were the .first principal cV^otrccc of Homer? 
2. What was Ik ydpOtiKoc ? and that of Aristarchus ? S, Where and 
at what time did Aristarchus live ? 4. What did Plutarch think of 
the (nl\oi riBtTqiitvoi ? 

IX. 1 . Give the dates of the taking of Troy, and of the iBolic 
and Ionic migrations. Which of the following people — the Abantes, 
^olians, Boeotians, Dorians, Epeians, lonians, are mentioned by 
Homer? 3. Who were the "EXXiyvcc in Homer 1 4, What was the 
number of the forces brought against Troy, according to Thucy- 
dides? 5. How can we account for ten years being consumed in 
the siege i 


X. 1. What appear from Homer (Lib. xxiv.) to have been tbe 
bomidaries of the kingdom of Troy ? 2. How often, and by whom, 
had Troy been taken before the expedition of Agamemnon ? 
S* iBir. ii, 504. ** fiarbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi/' 

JE9. iL 190* •* Exitium 

Priami imperio Phrygibusque futurum." 

JEk, ill* 27. '' Anchora de pror^ jacitur." 
In these passages of Virgil how is he unfaithful to the times of 
Homer ? 4. What time is taken up in the Iliad ? Compare the 
iEneid and the Paradise Lost with it in this respect ? 5, What is 
the argument of the Iliad? 6. What is Aristotle's definition of 
Unity of Plot ? Is there any violation of the unity in continuing 
the Poem after Hector's death ? Would the same arguments apply 
to continuing the £neid after the death of Tumus ? 

XI. Translate ewei ice tiq 6Ui X^'^y 

rv>//oc* i|c /3aXfe)v peSewy ix dvfwy iXifrai, X« 67. 
ov fUy vi$tQ yyy early cbro Spuoc ovB* ctiro nirpri^ 
rf oapiiifityai^ are wapBiyos ijfiOeot rcp 
irapdiyos ifiOeoc r oaplZtroy aXkijXouriy* 11^6. 

XI I. "i^flQ iy Kopw^fiai woXwrTvxov, 214. 

1. Translate this: What was the name of the summit 

of Ida? 

2. Draw a map of the Troad ? 

XIIL 1. Distinguish between ^fjfAOQ and ^17/idci ^y and^ioK, 
^loyeyrjf and Stoyevifc) Ocui and Biuf^ iatn and e^tri, trlia and irTw. 

3. Give the quantity of the following words : Koyiii^ Koyia^ 

d^yog, afxiryvro. 
8* Scan the following line, and use the digamma where 
necessary : 
dypiov* irpSfrBey ^c aaKog trrepyoto KaXvyj/e. 313. 

4. cirec^i} royh* aydpa Oeol dafidvatrdai i^ufKay. 379. 
Translate the scholium : trtifinun-ioy ori qjcc^oXocc xpn'^^ 


XIV. 1. Translate and explain: 

if pa Tig Itrrl Kal ely 'At ^oo hoftoifn 
yffv^ii fcai tiiwkoy, drop ^piytg ovk eyt wdfiway, ^. 103. 

5. What is meant by yf/vxrjt ct^ti'Xov, and ^Vccl What were 
the opinions of the ancient Greeks on a future state ? 


3* — ctwvoiyflro /3/iyv 'Hf>aicXfj£ii|i', 

Ei^ufXoy* abroc ^ fier ddaydroun Oeoitrt 
rifyirerai. O^* A. 600. 

Explain this : what is meant by ovroc 1 

XV. 1. Translate BplQ^ hi wdvra viicvv Kanuiwoy. 135, 

2. "OOt rot rifuvoQ fiufiOQ re Oviycic. 148. 

Give the correct meaning of rifuyog^ lepoy, yaog, 

3. Translate 

iy yv9fni Zi rot (iriroc dpitrrepog iyxp^fJ^^n^t** 
iJc dyroi irXjifiyif yc hodvaerai UKpoy iKiadmi 
kvkXjov Koiffroio* 3SS* 

XVI. Translate 

(iW* St€ ^17 KXifflify UriKriidBeta d^Koyre 
vyfniXiiy n^y Mvp/ic^dvcc iroliiaay avajcri, 
hovp iKdrvjg Kiptrayreg' drdp Kadvirepdei ipc\fm.y 
Xa^vi^Eyr opwftoyf Xeifnayodey dfnicrayrfc O. 448. 




1 . What dates do you assign to the Trojan War ; the return of 
the Heraclidae ; the iBolic and Ionic migrations ; and the age of 
Homer ? Specify the authorities on which you rely. 

2. At what period do you place the introduction of alphabetic 
writing among the Greeks ? 

3. In what manner do you suppose Homer's Poems to have been 
originally preserved ? Give a description of the payf/^hoi. In what 
sense do you understand the following passage of Cicero 1 " Pisis- 
tratus primus Homeri libros, confusos antea, sic disposuisse dicitur, 
utnunc habemus." When did Pisistratus live? 

4. What internal marks have been alleged, as indicating the 
Odyssey to be the production of a later age than the Iliad? State 
the proofs of the genuineness of the two poems ; and explain the 


degree of fidelity with which you conceive them to have lieen pre^ 

5. Expbiin what is meant by Unity of Action in an Epic Poem ; 
and shew how it is exemplified in the Odyssey. 

6. Trace the progress of the various dialects of Ghreece. Explain 
the nature of the £olic digamme. What did Bentley conceive to 
be its proper pronunciation ? And by what authorities is his opini- 
on confirmed ? On what grounds is thi digamma introduced into 
Homer's Poems 1 

7. On what syllable of each foot does the metrical ictus fall m 
heroic verse ? and what effect has it on the quantity of that syllable? 

8. Translate the following passages into literal English : 

AvrUa li fjLytiernjpac iiff^tro laoOeos ^c* 

• • . . • • • 

'Av^poCf Tov icXeoc evpv icaff 'EXXd^a xal fiitFOp" Apyog* 

A. S«4 — *4. 
Mrfvipi fioi fxvri<rrfip€Q iiri^paoy ovk eOeXovo^ 

Nvv ^i ftoi dirpiiKTOvg o^vyag e/x/3aXXcrc dvfif. B. 50 — 79; 
In what verses would you introduce the digamma ? 
9. Translate and explain the following passage : 

oviiwore 6 dKOtnvg \p6voQ tov rjpwiKov tmyfJLijv ixi^j(erau 

SohoL Harleian. ad Odyss. B. 77. 


First Paper, 

A* Is a rude or a cultivated age most favourable to original poetic 
genius? Illustrate your opinion by reference to any ancient or 
modem nations. Translate kov^v yap yprjiia 9rocf;n{c eWc Koi nxifvor 
ical upoVf rac ov irporepoy oTog re irouiy rrplv ay ivO^og re yiyr/raA koI 
ixtppwy Kal 6 rovg firiKiri iv avrf -iyy* Plat. Ion. What does Plato 


mean by' calling the Rbapsodi of his time ip/jLriyiwv ipfirivti^r and 
what is the corresponding expression of Horace ? Shew from 
sentiments put into the mouth of the bards by Homer, and from 
epithets coupled with their name, from what source alone the poet 
was believed by himself and his contemporaries to derive his cre- 
• ative power. 

B* 1. What is the earliest mention of Homer, and what of ik^ 
Iliad and Odyssey, found in a classical author ? 3. Is there extant 
any such, attributed to a contemporary ? 3. What internal evidence 
have we .for determining the relative ages of Homer and Hesiod? 
4. If any poets preceded them, what would be the probable subjects 
of their lays? (Horat. A. P.) 5. Why did Phemius (Od. i.) choosea 
subject from the war of Troy ? 6. Do not some lines of Hesiod 
determine his own age with relation to the Trojan war T 7. What 
are the opinions respecting Homer's age expressed by Herodotus^ 
Thucydides, Cicero, Strabo, and Juvenal ? 8. What date is assigned 
by the author of the life of Homer attributed to Herodotus, and 
what are the reasons for doubting the genuineness of that treatise ? 
9. What can be gathered respecting his country, or the country 
where he composed, from his geography, his partialities, and other 
internal evidence ? 

C 1. On the hypothesis of the personal existence of Homer, 
what is the history of the preservation of his poems, and on what 
authority is it founded ? 2. On the contrary supposition, how and 
when were they first collected ? d. Translate 'H ^e pnropiicri ^poviiac'c 
iffri d]|irov irepl \6yov£* ^v iwi^elicvvrai wap* S\riy rrjy irolriiny *0^<r<rcv£, 
iy ry 3cairc/p9, iy rate Xcraic, iy ij frpc<r/3£/9.— Strab. What are 
i| ^uxireipa, al Xcral, ii ff-pc<r/3c/a ? 4. Who were designed by the 
name 'Payj/f^l at different periods from the Heroic age to the time 
of Plato ? 5. Shew from Plato (in lone), or from the history of 
the 'Pai/^^o^ the propriety of the term 'Yiroicpcral iirwy by which 
Hesychius explains 'Pat^Soi. 6. They were formerly called 'Apy^Soh 
Why ? ?• Did they use an accompaniment with their recitation ? 
(Plat. Ion.— Plutarch.) 8. Shew from Homer what was in Ait time 
the manner of life, office, and estimation of the Bard : on what 
occasions, with what accompaniments, and for what rewards he 
exercised his art. 9. Is there ^ny example of a similar order of 
persons in modern times ? ^ 


Z)« 1. Whence did the Greeks receive their Alphabet? 2. To 
what period do Wood and others fix the first faamlMir use of the 
alphabet in Gfeek» and on what grounds ? d. What are the earliest 
Grecian written documents of which we have historical evidence ? 
4. In what manner, and with what materiab, were they probably 
written? 5. Explain the manner of writing fiovarpo^/fifiov and 
taovifioy. 6. What celebrated inscription now in this country has 
its letters Kiovffi6v ? 7. Mention some of the occasions on which 
Homer would probably have made mention of writing, or some 
customs which would have been superseded by writing, if writing 
had been then known and practised. 

E, Translate : kMv ye iiriv rov Odvatria ovx ^P9C> *ii myroicuc 
av^ufiopais dvrirtxyf^f*€yoe dperf vui^n koI to hi iKtiyi^v ddpaoQ ; rovro 
avrf TO Ik Kipicris fiuiXvg tovto to iv 6aXarri| Kp^hefivoy^ rovro rmy 
HoXv^fuw \jupuiv rov ^vSpa cjayet, tovto e{ f 2ov avdyci, rovro lL ^ y rm!L 
trjQitLay^ tovto irtidti 'AXjc/vovv, tovto dyi')(erai j3aXXo»Ttf v fiyiitrnifMw, 
"ipov waXaloyTOif McXavOiov v^HoyroQ* tovto iKivrnpoi n|K imiaw^ 
Towro rifJuaptiTai ydfjtf, tovto ay^pa iroui Ztoytyii koI Oeocc ciiceXov, olor 
diwi HXdTwy clvoi Tdy tvhaifwya* 

1 • State very shortly firom Homer the course and duration of the 
wanderings of Ulysses, and the circumstance from which he derived 
his name* 2* Why is he called bolides in the £neid, and by 
whom ? S. Quote Virgil's account of what befel the Grecian chiefii 
on their return from Troy. 4. Strabo. Tavra ye xdyra 'O^wocl 
Tpo<ri}\lfiyf Sy rwv irdyTuy fidXiara dptr^ wdtrj^ KoetfitV oStos 6 xroXi* 
iropdoQ dd Xtyofuyoc •••••• Cic. Ep. Fam. ** Qui Antonium oppres* 

serit, is bellum confecerit. Ilaque Homerus non Ajacem^ nee 
"Achillem, sed Ulyssem appellat TrroXliropdoy.** Translate these 
passages. Is the assertion strictly true ? 5. What were the senrioes 
which entitled Ulysses to this distinction ? 6. Translate 'Byw hi 
frXioy iXtrofiai Aoyoy *Ohv<rffeos 17 iraOev, Aia Toy dhvew^ ytyt0& 
"Ofitipoy' 'Eirc^ \l/€vhi€(rtrly oi iroTayf iiayay^ ^fiyoy ivtffTl ri* oo^a 
he KXcirrei wcipdyoKra fivOoic* (Find. Nem.) ; and quote or give in 
substance any observations of Thucydides which convey a similar 

F, 1. OStoI (Homer and Hesiod) eltri oi troiif^aKrcc Oeoyoyiti^ 
"fiXXiyerc— Herod. ii. Is this true? How is it explained by Wesseling I 
What is Wolfs opinion ; and about what time does he conceive tiie 


word irociynjc to have assumed its more common signification? 
2. What traces are there in early Greek poetry^ or in history, of a 
purer religion in Greece previous to Homer? 3. Wherein did hia 
differ from that which prevailed in the time of Socrates ? 4. What 
seem to have heen the notions respecting Fate entertained by Homer 
(Od. i. &c.), Hesiod (Theog.), and iEschylus (Prom. Vinc.)^ 
5. What was the popular superstition respecting the Harpies, and 
their fabulous history ? (Hesiod.*- Virgil.) How are they distin- 
guished from the Furies ? (£sch. Eumen.) 

0, Translate : 

*AXX* 6 fUy AlOlorai furtKla6€ nfKid* ioprac, 
AWloiraQ, rol Bi^dd BeBcUarai itrx,aroi dvlp^yf 
01 fiiy ^vcofuvov vrnplovotf ol S* dvloyroc^ u M* 

1. What seems to have been Homer's opinion as to the position of 
the iEchiopians ? 2. How are they described by ^schylus (Prom. 
Vine.) ; and what is his 'vora^oq AiBloyf/l S, By what persons was 
Africa first circumnavigated (Herod, iv.) ; and what story did they 
tell, which, appearing incredible to him, confirms to us the justice 
of their pretensions. 4. Give other examples from Homer of the 
belief that the gods paid occasional visits to mortals. 5. How has 
this journey of Neptime been explained ? 6. Where is his return 
related, and what takes place in consequence of it ? 7« Whence did 
the Greeks learn the worship of Neptune, according to Herodotus ? 
Can this fact lead to any explanation of Neptune's journey ? 

H, 1 . trXitav '£c Tc/ieenyv fterci ^^aXjcoi^* aya» ^ aWwva crUripoy, 

Translate this. Where was Temese ? 2, What is the earliest 
extant notice of the use of metals, (a J for use in the arts of life, 
(bj as a medium of exchange ? 3. What metals were known to 
Homer, and by what epithets does he distinguish them ? 4. Which 
of them, according to Hesiod and Lucretius, was discovered first ? 
5. Shew what was the state of commerce in Homer's time, by 
examples taken from these poems? 6. To whom is the first 
coirutge of money attributed by Herodotus and others ? 

/• ^poyloio Noif/iOKa ^al^nAOv vlov 

^T€£ yija Boijy, ii. 386. 

1. On what occasion is Noemon again mentioned ? S. Can we 
gather from any passages in the Odyssey what was the size of the 
largest ships known to Homer? 3. What was their construction 


according to Thucydides, and what the average complement of one 
of them ? 4. Who, according to Pliny and Thucydides, first used 
two, and who three hanks of oars ? 

K, 1. Shew from these two Books what was the nature of the 
regal authority at the time they were composed. 2. Quote the 
sentence in which Thucydides describes it (Book i.). .3. How did 
it differ in peace and war, and how was it limited? 4. Was the 
title of Telemachus to succeed his father certain ? 5. What religious 
ground for rejecting it is hinted at by Nestor in the third book ? 

L, tncrfirrpov ii ol c^/3aXc X^H^ K.i{pv£ Heimirutp^ 

1. From what is incnTrrpov derived 1 2. How, and on what occa- 
sions, is it used by the chiefs in Homei ? S. To what other orders 
of persons is it also assigned? 4. What different classes of persons 
are denoted by KiipvxeQ in Homer ? 5. How does K^ffwcec differ 
from Kpetrfieig ? 6.. What was the symbol that protected them in 
war (Thucyd. i.) ? 7. Who were the Kifpviccc mentioned by Thu- 
cydides, Book viii. and what part do they take there ? 

Af* 'Omror ay ij/S^iny re, koX Sjc Ifuipcrtu au|c* i. 41. 

KvicXitfiroc KexpXjtfraif or w^OaXfiov aXdwfTtPf 
drrlOeoy UoXvfrifiov* u 69. 

'AXX* 6fJLO€rov firj fitirpl ^(kg rate fiudiitraaBai, 

irpiv y 07 ay ey^eicdrrf re dviadeKcirri re yiyrjfrcu^ 

ri avnjy rrodicrai^ ica2 dt^firfiiyrog ojcovircu. ii. 97S — 5. 

M-Tfrepa 3*, ci oi BvfWQ ifjiopfmrcu yayieaBau^ 

w\f \rta ig fuyapoy irarpog fuya Svyafiiyoio. 

oi ^e ydfioy revijovatf ical aprvyiovcriy eeBya, i. 275 — 7. 
' 1 . Translate these passages, and explain the grammatical peculi- 
arities in each. 2. With what moods are owore, al, cva, &c. found 
combined in Homer ? and what is the best explanation of the ano* 
malies that occur ? 3. Which of the two constructions, that in ii. 
374, or that in 375, is more Attic ? 4. Wha are ol in i. 277 ? 
5, Shew distinctly Troro the Iliad and Odyssey the proper meaning 
of edya. Has it ever any other in Homer, or in Pindar? 6. Trans- 
late dvdehyog and ie^yural (in the story of Othryoneus, II. xiii.) and 

*Ifcap/ov, lig K ai/roc iehnJercuro Bvyarpa, Od. ii. 53. 



N. KXriiarcu 2* ^ireirov o'avi^cc frvKinag dpapviai 

Place the proper accents on these words. Mark also and explain 
the reason of the accent of Ktipv^f at/Xod xoivt£; of .dxautfuv, cara- 

O. 1. What seems to have been the use of the digamma in 
Homer's time ? Give some examples of his inconsistency in its use. 
Mention any examples of it occurring in Ionic writers later than 
Homer, or in ancient inscriptions. How are we to reconcile Buuiirifuy 
aXXiiXoicri (Od. iv. 215), with ^Uini /loi, ofpa ^aeiia (II. x. 245), 
Correct, if necessary, these lines : 

^O yipoVf ov\ eicac oSrog drrjpf ^<^X^ ^ ft<reac avroc. ii^ 40. 
*Eq ^ i^irfiv irdvnav ice^oXa^, otrirovTO ^ oXtOpov* 152. 

P, Can you explain on any general principle the following and 
similar anomalies in Homeric prosody ? 

, 1 -V Qoo a \cvyauai. i. 250. 

) L o^o I ovvaixcvoio. 1.275. 

(i})fa»v. V. 368. *- '^ 

3. a long vowel made short before another vowel in the middle 
of the same word ; of which give examples. What is the length of 
V in Xviit (present tense)? inirop^v/Mii, irop^vptoQ^ and /ivcXoc in Homer 
and in the Tragedians ? Are there any restrictions on the elision 
of a final diphthong before a word beginning with a vowel? Can 
you give any example of the elision of the final i of the dative sin- 
gular in Homer ? What is the practice of the later poets in these 
two points ? 

Q. I. Shew by examples that no certain rule can be laid down 
for the use of the augment in Homer. 2. To what does Heyne 
attribute its first introduction ? 3. What reason is there for suppos- 
ing it, as well as the dual number, to have lieen unknown to the 
language in its earlier state ? 4. In verbs compounded with mpi 
what rule prevails as to the use of the augment, and for what obvious 
reason ? 

R. 1 . Explain the power of the prepositions in iirtix'^TO^ fureKlade^ 
7rci(f^fuyoi cV^cflTffi, and dvpviy ewifwae Kopwpy* 2. How are difUQ 
and opvic declined in Homer, and in Pindar 1 and tpwQ in Homer 
and Hesiod? and what is the Homeric form? 3. What part of 
speech is hvrt ? 4. Give an example of each of the two significa- 


tions of Wfoc. 5. What is the difierence between tlovtri and c&f- 
rai ? cVc Ovfjif /SaXXovtre, and eVi Ov/i^ fidXXoyrai ? efinopo^ in Homer 
and in Hesiod? between ofiomtt^ iwo^trai, and diropotnul 6. Is 
^gisthut properly called irarpo^vcvc ? 7. Is irp£/wF always a term 
of dignity ? 8. Derive and explain oXoo^pitiv, a<ri:cXcc» orpijpoc* cir/- 
arpo^o^i ipTvi^eiy, epavocy avoxaia, aX^i^ort/Ci ovtifiivo^, ipiffpoc^ vcoc, 
ayainiroci alxfirpii^. In what ways do the aix/i^l fight in Homer ? 
9. Illustrate the meaning of arpvyeroc by a similar metaphor in 
Eurip, Phoenissae ; of circa wrepoiyra ; of KapifKofio^yre^ from a simi- 
lar Latin epithet applied to a northern nation. 10. How is the 
game at which the suitors were playing explained in Athenaeus ? 
Is it mentioned by Sophocles or Euripides? 11. Cite passages to 
shew the meaning of ovtra, i^iifoj, icKifiwv, In what terms is ocrcra 
personified, once in the Iliad, and once in the Odyssey ? How does 
^ciXo^ differ from kXti^uv, and what theory has been suggested to 
explain the occupation of Achilles in II. ix. aeih ^ dpa K\ia dy^p^y. 

Second Paper 

Translate accurately into English Prose : 

1 . Oi ^ Bte ifi ^' iyrooBey itray ^fiov v^Xoco, 

nroi 6 i^fAl(iay dytfidKKjsro Koikoy delSeiy, i. 126 — 55, 
8. Ay i* ILpa iravra ^poyrecy ivtriXfif cVi yrfi 

iraywxifl fJtiy f3* ^ye koX i^w xeipe ixXtuQoy, ii. 416 — 84. 
Translate into Latin or English Verse : 
9* *K Se ^\oy riy^ aXXor iyl ^p^ai lupfn^pd^y' 

i^C TO jiiyi^triXE^eBf xal ovk cOeXoiw', vir' dvclyKi|c* ii. 9S— 1 10. 

Is there any reason for suspecting i. 1S3 — 5 ? Of what number 

'is Xira» i. IdO ? Correct the reading in ii. 428. From wliat do yoB 

derive i^iriCf vircp^^oXocy ^ocrpdc, ojcjfKiiTc ? Explain iovpodoKri (how 

is this incident imitated by VirgiK^) irtplfurpoyf fHrafi^yia^ tirpvivt*^ 


ii. 97 — 101. Quote the lines of Virgil in which the same female 

occupation is pathetically attended to. 

4. Translate either of the following passages into Greek Verse. 
Into Homeric Verse : 

The sceptre^d heralds call 
To council in the city gates : anon 
Grey-headed men and grave, with warriors mix'd 
Assemble, and harangues are heard, but soon 
In factious opposition, till at last 
Of middle age one rising, eminent 
In wise deport, spake much of right and wrong. 
Of justice, of religion, truth and peace. 
And judgment from above : him old and young 
Exploded, and had seized with violent hands. 
Had not a cloud descending snatch'd him thence, 
Unseen amidst the throng : so violence 
Proceeded, and oppression, and swOrd-law 
Through all the plain, and refuge none was found. 

Or into Iambics : 

O flowers. 
That never will in other climate grow, 
My early visitation, and my last 
At even, which I bred up with tender hand 
From the first opening budj and gave ye names, 
Who now shall rear 3^ to the sun, or rank 
Your tribes, and water from th' ambrosial fount ? 
Thee lastly, nuptial bow'r, by me adom'd 
With what to sight or smell was sweet,. from thee 
How shall I part, and whither wander down 
Into a lower world, to this obscure 
And wild ? how shall we breathe in other air 
Less pure, accustom'd to immortal fruits ? 




1. Give a brief outline of the history of Poetry in Gbreece, 
arranging with chronological dates the principal writers, and speci- 
fying their countries and the nature of their works. 

II. 1. What is the common date assigned to the Trojan War? 
And what objections are there against its accuracy ? 

2. Of how many vessels did the Grecian expedition against Troy 
consist ? And what was the average complement of men in each ? 

III. 1. What was the probable age of Homer? And what 
authority do bis writings afford for conjecture as to his distance 
from the time of the Trojan War ? 

2. When, and by whom, were his writings first collected in their 
present form ? 

IV. 1. How is Poetry said to be an imitative art ? and how do 
Epic and Dramatic Poetry di£Per in the modes of imitation? 

2. Define the term Epic ; and mention a few of the fundamental 
laws of Epic Poetry. 

3. Define Episode ; and refer to examples of its use in Homer, 
Virgil, and Milton. 

V. Point out the discriminating excellencies of Homer and 
Virgil ; and state the chief grounds on which Addison prefers Mflton 
to them both. 

VI. Give the substance of Longinus's comparison between the 
Iliad and Odyssey ; and point out some circumstances in the latter 
poem which he considers censurable. 

VII. 1. Define the dialect of Homer; point out its leading 
peculiarities ; and shew in what respects it is more suitable for 
Epic than Dramatic Poetry. 

2. Explain the Digamma ; and illustrate by quotation its usage 
in the poetry of Homer. State by what means it was transfused 


into die Latin language ; and shew by examples what force it 
generally had in that language. 

S. Mark the difierence of quantity between the Attic and Ionic 
Dialects in the following words : jcaXoc* dy^, (HXtwv^ Xv», Hyut^ 
vdiapf it|/Lii. 

4. What part of speech is the Greek Article ? Explain its use in 
Homer ; and shew whether it differs at all from its usage in other 

5. Account for the difference between Homer and other writers 
in the use of the Augment ; and shew how this bears upon the 
formation of the Latin language. 

Vin. In what Greek tragedies is Ulysses introduced ? And in 
what h'ght is he generally represented there? State briefly the 
transactions between him and Palamedes. 

IX. What was the name of Calypso^s island ? And what its 
probable situation, as coUected from any passage of Homer ? 

X. TUv dpoSty yCf 6ed, dvyarep Aioc, dire ikiIi|uiv, i. 10. Grive 
the sense and derivation of dfMtv^ and mention some other words 
formed from the same root 

XI. irafn-Sti^ 192. StSovai, 913. Explain the formation of 
▼erbs of this class ; and compare Homer's usage with that of Attic 

XII. Translate the following : 

wc ^ij cyA^y' iftKov fjuucaftoc vv rev ififuvai vlic 
dvifiOQy Sy Kredrttraiy co«c cirl yfpac inrfu' 
vvy ^ oc d>irorfi6raToc yivtro Byifruy dvBp^iay^ 
Tov 11 tK ^tri yeyiaSat. 

rcc ^a«c, tIc H SfAikos oh* itrXtro ; rlirre hi trt ypt^ ; 
ct\air/v*9 fik ydfwt ; iwel evic ipayoc rait y ieriy. 

Distinguish the terms oac^, ecXaWn;, ydfw^t and epayoc* 

XIII. rerapwofuyoit 310. newelOero, ii. 103. Shew the for- 
mation of such verbs as these, and adduce other examples. 

XIV. Mti iy x^^^i fvytic* Ext^in this ; and illustrate the 
use of ^vyrtt by instances of a similar use of other parts of the 
aaroe verb. 

XV. «rvVe€ dpycit ii. 11. Explain ; and confirm by quotations 



your iDt^rpretation of dfyyoi. douKot, 26. What dialect is this! 
What is the coininon» and what the Attic, form of the word ? 

XVI. rlva j(peua tocfov Uei ; 28. Translate this literally • and 
quote from the writings of Homer to determine the gender of 

XVII. Explain dyaTfni<ras (Bdxpv dyawpiiimc)* 81. furafuSXio^ 
98. dKXvevKey, 105. iihrXoKa/xihg *Ax<ua<, 119. Is ivwkoatfuki 
legitimately formed? dn^nif 115. Mark the quantity of aWa and 
its several derivatives, as used by Homer and the Tragedians. 

XVIIL KXvOi fuv, S x^^^^ ^coc nXvdtg ^furepov d«l, 262. 
Translate this, and explain the construction. 

XIX. ov uiy €t€ < % foldovQt iii* 14* 

1. Which of these is the Homeric form ? 

2. What is the usage in common Greek ? What in the Tn^e- 
dians ? Quote instances. 

XX. 1. Toiv€Ka yipKoXiroyTov erivXuQ, 15. Translate: explain 
the formation of mirXwc, and shew how it differs firom comnxn 

2. yeriadcu re rftai^fuv re, 28. c( ipov tvTo^ 67. Explain rpa^* 
ptv and ivTo, 

XXL MetTop, irAg r Sip i»> irwc r' op irpoenrrviofiai avrov ; 22. 
Explain the mood and tense of 1«, and say whether it can legiti- 
mately be thus connected with xpooimiiofiiu. What is the usa^ 
in Attic Greek ? Confirm your opinion by examples. 

XXIL 1. iinrora NeWitfp, 102. What dialect is cinrora? What 
is the regular form? And how is the quantity of the final vowel 
accounted for ? 

2» iyff oirit wore fiip-ir ofioitfOijfuyai avrriy, 120. What is tbe 
final quantity of accusatives in ivl - Mention the error of Boyle on 
this subject, as corrected by Bentley in his Dissertation. 

XXIII. UvXov, 182. How many cities of this name were there 
in Peloponnesus ? Determine by collateral circumstances mentkMaed 
by Homer, which was Nestor's. 

XXIV. \lriy yap fdya eIxcc' ayf| fA e%€i* ovk ay iftov/t 
iKwofiiyf rd yiyoir\ ov^ ei Beol 4^ eOcXoicv. 

227, a. 
Tiaaalate this.. Say whether the quantity of \itiy varies in difierent 


writeni* lUustrate by examples the use of ayify and the phrase ifiol 
tXrofiey^ yiyotro, 

XXV. UepvtVQ y dfiyiop «Ix** ytpuv 3* vmniKara '^ifrrwp 
Xcpvi/3a T otfXo)(i;rac re Kani(*XEro* troKXd S* *A0ifv{f 
evxcr' dfrapf)(pfjL€yos, Kc^aXqfc Tpl\aQ iv irufA, fiaXXtty* 

Translate this, and explain the terms used and the ceremonies 
referred to. 

XXVI. Iffly f ec miloy inipi|^opoK* iyBaS eirecra 
Jivoy oloy* roloy yap vtrtK^epoy Mceec trnnu* 

s w » f r i|iXi0C9 <fKi6iayr6 rt iraorac ayvia/. 

1. Translate this. 2. Shew how Uov is formedy and mention 
some other Homeric verbs of the same kind. d. livoy* What other 
forms are there of this verb ? What compounds of it are used by 
Homer, and in what sense? 4. Is Iwnro or hhoaro the right 
reading? How explained? 5. Explain the formation of ario- 
myro ; and« comparing it with ropi^co/ioayvrfc, &c. shew how such 
words are written in conmion Greek, and what is the cause of the 

XXVII. h y hr kyyia Ktiro wiKiSpa, xi. 576. Translate the 
following Scholium on this passage, and say whether any correction 
IS necessary : wXidftoyy iicroy fupoc arailou' Xiyei oSi^, on rev Tirvav to 
0iifia cVl iyyia eiceiro irXi6|pa» mtrre Karixiiy ro^oy kyoc iifjUtrovQ 



I. Translate the following passage, and explain particularly 
dyilpouy, "HSero 2c rafe [rd 'Ofiiipov cirea] iy rp 2ci;i^ inl ToXiv 
j(p0voy VTO ruy iraliiayy ore dyilpouy iy rp koprp rov 'AiroXXwn>c* 
Hom. Vit. {. S3, 



U. 1. What dififerent records are there respecting Homer's age, 
and his proximity to the Trojan war ? 2. What support or con- 
tradiction do they receive from his writings ? 3. What difference 
is there on this point between Herodotus and the life of Homer com* 
monly ascribed to him? 4. Are there any other grounds for sup- 
posing that it was not written by Herodotus ? 5. Translate, oim 
^i [sc. 'HirlohoQ Ktd ^'Ofiripog] eiiri ol iroct/ffairec Btoyovifiv 'EXX^fn* 
(Herod, ii. 53.) and give Herodotus's own explanation of it. 

IIL 1. Of what country does the author of Homer's life state 
him to have been a native ? And by what arguments does he sup- 
port his opinion ? 2. Quote from Homer, or refer to, any local de- 
scriptions or particular expressions, which seem to convey any inti- 
mations of the country of his residence. 3. Translate the follow- 
ing lines ; specify the places spoken of; and explain the rporeu 

*OpTvylr}g KoBuirtpQtv^ SOi rpowal i^cX/oco. Od. XV. 402, 3. 

IV. Enumerate the chief points of resemblance between the 
Patriarchal umes, and those of Homer. In what modem race are 
the same characteristic features of resemblance found ? 

V. What is the latest historical fact prophetically mentioned in 
the writings of Homer 1 Is it contradicted by any succeedii^ 
writers ? 

VI. In what manner is it probable that the writings of Homer 
were preserved? To whom is assigned, by different writers, the 
merit of having collected them into their present form ? 

Vn. Investigate briefly Homer's use of the Article, and shew 
how far it differs from the use of it by subsequent writers. 

VIII. 1. Where was Phseacia? What is its modem name! 
And by what other names has it been called at different times t 
2. What distance was it from Ithaca ? And in what sense does 
Homer apply to it the epithet ItrxaHii ? 3. From what country did 
the Phaeacians migrate? Why? and under whom? 4. How were 
Alcinous and his wife related to the first king of the Island ? 5. 
Mention a few leading particulars of the hbtory of the Island sub- 
sequent to Homer. 

IX. What data does Homer furnish fbr determining the situs* 


tion of Calypso's Liland ? Mention some of the epithets applied to 
it, and its relative distance from different places. 

X. 1. In ▼• 47, EiXcro ^c fidpSoVf how is the quantity of &' ac- 
counted for ? By what limitations is the rule that applies to it re- 
stricted? And is there any difference in this respect hetween 
Homer and the Tragedians? Z. ib, 1J?7, ovhi Si|V ^£y airvoroc. 
"Ultima rpv ovBi producitur, in csesurA, vi toni, et tov 8 ixrarucov,** 
Barnes. Explain the three reasons here alleged, and say which 
of them, or whether any, satisfactorily accounts for the circum« 
stance. S. Give the sense of awvmvc in the passage last quoted, 
and produce instances of words similarly formed, bearing a similar 

XI. £2 B* ai r<c pa/p^'i Ocwt^, 221. 1. Is this construction ad- 
mitted in Attic Greek ? and if not, how is the difference accounted 
for in Homer ? 2. Translate accurately ei fki/cc, and-^v paly^ and ex<# 
plain the difference between them. 8. Enumerate the cases in which 
the particle at' is legitimately joined with a subjunctive mood. 

XII. nXijcaSac r ecropi2i>Ti, xal oxj/i hvovra Boiiinyy, 
"ApKTOv ff, ^y Ka\ dfjLoiay MKXriinv raXcmKnv, 
'H r avrov orpe^erac, xal r *Qpitaya &>r€vci. 
Oifl ^ afifwpot iari Xotrpvy uKtayolo, 272-^5. 

1. Translate this passage, and explain the different particulars^ — 
mj/i Svovra, avTov orp€il>eTaif 'Qpltaya ^Kiuet, and afiftopoc \oerpwy, 
2, Give the other names of the constellations mentioned. 3, What 
time is signified in Ovid. Met. x. 446. " Interque Triones Flexerat 
obliquo plaustrum temone Bootes " ? 4. Translate and explain the 
Scholium: wyKarat^furai 3c [o Bownyc] rirpairt (la^ioiCf 2Kiof»ir/y, 
a^* o5 &(^eraif To^orp, Alyoiccpy, ^tpoxof, i^ o3 Xi|yci. 

XIII. 1. ''Ewi 6 ravff wpfMuyt. 365. Explain the metre, and 
quote any similar instances of metrical peculiarities from Homer. 
2. AiZlicc ? ewiira vKticapyoy, — 287. Is this contrary to any re- 
ceived metrical rule ? If so, how accounted for ? 

XIV. 'Oc 2* aytfwc (arJQ ijltoy OrifMya riydfiji 
Kap^Xcwv, rd fiiy ap re 3um2acr* aXXv^ic olXXp' 
*Oc T^C ^vparo fjuucpd httm^ir' avrdp *0^vaffivc 

^AfMfff iy\ hovpari jidiye, idKrfff iJc tmroy iXavyiay. 868—7 1 . 
Translate this ; give the derivation of (aifc ; and explain the last 


XV. Ei^itty 

BdfiyoiQ iv WKiydiin KoralpaB^f ei fu fudeitf 
'Piyoc Kojk KdfiaroQ, yXoxtpoQ U gAoi vxyog eVcXSp, 
Ac/^w |ii7 &iip€imy eXwp ica) KvpfM yiyt^fAcu. 470 — 3. 
1. Translate this passage, and shew if there be any real or ap> 
parent confusion of moods. 2. What is the proper force of the op- 
tative mood ? What mood and tense in Latin does it answer to ? 
What different modifications of its sense does it admit of? 

XVI. diniyrfy • . • • vweprtplji aptipmay, vi« 69, 70. I. What 
was the weprepiii ? and by what other name called ? S. What was 
the proper sense of dinjni? and what historical event was con- 
nected with it? 

XVII. mdfivta, 166. What tense? How was that tense 
formed ? Enumerate the different forms in which its first person 
is fomid ; and explain the processes by which they are arrived at. 

XVIII. Ovc iaff odroQ dyijp dcepdc fyHnrot^ ovhe yiyfirai^ 
"Oq Key ^aiificiirv dy^piiy it yaiay iKtgrai 
^y'ioTJjra tpipuy, SOI — 3. 

Translate this : derive ^upoci and iUustrate its meaning either by 
analogy or contrast. 

XIX. AttMcav dc xpv€re^ iy XitKuSf — 215. What is the qoantity 
of the first syllable in ')(pvinoQ ? Does it vary in Attic or Ionic 
Greek? What is Elmsley's -opinion on the subject? How sap- 

XX. oi ^ ikiiaei yoXi|vi7y| 8^* ay cnjcu 
Harpiha <njv Koi ^wpa, icai cc mv roi fl\oy itrrlr' 
Etirep Kol fidXa iroXAov iKaaripta ear £v/3ot^£. 

Kal fAty 01 iyd* fkSoy, ical arep Kafwroto rtXttroay 
"Hfjuirt rf avTf, 319—26. 

1. Translate the first two lines. Is there any objection to the 
reading of the second line ? 2, How does the account given in the 
last two correspond with the actual distances of the places ? 3. By 
what other names was Eubcea anciently called ? 4. What is its 
modem name ? and from what is it formed 1 

XXL Mark the Attic and Ionic quantity of koXXcov, vS^ip, a vijpy 
Upoy^ roXofi, Wvcu, ^dyut^ — particularly specifying where in either 
the one or the other dialect the quantity is common. 


XXII. ceinwc 'Odv^c diroriainrai. v. 24* Give the sense of 
iitorhfrerait and shew how it derives this sense from that of the ac- 

XXIII. 1. Give the sense and derivation of diriafiri^f v. 26, 
dypkioowv, B%. iypwrriyy vi. 90. x'^^^'^"^* ^^* ^^VQ* un «{ diririQ 
yalfict vii* 2^- Explain other senses of the last word. 2. Give 
the sense, derivation, and quantity of cXirvc in v. 470« 8. ifirufioyh 
^'ccFy 57. Explain the formation of ifUvf and say what other per* 
sons of the same tense occur in Attic or Ionic writers, and in what 

Which of these readings is ri^ht, and why ? For what metrical 
rule has the last word furnished an argument ? and how is it sup- 
ported? 5. Translate rttf M rptwoXf^Y. 127. 6. Explain the 
formation of dwi^tdoyp ewunrtir (in worftoy ewiowtiy^t tifioprOf ccu- 

7. Translate cV U coi fca 

KupvKff iy 8c 04 6}jfa rlSti fuyo€ucia xoXXd. v. 266, 7. 
Give the root, different senses, and different forms of tjiaf illustra- 
ting the last particular by examples. 

8. From what words are dfjt^woXog and te^ya supposed to be con- 
tradistinguished ? Say whether in either, or both, of the instances, 
the distinction is always preserved : if not, produce examples in 
which it is confounded. 

BOOK V— vm. 


1. By whom, and at what time, were the writings of Homer first 

2. Ghre a short account of the state of Literature in Greece ante- 
cedent to the time of their compilation* 

3. State the internal evidence by which the birth place and early 
residence of Homer has been fixed in Ionia. 


4. Enumerate some of the other Poems which have been aacribed 
to Homer besides the Iliad and Odyssey. Give the opinions o€ 
ancient authors with regard to the authenticity of such as they men- 
tion, and any internal marks by which some of these minor poems 
are determined not to be the compositions of Homer. 

5. Mention some authorities as to the date of Hesiod in reference 
to that of Homer. 

6. Lib. V. 9. What is observable in Greek autliors with regard 
to the uses of /Sa^iXcvc and rvparvoel Is the latter found in the 
writings of Homer, Hesiod, or the Greek Poets of that date ? 

21. Of what form is vc^eXiyycfiera, and what the quantity of 
the last syllable ? 

27« fraXifixtric diroyiuvrai. What rules appear to be gene- 
rally observed in Homer in lengthening short syllables ? Are in- 
stances like the present of very frequent occurrence 7 

47. etXcTt) ii ^afiSov. What is the metrical power of ^ 
inceptive ? 
Translate literally the following lines : 

dfjufi Bi Xcc/mSvcc /mKokoI £ov, ly^e 0'eX^voi; 
Oj{Xcov' 63—73. 
State accurately the signification of the imperfectum^ perfectnm, 
and plusquam perfectum. 

328. oVoipcvdc. What is the rule for the quantity of the 
penultimate of adjectives relating to time? Write down the ex- 
ceptions to it. 

359. Translate, 60t fioi t^dro ^v{c/xov cTvcu. 
What is the sigpnification of adjectives in t/ioc? State and 
illustrate by examples the distinction between the two sorts of 
^jectives having this termination. To which does ^v{i/ioc be- 

403. From what verb, in what tense and voice^ is e?Xvro? 
What is the quantity of the last v in {^cvt^-v/m,— 4ic> — y^h — v/<cr, 
•-^/iai,~v,— wac, — vfuvai7 Translate the words x"^^^^ ^ cVexcvaro 
fvXXjuyp and give the formation of eircxevaro, 4879 of iod^aaro, 
474, and Xoe^^^cvac, vi. 96. 

463. Kvee ^ (tliiopoy apovpay. 

When was this salutation used ? Give instances of it 


7. Lib. VI. 93. What is the quantity of the first syllables in 
TXvyiu, TXiytif xXwoi, and of the second in cvrvycat? From what 
verb is the last deduced ? 

131. Of what declension is the nominative singular of oan ? 

258. aXXa ftdX i^ipltiv. Supply the word which the construc- 
tion requires, and give an instance in which the word, here omitted, 
is expressed* 

8. Derive and give the significations of: drpurwyri, iiaKropot, 
dfiftiXiaeaif KpijSefiyov, trvviptBo^, Otikiwi^ov, ^ihrtnis, 

9. Lib. VIL Translate the following lines : 

ivBa Si iirBpea ficucpd re^vccc Trjkedowyra 

Tayrdiai ire^vaeri, imitraydy yavonioai, 1 14 — 28. 
From what verb is Oiyecro? Explain the formations of rpv 
yoiatrif rHUwircu 

199. el Si rcc ddavdriav ye kut ovftayov elKiiXovdey. 
Why should it be thought that the stranger might possibly be a 
god ? Give a similar instance from Homer. 

10. Lib. VIII. From what verbs are rervicovro, 6l,Si7p/ffoyro, 
76, irfpiouyrOf 78? 

159. ov yap a ovSe^ {elvcy iatjfioyi ^iirr2 Umaa 
339. at yap rovro yeyoiro. 
Translate these words, and shew the force of yap in each pas- 

11. Give an account of the principal migrations in the early 
periods of Greece, from the departure of the sons of Helen from 

12. What is the real account of the apparent use of various 
dialects in Homer ? 

13. Trace the progress of the division of the Greek language into 
its different dialects. 

14. What affinity had the Latin to the Greek ? and what vestiges 
are left of that affinity? 



First Paper. 

1. What may be inferred from the Homeric poems as to the 
existence of alphabetical writing in 'Greece at the time of their com- 
position ? Quote or refer to» and explain the passages which have 
been brought forward to establish that it did exist. What do they 
prove ? Is there any, and what, negative evidence in the state of 
manners represented, or in the absence of any mention of, or allu- 
sion to, alphabetical writing where such might have occurred, which 
would lead us to an opposite conclusion ? ^ Is there any difierenoe 
on this point between the Iliad and the Odyssey ? any between 
them and the other Homeric poems ? 

2. What do we learn abput the introduction of alphabetical 
writing into Greece from other sources ? from Herodotus ? from 
the manner in which the poets speak of the invention? from 
Tacitus ? from Josephus ? What credit is due to the testimony of 
Josephus ? and why ? What are the probabilities in &voar of or 
against the tradition that Cadmus brought letters to Thebes ? from 
the commercial and naval eminence of the Thebans ? from other 
historical grounds? from the Greek alphabet itself? What tes- 
timony does that alphabet bear to its parentage ? What evidence 
can be derived from inscriptions ? What may be inferred from the 
materials anciently used in writing ? If Homer wrote, what did he 
write on? 

3. If Homer did not write, how can the Homeric poems have 
been preserved ? Does the literature of other countries furnish any 
parallel ? What is known of the ^Fayj/fSol 1 Where were their chief 
schools? Whence were they named? Translate the followiDg 

"OOey TTtp cal 'OfUfpl^ai 
^XTfJiv ixiwv rairoXX' aoihoi 


af^yraif Aioc ix vpooiiiioV xal 52* ovijp 
Kora^Xdy UpHv dyt^rtay Vuro^op/ac HhfKrai TfHoray J^fuaiov 
iv woXwiiinirf ^oe aXffti, Pind. Nein« ii. 1 — 5, 

'AXyOfitfpoQ rot rtrifiaKey 2c' dvdpiairiarf oc av'rov 
Udoay JpOwVacc dperdy Kord pafi^v i<ppaaey 
dipirtalkfy iwitay Xonrolc d&vpeiy. Pind. Isthm. iii. 64 — 6. 

What 18 the oompariion in the former passage ? Whom is Homer 
in the latter said to have so honoured ? What is meant by Aioc cV 
npooifjUovi Explain and illustrate oifoi and irpooifiioy* What is 
meant by pain-Ciy Mtay dot8ol ? What by Kord ^afiloy ifpatrey 6e(r- 
Tttrluty ixiiay ? Explain and illustrate both expressions. At what 
festivals do we know from Plato that the 'Pai^2oi sang? What is 
the subject and argument of his Ion ? Are the 'Pai/^o2 mentioned 
in Homer ? What do we learn from him about the condition of the 
bards in his age ? 

4. What is known about the time when the Homeric poems were 
originally composed ? What may be inferred from the poems them- 
selves, firom the state of manners, of government, of religion, which 
they represent? What interval appears from them to have elapsed 
since the events commemorated in them ? Is any light thrown on 
this point by the subjects which the bards in the Odyssey choose for 
their lays, or by the manner in which those lays are spoken of ? 
What is the latest event alluded to in the Iliad ? or the Odyssey ? 
How many generations back do the Homeric traditions reach ? Of 
what £unilies does the poet seem to have known most ? What was 
the political state of Greece at the time when Homer is supposed to 
have lived? What information about the age of Homer is affi>rded 
by Herodotus, Thucydides, Cicero^ or others ? Shew how &r their 
statemenU agree or differ. Was there any thing favourable to the 
growth of poetry in the Homeric age ? Does history supply any 

5. Translate the following passage : 

AeiffWdTi 2"'0/ii|poc lid liic 'Ohnrniat, Sri fuydXrfc ^vmm^c virofefiofu^ 
W|C nh "^^oy iarty iy yiipg, to fikofivOoy. AfXoc ydp Ik ToXXSy re 
aXXuy evyredeuciac ravn|v huripay njy vw6dmyf drdp 2i| mur rov 
Xtl^lfaya rmv 'IXioJCwv wadrifidnay 2id rrjc '02vff«c/ac, fJc iweiaoSid rcva 
rw Tpw'ucov TTokifWv, wpo^wtio^peiy, xal wj Al' cV rov roc oXo^pmt 


ical rove otarrovc, iJc iroXac irov vpotyvtaaftiyoi^ roi^ ^pwriw^ irraS&a 
irpofforo^ij^yau Ov y^p ciXXa r^c *IXi€i&^ cir(Xoyoc cvrcK i| *02tf<r«cia. 
"EkOo /icv Acac KtiTai dfufioCf irSa ^* 'A^iXXfvct 
"EvSa ^i IlarporXoct Beo^y fiiiartap drdXavroQ* 
"EvBa d* iftoc ^/Xoc vioc* 
'Axo 2e r^c airr^c a{r/ac» oT/iai, njc ffcv 'IXca^oCi Yjpa^/'ct^C eV (^ft^ 
Tytvfjuirogf oXov to truffidTiJOV ^pafiariKoy vireimiiraro tal iyaywyioy' r^c 
de *OSv(r(r£/ac ro wXioy S(i|yt}/iarticov,03rep c^£ov yi(piiic**'06cK ey r^^OBw- 
(re/9 irapcurcurai nc av KaraivofAiyf roy "Ofiripoy ifXlft oS ^^x^^ ^C 
90o2p($nfroc trapayAyti to fuyeSog* Ov yap ere rote 'IXiacocc cxcirocc 
Tocijfiaffiy IffOK iyTavOa inS(€i Toy Tdyoy^ ov^ i^ufutXiafuya Ta vif^ cal 
i{t}/xara fxri^afiov XafifidyoyTa, ov^ n}v irp&yytny hfiolay rmy eiroXXif* 
Xitfy iraOfJv, ov2c to dy\iaTpo^y Koi iroKvruDoy koX Toif cV r^c ciXiidelac 
^yraolaic KoraxeirvKyufuyoy* dXX\ oloy viro^oipoviToc cic iavror 
fJKeayov Koi irepc rci c3ta /lerpa i^fitpovfuyovp to Xocirov fcUyoyTOi rov 
fuyeSovc dfiiniTiStc Kay to7q fivdniBttn koI air/oroic irXavocc. Aiymy ^ 
ravr ow iwtkiXrifffiai Tuy iy Ty 'O^vatrel^ \€ifuiytfyy ra^ Ttiy ircp2 roy 
RvKXonra, icai Tiyuy aXXwv* oXXa yfpac ^u^yovpii, y^ipac ^ o/i*ic 
*Opi7pov. nXiyv c V airacrc rottroic efi^C rov irpcucriicov icparcl ro fivOcxov* 
irape{e/3i7V ^ elc rav6^i (Jc e^l'^y t^^a 2e^ac/xc, iJc C'C Xiypoi' eV/orc ^^aroy 
Kora n)v aKWCfJLfjy nx /iieyaXo^v^ mxparpcircrai, ola ra irepl ror a^cor, 
ica2 rove ci^ K/pnyc avo^opfiovfiiyovCf oSg 6 ZnTiXoc e^i| j(piplha KXa/orrOy 
ira^ rov viro rwv ircXeca^wv wc ytoeaoy vapaTptt^fuvoy A/a, rat ror cvc 
rov ravay/ov $£x* iffiipat ao'trov, ra re irepc nyv fiyffirrripo^ylay awl&aya. 
Tl yap ay cKXXo fijoaifuy Tavra^ 17 r^ ovrc rov Acoc £vvTwa ; Acvrc- 
pov ^ eveica vpotncroptiffBia to, Kara nif 'Odvo'^ccay, owtag ^ tm 
yytipifwy, iJc V dxaKfitj tov iraOovc eV rote fuyaXoic avyypa^vm ml 
irotijraic cic i^Ooc cicXvrrac. Toiovra yap irov ra irepi njv rov 'Odvv^ 
oit^Q ifBucbit avTf fitokoyovfitya olWav, oloyel xtafif^la tIq iarty 1J6I0X0- 
youfiiyri* LonginuSy §. ix. 

In what part of the Odyssey do the lines above quoted occur ? 
Point out and explain the aUusions to various parts of the Odyssey 
contained in this passage. 

6. Is there any evidence in the representation of manners, or in 
the languagCi that the Odyssey is a later production than the Iliad ? 
Are there any differences between them in mythology ? Of what 
country should we from his geographical knowledge suppose the 
author of the Iliad to be a native ? Is the conclusion we may come 


to on this point strengthened or weakened by the Odyssey ? Quote 
or refer to the passages which illustrate this question. 

7. Draw a chart of the voyage of Ulysses, marking out upon it 
all the places at which he touched from his first departure from Troy 
till his arrival in Ithaca, and referring where you can to the data 
supplied by Homer for determining their relative situation. What 
is there in Homer that can at all assist us in so doing? Does it 
appear that Ulysses ever sailed out of the Mediterranean ? What 
tradition connected with the travels of Ulysses is mentioned by 
Tacitus? What Latin &mily is said by Livy to have claimed 
descent from Ulysses ? 

8. " Patriae tanta est vis ac tanta natura, ut Ithacam illaro, in 
asperrimis saxis tanquam nidulum affixam, sapientissimus vir im- 
mortalitati anteponeret." Cic. De Orat. i. 44. 

Translate this, and quote or refer to the passages which Cicero 
had in his eye. 

9. ^O {ctKOt, rtVcc C0T6 ; xoBev irkciff vypd idXevBa ; 
"fi n Kara irprH^v^ ^ fiwlfi^ltac aXaXiiffde, 

^Oia re Xifurnipety virelp oXa, toIt aXouvrai 
'^VXOQ Kopdifieyoi^ icaxdr aXXo^airol^t tpipovret ; 

Od. ix. 262—5. 
Translate this. Explain the forms iceXevOa, dkdXripdE, dXowyraif vapdifie^ 
i^oc, and produce instances of words similarly formed. How often is this 
question asked in the Odyssey ? by whom ? Is there any thing 
like it in the hymns ? Translate the following passage in which it 
is referred to : diyXov^i ^ ol waXaiol tQv icoofruv roc tcvarti^ ruy 
KarmrXioyrtav irayraxov OfjLoittc ipwrHynt, c2 Xpora/ daiv^ cJc ovre Jiv 
mfyOdvoyrcu dvaitovyrufv to ipyov^ olc r ciri/icXec etij dhkvai, ovk 
^reii&i(iyThiy. In the course of what argument is this referance 
made ? by whom ? for what purpose ? 

10. Nvv ^ oyofia wftmrov pvBriaoyLaif oi^pa koI v/iecc 
"EiJcr • iyu 5* ay eirecray f^yiay viro y^Xeec ifiop^ 
'Xiiiy Wiyoc if^9 i^al dtrowpodi h^fiara vo/wv. 
'Eifi 'O^vffcvc Aocpria^i^c, ^c ^a^i doKomy 
'Ay0fMJirot(rc fiiXu^ icai fuv kXcoc ovpayoy iic£t. 
NaurcCoi 2* 10ajci}K evieUXoy' iy ^ opO£ ovrf 
Nifpirov elyoiri^vXXoyt aparptiric' ufi^l ^e y^mti 
IloXXal yauraovn fjidXa <rj(€i6y dSXtikfiaiy, 
AfvXixtoy Ttf Hafu re ical vXiie«r#a Zam/i^Aoc* 


*Awn| Bi jfiafiaXtj wayvreftrdrfi eiv dX\ Ksirai 
IIpoc io^v — at ^i r drevOe irpoe 'H« r *He\i6y « — 
TpiJX**** «^* aya6i} Kovporpotpof, ix. 1 6 — 27. 
Translate the preceding passage accurately into English prose, 
and also into Attic Greek prose, inserting the article wherever it is 
required} and substituting coininon forms and common words for 
any which became obsolete. 

11. Explain eHeleXoy in the foregoing passage ; and the difficulty 
that lies in the 25 th line. What is the sum of the information con- 
tained in Homer about the island of Ithaca ? Where was ^ovXix'oy'^ 
By what other name does Homer call 2afii| ? What was its later 
name ? What are the modern names of the three islands ? To 
whom did they belong during the Peloponnesian war? What 
quarter is meant by rpdt (o^v? and why is it so called? How 
many and what quarters of the heavens are described in these lines? 

^O 0/Xoiv ov yap iHfAer, Siry {o^oc» ovB* oiry 'Hwc, 
Ovh* oiTfji *HeXioc ^tuvliifipoTOQ cl^' wro yalov, 
Ov^ Binui dvvetroi. x. 190 — 2. 

What is dyvCiTful 

12. The Cyclopes in Od. vii. 206, are said to be eyyvSev 6eo<c- 
How does this agree with the picture of them in Od. ix. or at the 
beginning of Od. vi. ? Is Eustathius correct in saying KvcXwirac ov 
xoXircvcffOac, ahXa. la^ thriiv olyoKpartiffBcul As an instance of what 
stage in the progress of society is Homer's account of them quoted 
by Plato (Leg. iii. S) ? What does Aristotle (Ethic, x. 10) mean 
by KvKXwiructtfc (yy ? What were the Cydopian walls ? What was 
there peculiar in their construction, and where ^^re they found ? 
Refer to any passages about them. Can the builders of them 
have been the Cyclopes of Homer ? Of what other ancient 
poems is Polyphemus the subject, and in what character does he 
ap|)ear in each ? Translate 

El^ov, yai roy Ilay^o, to iroifiyu)y dylx e/3aXXcv, 
KoS fi iXaff, ov, Toy ifi6y roy lya yXvrvv, ^ voOofni^ 
*££ riXog' avrdp 6 fidyrit 6 TijXefiOQ €X^p* dyoptwuty, 
*E\Spd ^poiro iror* oTxoy, oiroic reKeeaeri ^vXa^. 
What was the prophecy of Telemus ? 

15. 'EfiSofjLdry ^ iKOfuoBa Adfiov aim) irroKieOpoyf 
TtiXimikoy Aoiffrpvyoyiriyf oBi iroifuya iroi/M9fy 


*}hrv€i eiireXdwyf 6 Se r ii^Xdiay vircueovet. 
"EvBa K dihrvoc dv^p SoiOvg i^iiparo fuaOovtp 
Toy fuyy fiovKoXliayf roy ^» apyv^a nifKa yofitvtay' 
'Eyyvc yc^ kvktoc re ral if/iaroc €iffi KtXivdoi, X. 81 — 6. 
Translate and explain these lines, especially the last two. 

14. How does Virgil's representation of Aolus difier from 
Homer's ? 

1 5. *Eyu B* i^vmpBiy depdilg 
Myioy. tig ire ric rpvwf hopv yifioy dyrip 
Tpvwdyff ol Bi r eytpBiy vwoainlov^y c/iatri 
*A}l/dfuyoi ixdrepOi^ t6 hi Tpi\ti i^fuyig aUL ix« 885 — 6. 
*Oc ^ St dyijp )^aXircvc WXccvv fiiyay ije ffKewapvoy 

Ely vi^ri ^pvj(pf fidtm^ fuydXa Id^oyra^ 
^k^ifidawy TO yap ovre ah^pov yc Kpdrog iarly* 
^QtC Tov &iC SfdaXfioc iXmyif irepl fity)^f* ix. 391 — 4. 
*Oc ^ or ay aypavXm TOput irepl jSouc dyiXaiag, 
*£X0ov9ac cc xoirpov, ein|r fiordyr^ icopintyrai, 
lla^iu dfjM tncalpovtny iydyriac ovS* in wiimi 
"ifrxpvfff aXX' dhiyoy fivKtifuyax dfifSiovoty 
Mffnpag' iSc ifu KtiyothrBl t^ov i^aXfioXtnyf 
Aaxpvoeirec e^viro* hoxtim ^ dpa v^vi Ovfjiig 
"Oc cficv, c#c tl irorptS' Uo^oro kcU woXty avrwy. x. 410 — 16. 
Translate these passages accurately. Explain the meaning and 
force of the Tarious moods. Why does Homer say rpmrf, vicwrmh 
ovtfiy, ^irrfft tnndpovoiy^ ixUaro^ What are the principles by which 
he is guided in the use of the indicative, optative, or subjunctive in 
his similies ? 

16. Derive and explain elKiiMag /3ovc» rayavwoBa fti|Xa, ifVpcoc, 
jSovXxfrovde, dftfuXiaaat^ irrtxdpwtoQt vircp^aXoCi Xa^^cca, /leKoeunfc, 
0e0vcc, Otairieiogf 6€0£/jceXoc, Oe^ceXoc, Oie^roCt dBia^rog^ 6eoe(Si|C» 
deovdifCf KaTwpv)(fiQ^ fivffffohofuvay^ hucoaopoQt wpoicrecv, rvpwoKEiy, 
dmppiiii dxoioxfJ^vaQt oLyofiaptliay^ diriktBpoq^ fiwKniQ^ iyhvKiuCf dyif, 
dylpaypfi^^ curvqrrcCf adcvnyC) vin|vi|nfc, ffvoi^ (what similar epithet is 
there ?), dodfuyQog^ doKthig. Distinguish between ^/loc and di|fu(c, 
Jfioc and wfioff, c^kcc And evWc* ctqckdc and eirati^. What is meant 
by mraXo^^ca ^fpvy ? Explain and illustrate alti yap iroSa yiiog 


Second Paper, 
Translate the following passages accurately into English prose 

irXcKrocc eV raXapoieriv d^iiadfAevoc varcOiyicev. ix. 216— -47. 
'EZpoy ^ iv fifiatnftn Tervyfiiya htifiara Kipnic 

e^fUPCUf oia erveg \afJLaievvdhet aiir ihoveiy, x. 210 — 43. 
Mifrt TOi ifyefioyot ye trodri xapd vrfi, fuKitrBia' 

votrroy ff, ti^ cVl xoyroy iXivaeai i^Bvoivra, x. 505^-40. 
Translate the following into Latin or English verse : 
Kf>ic vivoy, rl ftoi J^e ^id cnreoc eafrvo fuiXiuy 
varaTOs ; ovri irapoc ye XcXec/x/ievoc cpX^^ olwr, 
aXXa iroXv irpiSroc ve/ieat ref>ev ayOta toIi}c» 
fAOKpd (iifiaQ' npw-oc li podc worafiiSy d^dyetJC' 
wpotToc ^e ffradfioyht XiXoUeai diroyieodai 
ioTripioc' yvy aire vayvararoQ — ^ wy' avcucroc 
w^BaXfwy mdieii ; rov avi;p kokoc iiiaXduMny^ 
ffvy Xvypocc irdpoitrip ^afiaaadfuyo^ fpivas oiyfp 
OvTiCf oy oivu ^rifil we^vy^iyoy elytu oXedpoy. 
el ^i| ofjto^poyBOitt irori^vi|ecc re yiyotOy 
etTTccv, ^inrp recvoc e/iov fJiiyos ifXairKdCei' 
rf Kt oi eyce^oXoc ye £ia ffireoc aXXvSic oXXj; 
deiyofAiyov pcdoiTO irpoc ov^e'c* xd^ hi k ifioy jc^ 
X^if^eie KOKuy^ rd gAot ovrt^ovoc iropey OSric- ix. 447 — 60. 

1 . What words in the foregoing passages were originaUy digam- 
matized ? What are the reasons for believing that the digamma 
ever existed in the Greek alphabet ? What for supposing that it 
was pronounced in the Homeric language ? 

2. Point out and explain any metrical peculiarities that are found 
in the foregoing passages. 

3. Derive and explain KOfnraXlfitaQfiiiraseaif ijX/jSaroCi wXeffiffa^nroc, 
evpoietCt {vvearic> irvyovertoyy Xdxtia^ dfuyriyd. 


4. What is there peculiar in the use otipcaif vocov, sfijifwoVf 6^'t^ac 
[what name of a cheese is derived from hence?], afxriirdfieyo^tniiroyl 

5. What parts of what verbs are ipx^'''Ot Jce/avrec, dinaavfuda, 
dviffTuVf oiffdfuroct Xltn^, itrdai ? Are any, and which, of these forms 
found in the Tragedians ? 

6. What is the force of o£ kIv rot tiwr^nvl Is there any thing 
like it in Attic Greek 1 

7. Of what country is Circe a native 1 Were any other magical 
legends connected with the same country ? Does magic appear to 
have been much practised in Greece, or any part of it, in later times ? 
By what Greek authors is it much spoken of? Is any thing like a 
magical charm mentioned in any other part of Homer ? 

8. What is olvoc IIf>a/ivecoc ? Where else in Homer is a similar 
potion described ? 

9. What is the Homeric 'Qiccayoc ? a river? or a sea? Quote or 
refer to the passages in which it is spoken of, and deduce from them 
the Homeric notion of the earth's form. What are the observations 
of Herodotus on this subject 1 

10. In what other poems, and on what occasions, is Tiresias in- 
troduced ? What other fidyreic are spoken of by Homer ? In what 
manner ? 

XL How far has Plato, Virgil, or Milton, followed the Homeric 
description of the infernal rivers ? And what changes in it, or addi- 
tions to It, has each made ? 

12. Explain from Od. xi. the reason why the ghosts are not to be 
allowed to taste the blood. What can we collect to have been the 
Homeric conception of the state after death ? What effect does he 
represent as being produced upon ghosts by their drinking blood ? 
Can any inferences be drawn from this concerning the genuineness 
of any part of the last book of the Odyssey ? 

Translate the following lines into Greek hexameters : 

Now when broad day the world discovered has. 

Up Una rose, up rose the lion eke ; 

And on their former journey forward pass. 

In ways unknown, her wand'ring knight to seek. 

With pains far passing that long-wand'ring Greek, 

That for his love refused deity : 


Such were the labours of this lady meek, 

Still seeking him that from her still did fly, 

Then furthest from her hope, when most she weened nigh. 

Or the following into Greek Iambics : 

Bacchus, that first from out the purple grape 

Crushed the sweet poison of misused wine. 

After the Tuscan mariners transformed. 

Coasting the Tyrrhene shore, as the winds listed. 

On Circe's island fell, ^ho knows not Circe, 

The daughter of the Sun, whose charmed cup 

Whoever tasted, lost his upright shape. 

And downward fell into a groveling swine? 

This nymph, that gazed upon his clustering locks 

With ivy-berries wreathed, and his blithe youth, 

Had by him, ere he parted thence, a son 

Much like his &ther, but his mother more, 

Whom therefore she brought up and Comus named : 

Who, ripe and frolic of his full-grown age, 

Roving the Celtic and Iberian fields, 

At last betakes him to this ominous wood ; 

And, in thick shelter of black shades imbowered. 

Excels his mother at her mighty art, 

Offering to every weary traveller 

His orient liquor in a crystal glass, 

To quench the droughth of Phoebus ; which as they taste 

(For most do taste through fond intemperate thirst), 

Soon as the potion works, their human countenance. 

The express resemblance of the gods, is changed 

Into some brutish form of wolf, or bear, 

Or ounce, or tiger, hog, or bearded goat, 

All other parts remaining as they were ; 

And they, so perfect is their misery, 

Not once perceive their foul disfigurement, 

But boast themselves more comely than before ; 

And all their friends and native home forgety 

To roll with pleasure in a sensual stye. 





St. PETER'S COLL. 1826. 

1. Mention in chronological order the Roman Historians, whose 
works remain, and detail the sources, whence the earliest could have 
derived their information. 

2. State briefly the changes of government, with the date of each, 
experienced by Rome between her foundation and the Catilinarian 
conspiracy, and the names of the parties instrumental in effecting 
those changes. Is the sketch given us by Sallust in accordance with 
other accounts ? 

d. Mention the circumstances of the life of Sallust, which were 
favourable and those which were unfavourable to the faithfulness of 
his history of the CatQinarian war, of which state the date and 

4. " In Italic nuUus exercitus : Cn. Pompeius in extremis terns 
bellum gerelht.'' Mention in chronological order the several wars 
conducted by Pompey, particularising that alluded to in this passage. 

5. "Post paullo Catilina, pecuniarum repetundarum reus, pro- 
hibitus erat consulatum petere ; quod intra legitimos dies profiteri 
nequiverit.*' Translate this, explain the origin of the phrase 
'pecuniarum repetundarum,' and detail the forms of proceeding in a 
Roman impeachment, giving the Latin expressions throughout. 

6. '* Postea Piso in citeriorem Hispaniam QusBstor pro Practore 
missus est, annitente Crasso." Construe this, state the boundaries 

F f2 


and principal divisions of Hispania Antiqua, and mention the origin 
and peculiar duties of the offices of Praetor and Quaestor. 

7. Draw a map of Italia Andqua, and in it place Fsesulae^ Picenua 
Ager. Capua, Reate, Crotona, Terracina, and Rome. 

8. Translate the following : 

*' Egregia tua fides re cognita, gratam in magnis periculis fiduciam 
commendationi mese tribuit. Quamobrem defensionem in novo 
consilio non statui parare : satisfactionem ex nulld, conscienti^ de 
culp& proponere decrevi : quam me Dius fidius veram licet agnoscas- 
Injuriis contumeliisque concitatus, quod fructu laboris industriseqae 
raeae privatus, statum dignitatis non obtinebam, publicam miserorum 
causam, pro me& consuetudine suscepi : non quin ses alienum meis 
nominibus ex possessionibus solvere possem ; 'cum alienis nominibos 
liberalitas OrestiUae suis filiseque copiis persolveret : sed quod non 
dignos homines honore honestatos videbam* meque fals4 suspicione 
alienatum sentiebam. Hoc nomine satis honestas pro meo casu spea 
reliquae dignitatis conservandse sum secutus. Plura cum scribere 
vellem, nunciatum est, vim mihi parari. Nunc Orestillam ooramendo 
tuseque fidei trado. Eam ab injuria defendas* per liberos tuot 
rogatus. A veto.'* 

9. To be translated into Latin Prose : 

The Romans were in all ages particularly fond of giving instruc- 
tion, by every sort of example. They placed the images of their 
ancestors in the Forum and the vestibules of their houses, so that 
these venerable forms every where met their eyes ; and by recalling 
the glorious actions of the dead, excited the living to emulate their 
forefathers. The virtue of one generation was thus transfused by 
tbfi magic of example into that, by which it was succeeded, and 
the spirit of heroism was maintained through many ages of the 
Republic. History therefore among the Romans was not composed 
merely to gratify curiosity, or satiate the historic passion, but also to 
inflame, by the force of example, and urge on to emulation, in 
warlike prowess. An insatiable thirst of military fame— -an unh'mited 
ambition of extending their empire — an unbounded confidence in 
their own force and courage— r^ui impetuous overbearing spirit, with 
which all their enterprises were pursued, composed, in the early 
days of the Republic, the characteristics of Romans. 

ST. John's coll. 437 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1826. 

1 . Grive a brief account of the life of Sallust. What instances of 
partiality have been pointed out in this treatise, and to what causes 
have they been attributed ? 

2. Relate briefly Catiline's flrst conspiracy. What length of time 
elapsed from the formation of the second to its suppression? 
Mention the prosecutions against Catiline and their events. What 
further prosecution was pending when he quitted Rome ? State 
the object of Cicero's speech for P. Sylla. 

3. To whom were the orations of Cicero on this conspiracy ad- 
dressed^ and where delivered ? Which of them does Sallust mention ? 
To what does Sullust attribute Cicero's election to the consulship ! 
Was the condemnation of the prisoners strictly legal ? What arose 
from it on Cicero's resignation of the consulship ? 

4. " Sed postquam Cn. Pompeius ad bellum maritimum atque 
Mithridaticum missus est ; plebis opes imminuts, paucorum poten- 
da crevit** 

Translate this. Was Pompey sent expressly for both wars ? Men- 
tion the event of the former, and the countries he subdued in the 
prosecution of the latter. Whom did he succeed in it ? State the 
object of the Manilian law. In what wars had Pompey been pre- 
viously engaged and with what reputation ? 

o. " Etenim quis mortalium, cui virile ingenium, tolerare potest, 
illis divitias superare, quas profundant in extruendo mari, et montibus 
cosquandis ; nobis rem farailiarem etiam adnecessaria deesse ? illos 
binas, aut amplius, domos continuare ; nobis larem familiarem nus- 
quam uUum esse ? " 

Translate this. To what person of those times do these phrases 
peculiarly apply? What name did he obtain in consequence? 
Mention some of the attempts to introduce sumptuary laws at Rome. 

6. What was the life and character of Catulusi Whence arose 
his hatred, of Caesar ? In whose power was the election of the Pont. 
Max.? Who instituted the college of Pontifices? What changes 
did Sylla introduce ? Give a brief character of Cato. 

7. *' Ac novissime memoria nostra, propter magnitudinem seris 
alieni, volentibus omnibus bonis, argentum aere solutum est." 


Translate and explain this. What interest did the law of the 
twelve tables aUow ? Mention some of the subsequent enactments 
on the subject. What was the nature of the loan issued by Tiberius ? 

8. (1.) '* Quin igitur expergiscimini." Is 'quin' here synonymous 
with ' cur non ' ? Distinguish between ' imperium ' and ' dominatio.' 
Derive : — optimus, inquilinus, privignus, sestertius. Illustrate the 
latter from the usage of the Greek language. 

(2.) Give the situations and modem names of Fssulse and Pons 
Mulvius. In what part of Gaul were the Allobroges ? Did Cati- 
line attempt a passage into Gaul ? 

9. Translate accurately the following passage : 

"Sed, postquam L. Sulla, armis recepta Republican bonis initiis 
malos eventus habuit ; rapere omnes, trahere : domum alius» alius 
agros cupere : neque modum, neque modestiam victores habere ; 
fceda, crudeliaque in civis facinora £icere. Hue accedebat, quod 
L. Sulla exercitum, quem in Asia ductaverat, quo sibi fidum faceret, 
contra morem majorum luxuriose, nimisque liberaliter habuerat. 
Loca amcenay voluptaria facile in otio ferocis militum animos moUi- 
verant. Ibi primum insuevit exercitus populi Rom. amare, potare, 
signa, tabulas pictas, vasa cselata mirari, ea privatim ac publice 
rapere, delubra spoliare, sacra profanaque omnia poUuere. Igitur 
hi milites, postquam victoriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui victis fec^re. 
Quippe secundse res sapientium animos fatigant : ne illi, comiptis 
moribus, victorise temperarent/' 

10. Translate the following passage into Latin prose : 

At the age of twelve years he embraced the rigid system of the 
Stoics, which taught him to submit his body to his mind, his passions 
to his reason ; to consider virtue as the only good, vice as the only 
evil, all things external, as things indifferent His meditations 
composed in the tumult of a camp, are still extant ; and he even 
condescended to give lessons of Philosophy in a more public maniieT« 
than was perhaps consistent with the modesty of a Sage, or the 
dignity of an Emperor. 



1. What private reasons had SaUust for his enmity against Cicero ? 
In what way are Terentia and Fausta concerned in' these reasons ? 
Give a sketch of the life of the latter. 

2. What are the peculiarities of Sallust's style ? Which of the 
Greek historians does he most resemble ? Produce instances of his 
imitation of that historian both in style and sentiment. 

8* Give the derivations and primitive meanings of the following 
words, and shew how they obtained their sectmdary senses :— ab- 
surdus, sincerus, insolens* generosus, obnoxius, ambitio, securus. 

4. " Nunc post dominationem L. Syll8e« lubido maxima invaserat 
reipublicae capiendse." When did the sway of Sylla begin ? How 
long did it continue, how was it conducted, and how concluded ? 

5. Translate and explain the following phrases : — legibus ambi- 
tus interrogatus ; pecuniarum repetundarum reus ; pedibus ire in 
sententiam ; tabulae novse ; servitia urbana. 

6. " Famulse gladiatorise." Explain this term. Describe the dif- 
ferent modes in which the gladiators fought, and give the names 
they thence received. Of what three classes of persons were gla- 
diators composed ? 

7. "At Catalinae crudelis animus eadem ilia movebat tametsi 
prsesidia parabantur, et ipse lege Plautift interrogatus erat ab Lucio 
Paulo." What was the object of the Plautian law ? By whom and 
when was it passed t 

8. " incenso Capitolio." Whence did this building derive its 
name? When did this burning take place? How ofVen was it 
afterwards destroyed before its entire rebuilding by Domitian ? 

9. " Haruspices." How did these persons obtain their divina- 
tions ? Whence had they their name ; by whom and from what 
country were they introduced into Rome ? In what respect did 
they differ from augurs, and which was considered the more ho- 
nourable College ? 

10. " Matres familiarum/* By what form were women married, 
to whom this name properly belongs ? Describe the different modes 
in which this ceremony was performed among the Romans. 


1 1 . Explain the following military terms : — emeriti, evocati, vo- 
luntarii, veterani, signum, vexillum, aquila, manipulus, ferentarii, 
pilani, antepilani, velites. 

12. Distinguish accurately between the following words : — ^indez, 
testis ; flagitium, facinus, scelus ; modestia, pudor, pudicitia ; 
dictare, dictitare; donare, largiri. 

Id. " Sed postquam Cn. Pompeius ad bellura marttimum atque 
Mithridaticum missus est.'* Translate this. To what achievement 
of Pompey*s does * bellum maritimum' allude ? Give a brief narra- 
tion of the Mithridatic war. 

1 4. Translate the following passage into English : — 
" Sed, memorift meft, ingenti virtute 

e6 mag)s adsequebatur.'* c. 53, 4. 

(a) State the arguments used by Caesar in his speech, and the 
particular philosophy on which they are grounded, and give Cato*5 
refutation of them. 

(b) * Caius Julius Caesar.' Point out thenomen, prsenomen, and 
agnomen in this name. 

(c) * exoptabat.' What is the force of the preposition in this 

(d) * decoris.' Is the penuhima in the word long and short ? 
What is the difference between * decus* and 'decor ' ? 

(ej * eb magis adsequebatur.' Correct the reading. 

(/) ' abstinentift.' Give the derivation and particular force of 
this word. 

(g) What is generally believed to have been the principle of 
Caesar's conduct in the afiair of Cataline. 



1 . State the rule for finding, from the given year B. C. in what year 
of what Olympiad, and in what year of Rome, any proposed event 
took place ; and, reckoning from each of these seras, give the dates 


of the establishment of annual archons at Athens, of the commence- 
ment of the Peloponnesian war. of the burm'ng of Rome by the 
Gads, and of the battles of Chseroneaand Arbela. 

2. Draw a map of ancient Africa, divided into its different states, 
define the extent of each at the death of Masinissa, and mark the 
changes which had taken place in the limits of each in the reign of 
the Emperor Claudius. Draw also a modem map of the same 

3. What was the situation of Numantia ? Of what duration was 
the war maintained against the Romans by its inhabitants ? How, 
when, and by whom was it concluded ? 

4. Give a short account of the life of Masinissa ; on what occa- 
sions were his services to Rome most important ? What was the 
date of his death 1 When and where did Syphax die ? 

5. When did the first Macedonian war begin ? What was its 
duration, and how was it concluded? What Roman general was 
opposed to Perseus, and by what action was the war between the 
Romans and Perseus terminated ? in what year 1 and what was the 
consequence to Macedonia 1 

6; Give a brief account of the Catalinarian conspiracy, with 
dates. What were its causes, according to Sallust? Name the 
chief conspirators. By whom and by what means was the conspiracy 
discovered, and what was the result to the conspirators ? 

7. What were the * Comitia Centuriata' ? Where were tliey held? 
How were they summoned ? What persons had a right to vote at 
them ? What was the manner of proposing a law at them ? 

.8. In what year were the first Consuls created ? What was their 
power ? By whom was it first diminished ? When were the ten 
Tribunes of the people first created ? How did the Tribune abridge 
the power of the Consul ? On what day did the Consuls enter upon 
their office, and from what order of citizens were they at first 
created ? What alterations in the power of the Consuls were intro- 
duced by Julius Caesar, and the Emperors 1 When and by whom 
was the Consular office aboUshed ? 

9. What was the * Lex Agraria ' ? When and by whom was it 
first proposed ? By whom was it afterwards carried, and what were 
the fortunes of its principal supporters ? 

10* State the division of the Roman day in time, occupations* and 


mealsf according to Martial ; and ext>lam tha Roman tnetbod of 
expressing the days of the month. 

1 1. *' Philsenorum arse." Where were these arse situated ! Relate 
the circumstance from which the name is derived. 

12. Give the precise meanings of: — ^largior, desidero, caveo, 
egto, amhio, subdolus, prseposterus. Distinguish between: — re- 
perio, (vmperioy invenio ; simulo^ dissimulo ; nubo, uxorem duco ; 
lacrimariy flere ; sors, fors ; potestas, potentia ; diviti£e» opes ; vema, 
fiimulus, servus ; cornioen, tubicen, tibioen (mark the quantity of 
the penultimate in each) ; curator, procurator. Explain :— dextrum 
numen, Isevum auspicium, nobilis, ignobilis ; gentes, familise, opti- 
mates, populares. 

IS. Translate : 
Suam quippe culpam auctores ad negotia transferont" — 

eoque vecordise processit, ut studiis civilibus bellum atque 
vastitas Italiee finem faceret" — *' neque mihi in manu fuit'' — ** fii- 
milia nostra cum P. R. hello Carthaginiensi amicitiam instituit, quo 
tempore magis fides ejus, quam fortuna pendenda erat" — *' Ad- 
herbal victus ex proelio profugit in provinciam, ac deinde Romam 
contendit** (what country is here meant by provincia ? To what 
country was the term first applied ?) — '* interpositft fide publidL" — 
" alia omnia sibi cum collegIL ratus ad bellum animum intendit" — 
" Homines prseposteri ! nam gerere quam fieri tempore posterius, re 
atque usu pejus est'* — *' Majores vestri bis per secessionem Aventi- 
num occupav^re." 

Give Livy's account of the occurrences here alluded to, with 
the dates. 

14. Various passages to be translated. 





A. I. Which of the books of Livy remain, and (^) what portions 
of the History of Rome do they embrace ? 3. What Roman his- 
torians preceded Livy, and (4) at what periods did they flourish ? 
5. From what period does Livy date the commencement of the 
authentic History of Rome 1 

B. 1. How long did Dionysius of Halicamassus reside at Rome, 
and (2) what peculiar advantages does he say that he possessed for 
writing his history ? 9. Does he coincide with Livy in all the lead- 
ing facts of the early History of Rome, and (4) is there any reason 
to suppose that he was influenced by a desire of gratifying the pride 
of ancestry of the great Roman families ? 

C If the records and annals of Rome had been lost at the time 
of the Gallic invasion, what great facts of their history before that 
time might be established, (1) from their monuments, (2) the extent 
of their territory, (d) their customs and institutions, and (4) their 
popular traditions ? 

2). What are the chief arguments which have been urged against 
the authenticity of the early History of Rome as given by Livy and 
Dionysius, (1) from the length of the reigns of their kings, (2) from 
the circumstances attending their expulsion, (3) from their con- 
fessed want of records, and (4) from the exaggerated and inconsis- 
tent narratives of their wars ? 5. For what reasons may more ap- 
parent reliance be placed upon the early History of Greece than of 

E, Draw a map of Italy A. U. C. 900, distinguishing the posi- 
tion and extent of territory 6f the Ligures, Veneti, Etrusci, Ausones, 
Urobri, Latini, £qui, Volsci, Sabini, Samnites, &c. and marking 


the Bituation of Veil, Tusculum, Fidense, Tarquiniii Curesy Pne- 
neste, Alba, Lavineum. 

F, 1. What was the extent of Grecian colonissation in Italy? 
2. What dialect of Greece does the Latin language most resemble ? 
and (3) give instances in Latin words of Grecian origin. 4. 
Was the Latin language spoken throughout Italy in the time of 
Augustus ? 5. Have we any knowledge of the dialects spoken in 
different parts of Italy ? 6. Explain the terms ' urbanitas' and 
' rusticitas*. 7. What is the probable meaning of the term ' Pata- 
vinitas* which was applied to the style of Livy ? 8. Trace some 
of the more remarkable changes which the Latin language under- 
went from the time of the Decemvirs to that of Cicero, as observa- 
ble in the fragments of 'the Twelve Tables and of Ennius, and in 
the works of Plautus and Lucretius. 9. About what period did the 
Latin language cease to be generally spoken in Italy? and (10) 
trace the origin and progress of the modern Italian. 11. Can any 
conclusion be drawn from the languages of modem Europe with re- 
spect to the countries in which Latin had been the language of or- 
dinary conversation ? 

G, Distinguish between: — 1. vigiliae, stationes, prsesidia: 2. 
templum, delubrum: 3. plebs, populus: 4. lex, fas, jus: 5. provo- 
catio, appellatio, intercessio : 6. vectigal, tributum : 7. municipiay 
colonise, praefecturae : 8. ingenuus, libertus, libertinus : 9. sacer, 

H. "Ad id, quod sua quemque mala cogebant, auctoritate 
publica evocati, omnia delubra iroplent : stratce passim matres, crini- 
bus templa verrentes, veniam irarum ccelestium, finemque pesti ex- 

1. Compare the moral effects of the plague as described by Livy 
with that of Athens as described by Thucydides. 2. Were they 
similar in their origin? What evidence can be collected from 
ancient authors of the existence and effects of the malaria at Rome ? 

/. " Terror enim servilis," &c. 

What was the condition of slaves among the Romans with respect 
to: — 1. inheritance and acquisition of property: 2. marriage: 3. 
power of giving testimony : 4. punishments : 5. facilities of manu- 
mission ? 6. What offences were punished with slavery ? 7. From 
what sources were the Romans supplied with slaves at diflFerent 


periods of the republic, and under the emperors ? 8. Was the alarm 
felt on the occasion described by Livy an unusual circumstance in 
Roman History ? 9. Shew from examples in ancient and modem 
times, that the terror servilu has been felt in nearly every country, 
a portion of whose inhabitants are in a state of slavery. 
K, " Jam redierant legati cum Atticis legibus," &c. 

1 . Do the laws of the Twelve Tables sufficiently resemble those 
of Solon to induce us to suppose that they were founded upon them ? 

2. What remarkable difference in the constitution of society in 
Athens and Rome, made the laws of one country inapplicable to the 
other ? S. Did the Decemviri make many changes in the customary 
and unwritten laws which were in force before their time ? 4. What 
was the process for making new laws at different periods of the re- 
public, and under the emperors ? 

L, What were the principal laws of the Twelve Tables with 
respect to the rights (1) of creditors over their debtors, and (2) of 
fathers over their children ? 3. Were these laws frequently abused, 
and (4) was their severity mitigated by subsequent enactments ? 
5. What was the legal interest of money at Rome ? 6. Explain the 

" Si quis unciario foenore amplius foenerasset, quadruplione luito." 

M. 1. '*Si qui in jure manu conserunt, utrisque superstitibus 
prsesentibus, secundum eum qui possidet : ast si, qui quem liberaK 
causa asseraty secundam libertatem vindicias dato :" 

Translate and (2) explain this law : S. What ought to have 
been its operation in the dispute concerning Virginia? 

A^. 1. " Patronus si clienti fraudem faxit, sacer esto :" 

2. In what terms does Virgil' allude to this connection of Patron 
and Client ? 3. How did it operate as a check to the encroach- 
ments of the plebeians upon the patricians ? 

O. 1. " Patribus cum plebe connubia ne sunto :" 

2. Had marriages of plebeians with patricians been usual before 
the passing of this law : 3. When and at whose instigation was it re- 
pealed ? 

P. 1 . " De capite civis Romani, nisi per maximum comitiatum 
ne ferunto :" 

2. In what manner, according to Dionysius, was Coriolanus tried ? 

3. Was this law adhered to in the case of Appius ? 4. From what 


event in the life of Cicero does it appear that it was in force in his 
time ? 

Q. 1. What was the usual object of the Trihunicise Actiones? 
2. Trace the progress of the plebeians in attacking the privileges of 
the patricians, and (d) mention the changes in the constitution of 
the republic to which these contests gave rise. 

R. 1 . What was the ordinary connection between the Romans 
and their Socii 1 2. What use was made of this connection at dif- 
ferent times for the extension of the empire ? d. Who were the 
Socii Latini nominis ? 4. What was the jus Latii, and how distin- 
guished from the jus civitatis and the jus Italicum ? 
• S. Translate and fully explain the following passages : 

(a) ''At ex parte altera consules in conspectu eorum, positia seDis. 
delectum habebant ; eo decurrunt tribuni, concionemque secum tni- 
hunt : citati pauci, velut rei experiunds causa : et statim vis coorta. 
Quemcunquelictor jussu consulis prehendisset* tribunus mitti jube- 
bat : neque suum cuique jus modum faciebat, sed virium spe et 
manu obtinendum erat, quod intenderes." 

1. What were the usual penalties for refusing to enlist at the 
command of the consul ? 2. Is any other mode of levying an army 
mentioned in this book ? 

(6) ** Appellad tribuni medio decreto jus auxilii sui expediunt : 
in vincula conjici vetant: sisti reum, pecuniamque, nisi sistatur, 
populo promitti, placere pronunciant. Summam pecuniae quan- 
tam sequum esset promitti, vem'ebat in dubium : id ad senatum reji- 
citur. Reus, dum consulerentur Patres, retentus in publico est : 
vades dare placuit : unum vadem tribus millibus sris obligarunt ; 
quot darentur, permissum tribunis est : decern finierunt : tot vadibus 
accusator vadatus est reum." 

1 . For what sum in English money was each person bound ? 

(c) " Postquam vero comitia decemviris creandis in trinuro nun- 
dinum indicta sunt, tanta exarsit ambitio* ut primores quoque civi- 
tatis (metu credo, ne tanti possessio imperii, vacuo ab se relicto loco, 
baud satis dignis pateret) prensarent homines ; honorem, summa 
ope a se impugnatum, ab ea plebe, cum qua contenderant, supplici- 
ter petentes. Demissa jam in discrimen dignitas, ea setate, iisque 
honoribus actis, stimulabat Appium Claudium : nescires, utrum in- 
ier decemviros, an inter candidatos, numerares." 


(d) "Omniam priinuin« quum veluti in controveno jure esset, 
tenerenturne Patres plebiscitis, legem centiiriatis comitiis tulere, 
Utf quod trihiaim plehes jussisset, popuhm ieneret,** 

(e) " Nee in tribunicio auxilio Appius« nee in judicio populi ullam 
spem habebat : attaroen et tribunos appellavit : et, nullo morante, 
arreptus a viatore, Provoco^ inquit. Audita vox nna vindex libertatis, 
ex eo missa ore* quo vindiciae nuper ab libertate dictae erant, silen- 
tium fecit." 

(/) Satisfactum legi aiebat, quae, numero nuaquam praefinito tri. 
bunis, mod6 ut re1inquerentur« aanciret ; et ab iis, qui creati essent, 
cooptari coUegaa juberet. Recitabatque rogationia carmen, in quo» Si 
tribunos pUbei decern rogaho^ si qui vos minus hodie decern tribunos 
plebeifeceritis : hi turn uti, quos sibi coUegas cooptdssint, ut ilU legi-- 
timi eadem lege tribwd plebei sint, ut ilUf quos hodie tribunos pkbei 


ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1815. 

1. Under wboae patronage did Livy undertake hia hiatory? 
What was the epithet given by thia patron to Livy ? Did the cir- 
cumstancea, which gave riae to it, in any way affect their friendship? 
Whence do we derive our information on thia point ? 

2. Livy has by aome been considered aa a mere copier of Poly- 
biua in thia portion of hia history : atate fully your reaaona for as- 
aenting to, or differing from, this opinion. 

3. " Expertaa prtmo Punico hello." In what year of Rome, and , 
under what Conauls, did this war commence ? What were the prin- 
cipal events in it, and what waa ita duration 1 

4. How many yeara after the building of Carthage waa Hannibal 

declared General ? 

5. What were the cauaea allied by both partiea aa the origin of 
the second Punic war ? Were these the real cauaea ? 


6. *' Vetustissimae Carthaginiensium societati." State hiatorical 
reasons for the propriety of the epithet ' vetustissimae/ 

7. ** Stipendia facere/ At what time, and on what account, was 
pay first given to the infantry ; and to the cavalry ? State the ori- 
ginal amount of each, the several subsequent augmentations, and by 
whom they were made. » 

8. " Sinu ex toga facto" . • . . " iterum sinu effuso." What is pre- 
cisely meant by these passages ? 

9. '' Armati in concilium venerunt." Was this an universal cus- 
, torn among the Gauls ? On what particular occasions was the 

Concilium Armatorum called ? What was the law relative to the 
attendance at it? How was their approbation or disapprobation 
expressed ? Quote your authorities. 

10. ** Quin praerogativam militarem, qua Annibal in praetorium 
delatus, imperatorque appellatus erat, favor etiam plebis sequere- 
tur." Explain fully the origin and meaning of these different ex- 

11. '' Supplicatio per urbem habita." Give an account of the 
forms and ceremom'es observed in the ' supplicatio.' 

12. " Tricastini, Vocontii, Tricorii, Segusiani.*' Mention the po- 
sitions and respective boundaries of these States. Shew that the 
name Allobroges applied to different small States : mention their 

1 3. What is the modem name of the Druentia ? Upon what 
grounds do you form your opinion? 

14. " Tumulos insidentes montani." And '' perventum inde ad 
alium populum." To what people do you suppose ' montani' and 
' alius populus' to refer ? State the reasons for your supposition. 

15. ** Hispaniam Gralliasque." Why should the plural * Gralliaa* 
be here used ? 

16. " Vulgo credere Pennino. . • • transgressum : Caelius per Cre- 
monis jugum dicit transisse ; qui ambo saltus eum, non in Taurinosy 
sed per Salassos montanos ad Libuos Gallos deduxissent." Again 
— " Montibus his ab transitu Paenorum uUo Veragri incolae jngi 
ejus." State fully the reasons why these assertions are of doubtinl 
authority, and the conclusions drawn by Livy erroneous. 

17. Can you, from any part of Livy*s history, prove the fallacy 
of the assertions by Livy as in the last question ? Upon what 


■ion, by whom, and in what mBiiner was the passage over that part 
of the Alps, passed hy Hannibal, /r<( undenaken ? Shew from Livy 
that this pa» over the Alps was known to the Gauls before the time 
of Hannibal. 

16. Explain the precise distinction between ; — agraen, e:iercitus, 
aciea ; imperare, praecipere, jubeie, mandare ; yectigalis, stipendi- 
arias ; pavor, metus, trepidatio. 

19. " Victi ultro inferrent artna." What is the exact force of 
* ultro 'I 

20. " Una continentibus ruinis nudaverat urbem." Explain this 
passage, and support your meaning hy quotation from some classical 

21. " Ob iram interfecti ab eo domini." Explain the construc- 
tion, and give an example of one similar to it. 

SZ. " Et id de quo verbis ambigebatur, uter populus fedua 
lupisiet, eventus helli, velut cequus judex, unde jus statnt, ei victo- 
riam dedit." Again, " Ne quid pars altera gratificari pro Romania 
posset." Translate these passages accurately, and explain their con- 

S3. " Et quod diu paitu^it animus vester, aliquando pariat." How 
do you explain this! Do you recollect a similar passage in 

24. " Nono die in jugum Alpium perventum est." State Hannibal's 
daily progress throughout this period of nine days. 

25. " Occidente jam sidere Vergih'armn." In what month did the 
Vergiliee set 1 Write down, according to the Roman and English 
notation, the day of the month on which it generally happened. 

26. How were the Roman months divided ? State how the ^vi- 
sions varied in different months. 

37. " Finis utriosqpe imperii esiet smnis Iberus." Shew, from 
passages in thn book, that this sentence cannot be understood in a 
strict sense. How is it to be understood T 

28. Translate accurately the following passages ; 

" Erigentibus in primos sgmen cUvos adparuenmt immr — *~~ 
tnmulot insidentes montani; qui, si valles occultiorea inset 
coorti in pugnara repenle, ingeniem fugam stragemque dei 
Hannibal consiatere signs jubet ; Gollisque ad visenda loca p: 
G G 


sis, postquatn comperit, transitura ea non esse, castra inter confra- 
gosa omnia prseruptaque, quam extentiasima potest valle locat." 

" Utraque simul objecta res oculis animisque inmobiles parumper 
eos defixit ; deinde ut trepidationem in angustiis, suoque ipsum tu- 
multu misceri agmen videre» equis maxime constematis, quidquid 
adjecissent ipsi terroris, satis ad pernieiem fore rati, peryersts rupi- 
bus juxta invia ac devia assueti discurrunt. Turn vero simul ab 
hostibus, simul ab iniquitate locorum Pseni obpug^abantur ; plusque 
inter ipsos (sibi quoque tendente, ut periculo prius evaderet) quam 
cum hostibus certaminis erat. Equi maxime infestum agmen facie- 
bant, qui et clamoribus dissonis, quos nemora etiam repercussseque 
▼alles augebant, terrid trepidabant ; et icti forte aut vulnerati adeo 
consternabantur, ut stragem ingentem simul hominum ac sardnarum 
omnis generis facerent ; multosque tnrba quum prscipites demp- 
teeque utrimque angpistiae essent, in immensum altitudinis dejecit : 
quosdam et armatos : sed ruinsB maximae modo jumenta cum oneri- 
bus devolvebantur." ^ 

Quote a passage to support the meaning you affix to ' perverais.' 


A, 1 . Give a short account of the style and character of Liyy, 
from ancient authors. 

2. Shew, by quotation from the author himselfi what period he 
meant to comprehend in his work. What parts have been lost ? 

3. Shew> from Livy, when, and on what occasion, pay was first 
given to the Roman infantry ; and likewise to the cavab^. 

B, 1. Mention the real and pretended origin of each of the 
Punic wars, with their consequences. 2. The names of the difier- 
ent commanders, and (3) the date of the principal battles fought 
during those wars. 4. What other ancient authors have written 
this portion of history ; and in what material respects are they at 
variance with Livy ? 

C I. To what cause principally does a celebrated Greek 
writer attribute the fall of Carthage, and the elevation of Romey 
during the two latter Punic wars ? 


2. To what evident general caiues do you attribute the final 
success of the Romans over the Carthaginians ? 

S. Trace Hannibal*s route from Saguntum to the Trebia, with 
your reasons for adopting that particular line. 

4. Write down JuvenaTs description of Hannibal ; and 

5. His passage over the Alps from Silius Italicus. 

6. Quote the passage in which Virgil alludes to this event. 

7. Had they ever before been passed, according to Livy ? 

/>. 1. What was the established form of government at Carthage 
during the Punic wars ? What was the title of the supreme magis- 
tracy 1 How styled by Cornelius Nepos? (Vit Annib.) Wliat 
compared to by Livy ? What third country had any thing resem- 
bling it f 

2, Mention the most important changes in the supreme magis- 
tracy at Rome, fi'om the foundation of the city to the age of 
Augustus, with the date of each. 

3. Name the three republics which Aristotle considers the best 
modelled of any in the world. Which does he prefer, and what are 
the grounds of his preference? 

E, i. Give the derivation of the following words: — vis, 
decus, sylva, forma, divus, rapax, sevum, ovis, arvum. 

2. Translate and explain : — " Latum inde ad populum, vellent, 
juberent, populo Carthaginiensi helium indici." {• 1 7. 

3. Explain the phrases : — prsrogativa militaris ; sub coron4 
vsenire ; res ex fsedere repetunt; rerum criminis deposcunt. 

4. Also the derivation and meaning of :— anceps, mancipium, 
ambiguus, amphora, praetexta, latrocinium, ambitio. Distinguish 
between : — 6, auspex, augur, aruspex. 6. crimen, culpa, pec- 
catum. 7. acies, exercitus, agmen. 8. peregrinus, hospes, 
advena. 9. deses, piger, desidiosus. 10. campus, ager, 
arvum. 11. sentio, censeo. 

F. Trandate the following passage into English : 

1. '* Hunc juvenem (scil. Hannibalem) tanquam furiam facemque 
beUi odi ac detestor. Nee dedendum solum ad piaculum rupti 
fbderis, — sed, si nemo deposcat. devehendum in ultimas maris 
terrarumque oras ; ablegandumque eo, unde nee ad nos nomen 
famaque ejus • accedere, — nee solicitare quiette civitatis statum 
possit/' §. 10« 

c; G 2 


ft. " Adeo stolida impudensque postulatio viga e8t, censerc, nc in 
Italiam transmittant Galli bellum ; ipsos id avertere in se, agrosqoe 
8U08 pro alienis populandos objicere." §. 20. 

S. " Elepbantorum trajiciendorum varia consilia fuiaae credo ; 
cert^ varia memoria est actce rei. Quidam, congr^atis ad ripam 
elephantis, tradunt ferocissimum ex iis irritatum k rectore suo, 
quum refugientem eum in aquam natantem sequeretur, traxisse 
gregem; ut qnemque timentem altitudinem destituerat vadum, 
inq>etu ipso fluminis in alteram ripam rapiente." J. 28. 

4. " Et quia ncc montanis primo perculsis, nee loco roagnopere 
impediebantur, aliquantum eo triduo viae confecit" §. S3. 

QUEEN'S COLL. 1821. 

1. Give some account of Livy. What were the peculiarities of 
his style, and what his general character as an historian ? 

2. Explain the distinction between the following words : — jubeo, 
mando ; indico, dedaro ; popularis, vulgaris ; factiosus, seditiosus ; 
oratiof concio ; fiducia, confidentia; pugna* prslium ; augurium, 
bmen ; imperator, rex. 

3. Mark the quantities of the penultimae of the following words : 
— irritat, parturit, dimico, vetitus, trucido, comparo, Ticinus, Mes- 
sana, Agates, Mutina, Rhodanus, Ligures, Melita. 

4. Give a short history of the Carthaginians, and add some ob- 
servations respecting their. government. 

5. From what causes originated the jealousies that subsisted be- 
tween Rome and Carthage, and what were the circumstances which 
led to the second ^unic war ? 

6. Translate the fourth chapter of the twenty- first book of Livy, 
in which is given tbe character of Hannibal. 

7. Shew the number of independent States into which Spain was 
divided, and point out the respective limits of the Roman and Car- 
thaginian power in that country when the war commenced. 

8. What was the extent and power of the Roman empire when 
Hannibal attacked Saguntum ? 


' 9. Mention the dates of the commencements of the first and 
second Punic wars, according to the year of Rome, the Greek 
Olympiads, and the Christian aera. 

10. Give some account of the States of Gaul through which Han- 
nibal passed, and of the principal events that occurred during his 
march from the Pyrenees to the Alps. 

1 1 . Describe the situation and extent of the Alps, and mention 
the names of the States bordering upon them. Had they ever been 
passed over by any armies previous to the time of Hannibal ? 

IS. Are there not some disputes respecting the exact route of 
Hannibal over them ? and is not the way described by Livy liable 
to great .objections ? 

1 d. Give some account of the soldiers which composed the army 
of Hannibal when it arrived in Italy ; — the manner in which it was 
generally placed in order of battle, and the situation and employment 
of the elephants. 

14. Who was the commander that first opposed Hannibal after 
he had passed over the Alps, and of what description were the 
soldiers which formed his army ? Did the son of that commander 
then and afterwards distinguish himself in any remarkable manner? 

15. Describe the order of the Roman army at the battle that was 
fought near the river Trebia, and relate the pnncipal events which 
took place during that engagement. 

16. To what causes were the successes of Hannibal over die Romans 
chiefly to be attributed, and what circumstances occasioned the final 
failure of his enterprise ? 


1. From what point, according to Livy, does the History of 
Rome assume an air of certainty, and what causes does he enumerate 
of its previous obscurity ? 

2. In what year were Livy and Polybius born ? In what places, 
and what is known of their lives 1 

3. Give the dates of the commencement and conclusion of each 


of the three Punic wars, with a short sketch of the principal eyents 
and of the most prominent actors concerned in them. What was 
the immediate and what the real cause of the second Punic war t 

4. What was the extent and power of the Roman Empire when 
Hannibal attacked Saguntum ? 

5. What was the date of the foundation of Carthage ? Give a 
brief account of the Carthaginian form of government. 

6. Give the character of Hannibal as it may be recoUected from 
impartial accounts of him. 

7» Draw a comparison between the characters and cpialifications 
of Livy and Polybius as historians. To which of them^ in their 
account of the journey of Hannibal from Spain into Italy, is the 
greater credit to be given ? Enumerate the principal objections to 
Livy's account, the points in which it differs from that of Polybius 
and in which it is inconsistent with itself. 

8. Describe the passage of Hannibal orer the Rhone. What 
account does Polybius give of the island at the confluence of the 
Rhone and Saone ? 

9. Describe the situation and extent of the Alps, and mention 
the names of the states bordering upon them. Draw a map of the 
country between the Rhone and the Po, marking the route which, 
according to Polybius, it is probable that Hannibal pursued. 

10. To what causes were the successes of Hannibal orer the 
Romans chiefly to be attributed, and what circumstances occasioned 
the final failure of his enterprise ? 

1 1. ** Eos ipsos, quos cernant, legatos non pennis sublime elatos 
Alpes transgressos ; ne majores quidem eorum indigenas; sed 
advenas Italise cultores, has ipsas Alpes ingentibus saepe agminibus 
cum liberis ac conjugibus, migrantium modo, tuto transmisisse." 

Translate this passage ; mention the principal irruptions of the 
Gauls into Italy, with the date of the first : and state what were 
the tracts of country successively occupied by them. By what road 
over the Northern Alps may we infer firom Livy's account that they 
all came? 

12. Give an account of the 'Comitia Consularia ;' translate and 
explain ^'nominatse jam antea consulibus provinciae erant; turn 
sortiri jussi." How were the Roman levies raised ? 

1 S, What were the three principal divisions of Hispania Antiqua ? 


point out the respective limits of the Roman and Carthaginian power 
at the commencement of the war ; shewing how the words " ut finis 
utriusque imperii esset amnis Iherus*' are to be miderstood. — How 
do you reconcile the passage, " Civitas ea longe opulentissima ultri^ 
Iherum fuit,** with the words, *' Ad Iberum est Saguntum ? " 

14. Give a description of the * vines/ * aristes/ and ' turns mobilis.* 
Quote Virgil's description of the Falarica. 

15. Explain the phrases :—pr8crogativa militoris* — de republic^ 
referre, — cuniculos agere, cuniculos excipere^ — stativa castra, — 
rupem manire, — committere, profligarp^ conficere, helium; and 
state the distinctions between custodise and stationes, — excubiee and 
vigih'se, — censere and velle. 

16. Construe accurately^ "id de quo verbis ambigebatur, uter 
populus fcedus rupisset^ eventus belli, velut sequus judex, unde jus 
stabat, ei victoriam dedit*" " publica fraus absit,** " defenderent 
publico consilio factum ut indicerent helium,*' " adverso flumine ire." 

17. State the divisions^of the Roman Legion^ and the numbers of 
which it was composed at different periods. Of what number did 
the Justus equitatus consist ? 

18. Describe the order of the Roman army at the battle fought 
near the river Trebia ; and give an account of the engagement. 

19. Give a literal translation of the following passages : 

"Jam montani signo dato 

•cum oneribus devolvebantur.'* c. S3. 

" Ea vero via insuperabilis- 

-alte concreta glacie.'' c. 36. 

CAIUS COLL, 1823. 

1. Give Quintilian's and Tacitus' characters of Livy as an 
historian. Of what part in politics was he ? What situation did he 
hold in the court ? 

2. What are the 'libri lintei*' and * Magistratuum Annales.* 

3. Give authorities for fixing the time of the year when the 
Consuls entered upon their office, at different periods of the Republic. 


4. Mark accurately the extent of the dominions of Rome at this 
period, and her political relations with the principal foreign powers. 

5. Mention the leading characters during the second Punic war ; 
and refer to each their several actions. When, and by whom, was 
the war terminated? What conditions were imposed upon the 
conquered state ? 

6. Give the dates of the Foundation of Carthage ; the first Treaty 
with the Romans (what was the substance of this Treaty Tj ; the 
first entrance of the Romans into Sicily; Regis Fuga; Bellum 
Persicum ; the first appoi^jfrnent of Decemviri, of Tribuni Con- 
sulares, and of a Dictator. 

7. State the precise object of the Agrarian Law, with a brief 
history of it. 

8. "Mutinse quum obsiderentnr, et gens ad oppugnandarum 
urbium artes rudis, pigerrima eadem ad militaria opera, segnis 
intactis assideret muris, simulari coeptum de pace agi." 

Shew from this and other passages of Livy, the state of civili- 
zation among the Gauls. 

9. What are the data in Polybius for determining Hannibal's route ?- 
Compare the authority of the two historians on this question. Give 
your opinion. Do the following passages oppose or confirm it ? 

" Ad laevam in Tricastinos flexit'* c. xxxi. 
" Ad Druentiam flumen pervenit." Ibid, 
" Inde campestri maxim^ itineread Alpes pervenit." c. xxxii. 
'* Annibal, in promontorio quodam, Italiam ostentat, subjectosque 
Alpinis montibus Circumpadanos campos ; ' moeniaque eos turn 
transcendere, non Italiae modo, sed etiam urbis Romanae.' " c. xxxv. 
" Qui ambo saltus eum, non in Taurinos, sed per Salassos Mon- 
tanos ad Libuos Gallos deduxissent." c. xxxviii. 

1 0. " Quartis castris, adlnsulam pervenit ; ibi Arar Rhodanusque 
amnes, diversis ex AJpibus decurrentes, agri aliquantum amplexi, 
confluunt in unum.'* 

How does Polybius describe the Insula ? 

!!• Give accurately Hannibal's route from the Alps to the 
Thrasymene lake ; noting the events, and the time probably spent» 
at each place. 

12. "Graia Saguntus." " Ausonia Saguntus." SiLIial. 

Reconcile the epithets. 

Id. /jLtrciv r^c *Qp(wyot ^'ai Kvi^oc eVcroXa;. Polyb, I. 



" Vergilianun sidere occidente." 
What seasons of the year are meant 1 Explain this mode of 
marking the time. 

14. From what ranks of citizens were the different parts of the 
Roman legion raised ? Had the Romans any thing similar to the 
XeiTovpyiai of the Athenians ? 

15. What was the relative value of gold, silver, and copper, at 
the commencement of the second Punic war ? What was the weight 
of the Attic talent ? Explain — 

'^Argenti probi dato (Antiochus) 12,000 talenta, &c. (talentum 
ne minus pondo octoginta Romanis ponderibus pendat)." Liv. 
xxxviii. 38. 

Can you compare the value of money in that age, with its 
present value ? 

16. " Ardentia saxa infuso aceto putrefaciunt. Ita torridam 
incendio rupem ferro pandunt" 

What is the effect here attributed to vinegar ? Are there au- 
thentic instances in antiquity of its dissolving power ? 

1 7. " Undique ex insidiis barbari a fronte, ab tergo coorti, cominus 
eminus petunt : saxa ingentia in agmen devolvunt : maxima ab 
tergo vis hominum urgebat." 

How is the structure of this sentence adapted to the sense? 
Give instances of this figure from Greek and Latin writers. 

J 8. Distinguish between: — silentium triste, tacita moestitia; 
tenere ad insulam, tenere insulam ; referre, deferre, ferre. Are the 
following phrases correct ? — deferre legem populo ; lex est rejecta 
(thrown out), — — lata (carried). 

19. Explain: 

" Perlevi momento victi sunt.*' " Nee Annibab', tanto discrimine 
rerum, operae esse legationem audire.*' ** Occupavit tamen Scipio 
Padum trajicere." ** Tum omnes, velut Diis auctoribus in spem suam 
quisque acceptis, poscunt, &c." 

20, 21, 22. Various passages to translate into English. 
28. Translate into Latin Prose : 

The person^ as well as the mind, of Constantine, had been en- 
riched by nature with her choicest endowments. His stature was 
lofty, his countenance majestic, his deportment graceful ; his strength 
and activity were displayed in every manly exercise, and from his 


earliest youth, to a very advanced season of life, he preserved the 
vigour of his constitution by a strict adherence to the domestic 
virtues of chastity and temperance. He delighted in the social 
intercourse of familiar conversation ; and though he might sometimes 
indulge his disposition to raillery with less reserve than was required 
by the severe dignity of his station, the courtesy and liberality of 
his manners gained the hearts of all who approached him. The 
sincerity of his friendship has been suspected ; yet he shewed on 
some occasions, that he was not incapable of a warm and lastii^ 
attachment. The disadvantage of an illiterate education had not 
prevented him from forming a just estimate of the value of learning ; 
and the arts and sciences derived some encouragement from the 
munificent protection of Constantine. 

St. JOHN'S COLL. 1824. 

1 . State the extent of the power of the Romans at the commence- 
ment of the second Punic war ; the number of the Tribes ; and the 
numbers on the Censor's roll. What Colonies had they planted in 
Italy ? What military force were they able to bring into the field ? 

2, Briefly enumerate the leading events of the Punic wars, with 
their dates. What do you consider as the real origin of each? 

S, What were Livy's means of information on the subjects on 
which he has written ? What are the particulars in his account of 
this war, which are opposed by other historians, and by probability ? 
Estimate his qualifications as an historian in comparison with those 
of Polybius. 

4. Trace the march of Hannibal from the Rhone to the Ticinus. 
Give tlie names and situations of the passes across the Alps, either 
known to the Romans, or subsequently rendered practicable. Quote 
the passages from Latin poets, which describe or allude to the pas- 
sage of HannibaL 

5, '* Inhumana crudelitas, perfidia plus quam Punica, nihil yetif 
nihil sancti, nuUus De(km metus, nullum jusjurandum, nulla religio.** 
Quote passages from other Roman writers in which Hannibal is 
similarly mentioned. Draw his character firom the particulars of his 
life with which you are acquainted. 


6. Translate and fully explain the following paBsages: 

** In Hasdrubalis locum haud dubia res fuit, quin praerogativam 
militarem, qua extemplo juvenis Hannibal in prsetorium delatusi 
imperatorque ingenti omnium damore atque adsensu appellatus erat, 
favor etiam plebis sequeretur." §. 3. 

" Hi tamen, unde ne hostium quidem legati arcentur, pulsi ad nos 
▼eniunt, res ex foedere repetunt. Publica fraus absit ; auctorem 
culpfle et reum criminis deposcunt." §. 10. 

" Latum inde ad populum, * vellent, juberent, populo Karthagi- 
niensi bellum indiei.' Ejusque belli caussa, supplicatio per urbem 
habita." §. 17. 

" Quanqnam» etsi priore foedere staretur, satis cautum erat Sa- 
guntinis, sociis utrorumque exceptis. Nam neque additum erat, 
* iisy qui tunc essent :' nee, * ne qui postea adsuroerentur.' Et quum 
adsumere novos liceret socios, quis aequum censeret^ aut ob nulla 
quemquam merita in amicitiam recipi ? aut receptos in fidem non 
defendi?" §. 19. 

7. Clearly explain the nature of the enats in the following ex- 
pressions, and correct them : 

Solon, quo reipublicse prosit, furere se dissimulavit ; Timeo, 
ut me deseres ; Non dubito, ut litteras libenter lecturus erat, vereor 
ne redderentur ; Enmt, qui dicent ; Nee solvendo eere alieno Res- 
publica erat ; Non habeo, quid dicam ; Quid me fiat, parvum 
facio, minimi enim interest ; Multos audiyi, qui putabant ; Car- 
thagine natus, Romft mortuus, Tarento sepultus. 

8. Shew the origin of tlie Latin language, by giving instances of 
resemblance in every part of speech. Enumerate the modes of con- 
struction in Latin, which are strictly Grecisms. How do you express 
in Greek the Latin gerund, supine, future in rus^ and ablative 
absolute ? 

9. Translate into Grreek Iambics : 

" Transitu in Italiam Hannibalis, quantum terroris pavorisque> 
quas delude clades, quos luctus incidisse ? Visa caslra hostium de 
muris urbis : quce vota singulorum universorumque fuisse ? quoties 
in conciliis voces, manus ad coelum porrigentium, auditas; En! un- 
quam ille dies futurus esset, quo vacuam hostibus patriam bonft pace 
florentem visuri essent 1 Dedisse tandem id Deos : nee esse qui 
Diis grates agendas censeant/' 




I. What parts of the Roman history do the extant works of 
Livy and Polybiua respectively contain ? Why is the authority of 
the latter particularly valuable in reference to the Macedonian and 
Punic wars ? 

II. Mention the principal changes which took place in. the Roman 
Constitution, from its establishment at the expulsion of the Tarquins 
to the destruction of Carthage. 

1. Who was the first Dictator; and on what occasion was he 
first created ? Who was the first Plebeian Consul ? 

2. " Darent operam Consules ne quid detrimenti respublica ca- 
peret." What were the ordinary powers of the Consuls, and how 
were they increased by this decree? Quote Sallust on this point. 

3. Give the dates of the following events : — ^Taking of Rome by 
the Gauls ; first Plebeian Consul ; arrival of Pyrrhus in Italy ; com- 
mencement of the second Punic war. 

4. What country was first reduced to the form of a Roman 
province ? 

III. " Senatum itaque suffetes (quod velut Consulare Imperium 
apud eos erat) vocaverunt" State what is known of the government 
of Carthage ; and give the substance of Aristotle's (Pol. Book II.) 
and Polybius*s (Book VI.) remarks on it. 

IV. At the commencement of the first Punic war, what was the re- 
spective extent of the Roman and Carthaginian empires ? Draw a 
map, marking out the possessions of the latter in Africa, with the 
territories of Massinissa and Syphax respectively. Give the geo- 
graphical situations of Rome, Capua, Saguntum, Carthage, Tunis, 
Utica, Cirta, and Zama. 

V. Translate : — 

'* Sspe Comitia indicta perfici tempestates prohibuerunu Itaque 
quum pridie Idus Martias veteres magistratus abissent, novi sufifecti 
non essent, Respublica sine curulibus magtstratibus erat." 


1 • Give a short account of the * Comitia Curiata/ ' Comitia 
Centuriata,' and ' Comitia Tributa.' 

2. Explain the date ' Pridie Idus Mardas.' What were the 
divisions of the Roman month? How many days were there in 
each ? How were they reckoned? 

3. What magistrates were called Curulest and whence was the 
word derived 1 

VL c. 1 7. " Legatis in singulos, dona ne minus quinum millium 
comitibus eorum milUum seris.*' Express <hese sums in English 
money. What is understood before ' eeris' ? 

1 . When a numeral adverb is joined to Sestertium, what does it 
express ? What is the etymology of ' Sestertius V 

VIL Translate and explain yu% the following passages : 

1. ** Fnisinone Arcus solem tenui linea complexus est; circu- 
lum deinde ipsum major solis orbis extrinsecus inclusit.*' c. 2. 

2. " Tribunis edicit ut ubi Prstorio dimisso signa concinuis- 
sent extemplo educerent castris legiones.** c. 5. 

3. " Ex nostratis Poeni vana pleraque (utpote supino jactu) 
tela in superiorem locum mittebant." c. 10. 

4. " Veniam civi(ati petebant civium temeritate bis jam ante ever- 
sae, incolumi futurse iterum hostium Beneficio." c 16. 

What occasions are here alluded to ? Is the passage correct ? 

5. ** Ad hoc sedes liberae, loca, Lautia legatis decreta.^' c. 17. 

6. ** Magnam vim frumenti ex Hispanii missam M.Valerius Falto 
et M. Fabius Buteo ^diles Cuf ules quatemis iseris vicatim Populo 
descripserunt." c. 26. 

7. ** Non temere incerta casuum reputat quern For tuna num- 
quam decepit.^' c. 30. 

8. *' Ad hoc Colloquium Annibalis in secreto habitum, ac libe- 
rum fingenti qu& velit, flecti.** c. 32. 

9. " Neque Inquisitio erat facilis, adversantibus paci qui Ar- 
guerentur.** c. 37. 

10. '* Quae publica in Navibus fuerant, ex publicis descripta 
rationibus quaestores ; quae privata profiteri Domini jussi." c. ^8, 

11. " Ipsis postulantibus Senatus consultum in haec verba factum 
est ; ut privos lapides Silices privasque verbenas secum ferrent ; uti 
Praetor Romanus his Imperaret, ut Foedus ferirent, Illi praetorem 
Sagmina poscerent." e. 43. 


12* " Secutus Scipionem triumphantem est Pileo capiii tmpogUo 
Q. Terentius Culleo : Omnia deinde vitft ut dignum erat Libeitatis 
auctorem coluit." c. 45. 

VIII. •Translate literally : 

" Igitur primo impetu 

integram Aciem Miscerent." c. 54. 

*' Locum nimirum, non periculum 

prceferre posset Annibal." c. 28. 

IX. Distinguish between Colonice and Municipia; Siipendiarii 
and VectigaUs ; Socu and AuxiUa ; Navale^ Sccii and Remiges ; 
DeUgere and Conscribere Milites. 

1. Derive the following words : Stipendiumf Vectigal, Lustrum, 

X. Translate the following into Latin prose : 

This charge upon Livy, of wanting discernment, I apprehend 
to be entirely groundless. Supposing him to believe that the Roman 
chronology was true, he could not be aware of the insuperable ob- 
jections to his opinion concerning the birth of Superbus. But I 
take the cause to be this : That Superbus was the son of Priscus 
is a simple fact, which could easily be preserved by tradition ; much 
more easily than the ages of successive kings, or the number of 
years they reigned. Tradition universally supported that simple 
fact, and there was nothing to bring the truth of it in question but 
such reasoning as Dionysius has employed, founded on the received 
but uncertain chronology of the regal state of Rome. 



I. 1 . What are the two principal sources of the Latin language? 
and what data have we to determine its condition before the time 
of Plautus 1 

S. Write the following sentence, according to the orthography 
of the period A. U. C. 570. " Uti hocce in tabulara aeneam in- 


cideretis, utique earn figi jubeatis, ubi facillime nosci possit." By 
what remarkable monument may this orthography be ascertained? 

II. 1 . Mention any remarkable points, in which the ancient pronun- 
ciation of Latin may be supposed to have differed from the modern ? 

2. What are the principal criteria, for determining the orthography 

of a disputed word? In the following examples, which do you 

prefer 1 

(quum (anchora (hiems Clitera 

fcum fancora ( hyems (^littera. 

III. 1. Divide the history of Rome into such periods, as may 
appear to you most distinctly marked. 

2. "Romse magnam trepidationem.** c, 26. Enumerate, with 
dates, the critical periods of the Roman power. 

IV. Give some account of the political life of Polybius : in what 
terms is he spoken of by Livy and Cicero ? Why does he call his 
history airoScucruni ? What parts of the Roman history are included 
in the extant works of Polybius and Livy respectively ? 

V. 1 . Translate 01 yap 'Pa>/iau>i ov rriv Tvxoy<rav irpovoiay iwoiovy 
TO rov fifj Kardfr)(pvT€g t^cUveaOai xt^v dZLKwy^ fjui^ dyatpovfieroi rovs 
iroXi/wvc X^<P^€ ivifidWeiy roig ireXac, aW' oil h)Kuy dpvvofuyoi Koi 
icar drdyKfiy Ififialytiv c2c Tovg irokepovg, 

2, Illustrate this by a reference to the alleged causes of the 
third Punic war, and of that with Philip. 

VI. 1 . What country did the Greek historians understand by 
Alyves and AjLyoffruni ? What were the limits of their territory, 
when attacked by the Romans ? To what province did Liguria 
afterwards belong 1 

2. Give the geographical position of the following places : — Tar- 
quinii, Massilia, Tarentum^ Tarraco, and Tarracina. Trace the 
origin of those in Italics. 

VII. 1. c. 6. " omnium ab ultimft origine Macedoniae regum." 
By whom and at what period was the kingdom of Macedon founded ? 
and when does its history become connected with that of Ghreece 
and Rome respectively ? Give a summary of the transactions be- 
tween Philip and the Romans, prior to this period. 

2. " Haec, vivo Philippo, velut semina jacta sunt Macedonici 
belli.'' State the principal incidents of this war. What countries 
were comprised under the Roman province of Macedonia ? and into 
what districts was it divided ? 


VIIL c. 37. " Decemviri libros inspicere." Was this a per- 
man^At or a temporary office ? What is their full title ? and where 
were these books preserved at different periods ? Give the etymo- 
logy of Sibylla. What are the ' Versus Sibyllini' quoted by Chris- 
tian writers ? 

IX. c. 42. " Cumanis permissum^ ut publice Ladne loque- 
rentur, et prseconibus Latine vendendi jus esset." By whom and 
at what period was Cuma founded ? (What is Kvfui AloXlcl) What 
other cities were colonised yrom Cuma? When and how did it be- 
come a dependency of Rome ? Is there any difficulty in this pas- 
sage, with reference to the general principles of Roman policy ? 

X. 1 . Translate ** Theatrum et proscenium ad Apollinis, sedem 
Jovis in Capitolio, columnasque circa poliendas albo locavit** c. 51. 
'*Theatra inchoata quidem sunt a Messala et Cassio censoribus ; 
ceterum auctore P. Scipione Nasica omnem adparatum operis eorum 
subjectum hastse venire placuit." Val. Max* 

2. Are these two passages inconsistent ? By whom was the first 
permanent theatre erected ? How did he evade the ' animadversio 
ccnsoria :' and what epithet is applied to this theatre by Tertullian ? 

3. What parts of the theatre are the cunei, pulpitum and pnxsce- 
nium ? Explain 

— — — similemque videbis 
Orchestram et populum. Juv. Sat. d. 

XI. c. 34. '^ Mm trecenos militibus divisit.** c. 43. " Sig- 
nati Oscensis numum centum septuaginta tria miBia ducentos.'* 
Calculate the above sums. What was the weight of the As at thb 
period 1 and the relative value of the Sestertius ? 

2. Explain t^v ^(\wy Ttrl fivpidhag iKiXevire irivre Kal Eucom &>6ijf- 
vcu' Tovro 'Pbf/iacoc AEKIEIS KoXovtn. PhUarclu Vtt, Anton. 

3. Fill up and explain the following legend, on a coin of Com- 
modus. P. M. TR. P. X. IMP. VII. COS. IIII. P. P. How does 
this determine the year of his reign ? 

XII. c. 5. "speciem ipsius urbis nondum exomatae." Men- 
tion the public buildings in existence at this period^ with the date 
or occasion of their erection. What are the most remarkable anti- 
quities of modern Rome ? 

■ XIII. c. 1 7. " inter populum Carthaginiensem et regem Masi- 


1. What was the greatest extent of the Carthaginian power ? and 
what is known of their political institutions ? Give the substance 
of Aristotle's remark upon the latter. 

2. Translate Polyb. vi. 51. To 3c Kaf>xi|2oWwv iroX/revjua to /luV 
dytKadiy /loc &>ire7 KoKtas Kara ye rdc 6\oe\€p€ic huu^opdc frvriardcBai, 
Kal yap jSao'cXcIc ^o'av wop* avroic koI to yipovrloy flyt ri|v dpurrO" 
KpaTuajy ilfivalaVf Koi to irXijOoc ^v Kvptoy Tuiy KadviKoyTiay avTf. 
What was the peculiar title of the BatrtKEiQ, and whence derived ? 

XIV. In the following passages, supply the appropriate word 
(verbum solenne), implying the mode of the appointment : — " Cen- 
sores .... sunt M. ^milius Lepidus et M. Fulvius Nobilior." 
*' Princeps Senatus .... est ipse censor M. ^milius." " Pontifex a 
collegio. ... est Q. Fulvius Flaccus." " Pont. Maximus .... est M. 
iEmilius Lepidus." 

XV. 1 . Translate " Censores populi aevitates, suboles, familias, 
pecuniasque censento : urbis templa, vias, aquas, serarium, vecti- 
galia tuento : populique partes in tribus distribuunto : cselibes esse 
prohibento : mores populi regunto : probrum in Senatu ne relin- 

, quunto.*' Cic. de L^. 

2. With what powers were tliey furnished for the execution of 
each of these duties? When the duration of their power was 
abridged, Livy says» "Ex quinquennali. . . .censura £su:ta est." 
Supply the words omitted. Explain ultrotrihuUif redemptorihtu locare, 
locatianes inducerCt lustrum candere, 

XVI. Translate the foUowing passages : and explain fiilly the 
phrases in Italics. 

C. 5. " Animo magis quaro vultu ea crimina accipiebat.** 

C. 8. *'De lucro tibi, inquit, vivere me scito." 

lb. " Vivo et spirante me, hcprediUUem meam ambo et spe et cu- 
piditate improba crevistis.** 

C. 9. " Nihil ego tanquam accusator, criminose nee dubia argu- 
mentis colligendo ago." 

C. 29. " Libri in conutiot igne a victimariis facto, in conspectu 
populi cremati sunt." 

C. 3ft, " Postero die spolia de hostibus lecta, et pro concione 
donati, quorum virtus insignis fuerat." 

C. 46. " Inde ^milius questus quum alia, turn bis a M. Fulvio 

H H 


•e certo contulatu dgectum. Fulvius ccmtra queri, se ab eo semper 
lacetsitiun, et in pcobmin soum spontumemfactam." 

C. 51. *' Censores fideli oonoordia senatum legerunt*' 

Fb, "Mataninl sufiragia: regioDatimque generibua bomimun, 
caiissisque et qusstibns, tribus descripserunt.'* 

GWe some account of the * comtia tribuia^* and explain pre- 
daely, what was the change here spoken of! 

C. 2S. '* Deprecado erat in literis« si quid adolescens, cupiditate 

regiu prolapsus, secum egisset. nihil eum adverstu suorum quenquam 

fadunan : negne mm sese este, qui uttius in^ni cansilii auctorfuiwna 

videri possii." Transfer the words in ItalicB, from the ortUio obfi- 

^110 to direeia. 

XVIL I. Explain and derive the following words: — ^Lustrum, 
extemplo, immolare, indacifle. Lares, Btipendittniy vectigal. 

IIki9trate by quotations the primary meaning of quiritari^ 

2. Distinguish between segnis and socors ; clam and occuUe ; im- 
UAus and infectus ; deligere and conscrihere milites. 

XVIII. Translate the following passages : 
" Eodem anno .in agro L. Petilli i . 

-adoommodata fide." c. 29. 

2. *' Turn Scipio, falsum «st, Manili, inquit, id totum ; neque 
solum fictum, sed etiam imperite absurdeque fictum : ea sunt emra 
demum non ferenda in mendacio, quae non solum facta esse, sed ne 
fieri quidem potuisse cemimus. Nam quartum jam annum r^- 
nante Lueio Tarquinio Superbo, Sybarim et Crotonem et in eas 
Italise partes Pythagoras venisse repperitur. Ex quo intelligi, r^s 
annis dinumeratis, potest, anno fere centesimo et quadragesimo post 
mortem Numce primum Italiam Pythagoram attigisse. Di immor* 
tales ! inquit Maniliusy quantus iste est hominum et quam invetera- 
tus error!" Cic. de Repub. ii. 15. 

What are the probable sources of this anachronism ? 





Sine CoU, et anno. 

I. 1. What does Tacitus relate of his own family? 2. When 
did he live, and with whom was he contemporary ? 3. What public 
honours did he obtain 1 4. To what illustrious person was he re- 
lated ? 5. Who among his descendants became celebrated, and at 
what time ? 

II. 1. Enumerate the works of Tacitus, noticing the time they 
comprehend, and the periods of them that are lost. 2. Produce ar- 
guments in favour of his being the author of the Dialogus de causis 
corruptee EloquentuB, or the contrary* 

III. 1 • Give a list of the Roman kings in order, with dates, and 
remarkable features in their characters^ or events in their reigns. 

2. The changes in the Roman Government, with dates ; noticing 
the duration of each, and the circumstances that led to the change. 
S. The order of the first fourteen Roman Emperors, mentioning the 
date and manner of the death of each, and his relation to his prede- 
cessor in the Empire ; or, where no relation existed, point out the 
circumstances that led to his elevation. 

IV. 1. Give dates A. U.C. and B.C. of the following events in 

Roman History (a) Catiline's conspiracy (h) The first 

naval victory of the Romans (c) The Institution of the Ferise 

Latins (d) Defeat of Pyrrhus (e) Jugurthioe war. 2. 

What are the causes assigned by Polybius for the second Punic war? 

3. Give an account of the different regulations of the Roman Calen- 
dar. 4. Explain their method of reckoning the days of the month ; 
and the term Bissextilis. 



V. 1. "Sed veteris Populi Romani prospera vel adveraa dans 
scriptoribus, &c." Mention the chief Roman Historians that pre- 
ceded Tacitus, with the subjects they recorded, and the ages in 
which they flourished. 2. Of what country was Polybius? What 
peculiar qualifications did he possess for writing his history ? And 
in what terms does Livy speak of him. 3. Who of the Latins may 
be appropriately compared with the celebrated Grecian Historians ? 

VI. 1. Translate, "Legata non ultra civilem modum, nisi quod 
populo et plebi ccccxxxv, praetoriarum cohortium militibus singula 
nummum millia, legionariis ccc, cohortibus civium Romanorum 
ccccc nummos viritim dedit." c. 8. Distinguish between populo 
and pleln^ and write out these several sums in Roman and English 
money. "2. Arminius offered to every deserter from the Romans 
" sestertios centenos in dies :" Tiberius gave to the inhabitants of 
Sardis *' centies sestertium.** Give an explanation. 3. Give an 
account of the three kinds of soldiers mentioned above* assigning a 
reason for the difference of their legacies, and particularizing any 
remarkable events in which the first-mentioned were concerned. 

VII. It was objected to Augustus* " Pacem sine dubio postha^;, 
verum cruentam : LoUianas Varianasque clades : interfectos Romse 
Varrones, Egnatios, Julos .... Abducta Neroni uxor .... Livia gravis 
domui Caesarum noverca.*' Explain briefly the events referred to 
in this quotation. 

VIII. What were the limits of the Roman empire in the time of 
Augustus? What advice did he leave respecting them ? And how 
long was that advice regarded ? 

IX. "Candidatos Pcseturse duodecim nominavit* numerum ab 
Augusto traditum : et hortante Senatu, ut augeret, jurejurando ob- 
strinxit se, non excessurum.'' c. 14. 1. Did Tiberius ever violate 
this oath ? 2. Give an account of the institution of the Preetor's 
office, the original number, gradual increase, &c. with dates. 3. 
Who were the Judices at Rome? How were the votes given? 
And what part did the Praetors take in the proceedings of the courts 
of Law ? 

X. 1 . How many kinds of Comitia were there ? 2. Which vras 
the chief? And what business was transacted in it ? 3. How far 
did Julius Caesar encroach upon its power ? 4« Suetonius says of 
Augustus, "Comitiorum pristinumjus reduxit:" explain Aoib flmfc^ 


of their power he restored. 5. Who was the first Emperor that 
took away the remaining shadow of their authority ? 6. When, 
and on what occasion, were the Tribunes of the Commons instituted? 

XI. 1. When, and by whose suggestion, were the Ludi Augus- 
tales instituted ? In what month, and on what day of the month, 
were they celebrated ? ft. In what month — ^in honor of whom — and 
of what continuance, were the Megalesia, Quinquatria, Saturnalia? 
9* By what particular circumstances were they distinguished? 
Quote, or refer to the Latin Poets in illustration. 4. What were 
the Secidar Games ? 

XII. 1. What was the pay of a Roman soldier in the time of 
the Republic? What, under Augustus? 2. What increase had 
the Praetorian cohorts ? and why ? 3. How long was the regular 
time of seirice for horse and foot ? 4. Distinguish between Missio 
and Exauctoratio ; and explain misaio justa, and catuaria. 5, Tran- 
slate, *' Ne dimissis quidem finem esse militiae ; sed apud vexiUum 
retentos, alio vocabulo eosdem labores perferre : ac si quis tot casus 
vit& superaverit, trahi adhuc diversas in terras, ubi, per nomen a- 
grorum, uligines paludum vel inculta montium accipiant." 6. Who 
introduced the practice alluded to in apud vexiUum retentos ? 7. 
What was the aUud vocabulum ? 8. What Roman custom is alluded 
to in the latter words, trahv adhuc diver ms^ S^c. ? 

XIII. 1 . In imitation of what body were the Sodales Augus- 
tales instituted ? ft. Distinguish between Sodalis, Flamen, and Sa- 
cerdos. 3. Give a brief account of the Pantomimes exhibited in the 
Ludi Augustales, the persons who introduced them at Rome, the 
fondness of the Romans for them, &c. with references to the Poets. 

XIV. 1. Where, when, how, and at what age did Germanicus 
die ? 2. Answer the same questions of his wife. 3. Who of the 
Roman emperors were lineally descended from him ? 

XV. Translate the following passage into English : 

'* Incedebat muliebre et miserabile agmen, profuga ducis uxor, 
parvulum sinu filium gerens : lamentantes circum amicorum con- 
juges, quae simul trahebantur : nee minus tristes, qui manebant. 
Non florentis Caesaris, neque suis in castris, sed velut in urbe victft, 
facies, gemitusque ac planctus, etiam militum aures oraque adver- 
tere. Progrediuntur contuberniis : quis iUeflehiUs sonus ? quod tarn 
triste ? feminas inlustres — non centurionem ad tutelam^ non militemf 


mhil imperatcria uxarist aut comtatuM soliti — pergere ad Treveros, 
ei extemcB fidei* Pudor inde et miseratioj et patris * Agrippss, 
Augusti avi, memoria: socer *Drusu8; ipsa insigni fecunditate^ 
prsedara pudicitia: jam infans in castris genitus, in contubernio 
legionum eductus, quern militari vocabulo f Caligulam appella- 
banty quia plerumque ad concilianda vulgi studia go tegmine pedum 
induebatur." c. 40, 1. 

* Wbo were tbese persons ? Give their full names ; and trace 
the relations here referred to. 

f Explain. 



First Paper, 

1 . What is known of the life of Tacitus from his own writings t 
or from those of bis contemporaries ? What gpronnds have we for 
determining the year of his birth ? and how does die result agree 
with his declaration : *' Dignitatem nostram a Vespasiano inchoatam, 
a Tito auctam, a Domitiano longius provectam non abnuerim." 
(Hist. i. 1.}? For what purpose does he make this acknowledge- 
ment ? and why does he stop with Domitian ? What are the offices 
here referred to ? What is recorded of Tacitus as praetor ? and as 

2. During what period of his life did Tacitns compose his various 
works 1 and in what order ? Refer to any passages in them that 
throw light on either of these points. Is there any thing in the Gha>» 
racter of the subjects, or of the style, that would lead us to die 
same conclusion ? What other works were projected by him ? What 
negative evidence have we for determining the time of his death I 

3. What is the period originally embraced by the Annals and 
Histories of Tacitus 7 During uhat portions of this period are 


there chasms in what remains to us of them ? What other sources 
of information, either direct or incidental* have we for the same 
period of Roman history ? What historians are quoted by Tacitus ? 
What other authorities does he refer to ? 

4. Explain the primary meaning of Annates and Histori^^ and 
the reasons which may have induced Tacitus to assign these names 
to the several parts of his work ; as well as to close each where 
he does. 

5. What other representations of Tiberius and Sejanus remain to 
us ? Which of them agree with Tacitus ? which differ? Can you 
offer any explanation of this difference? What other remarkable 
men were produced by the gens to which Tiberius belonged ? and 
what were the usual features of their character and policy ? What 
does Tacitus mean by saying that *' Sejanus rei Romanse pari exitio 
viguit ceciditque ?" 

6. What is the primary meaning of cohors ? What was the pre- 
toria cohors originally ? and whence did it derive its name ? What 
other names connected with the Roman military institutions are of 
kindred origin ? In what sense, and on what occasion, did Caesar 
promise '* se in cohortis prsetoriae loco decimam legionem habitu- 
rum" (De B. G. i. 40. 42.) ? What were the praetorian cohorts 
under Augustus ? How was their power augmented by Sejanus ? 
Mention any occasions on which that power was particularly dis- 
played in after times. 

7. What was the nature, and what the object, of the division 
made by Augustus of the Roman provinces ? By what officers was 
each class administered ? Enumerate any of each class that you 
may remember. What does Tacitus mean by " res suas Caesar 
spectatissimo cuique, quibusdam ignotis ex fama mandabat " (iv. 
6.) ? and by *' Procurator Asiae, accusante provincia, causam dixit, 
magna cum adseveratione principis non se jus nisi in servitia pecu- 
niasque familiares dedisse** (iv. 15.)? What was the office of the 
procurator ? Of what country, and on what occasion, does Cicero 
say, " prima omnium provincia est appellata ?* What does Pliny 
mean by saying that " Gallia Narbonensis nulli provinciarum est 
postferenda, breviterque Italia potius quam provincia" (iii. 5.) ? 
Explain the derivative meanings of * provincia.' What are the 
periods compared by Tacitus, and what the conquests alluded to, in 
the words " quanto sit angustius imperitatum"? iv. 4. 


8. iv. 5. " Delectae vetere Latio, aut coloniU antiquitus Roma- 
nis." What is meant by * vetus Latium' ? what by ' colonise antt- 
quituB Romanae* ? How many kinds of Roman colonies were there ? 
and in what did they differ from one another ? and from a * munici- 
pium' ? Why does Tacitus call Sejanus ' municipalis adulter' ? 
what does he mean by ' municipalis ambitio' (iv. 62^ ? Whom does 
Juvenal (viii. 138) call ' municipalis eques'? 

9. Explain ** Frumenta et pecunise vectigales, cetera publicomm 
fructuum, societatibus Equitum Romanorum agitabantur.** (iv. 6.) 
What are the various articles comprehended under each head? 
What was the condition of the ' provinciales' who are called ' sti- 
pendiani * (iv. 20), as explained by Cicero (Verr. iii. 6.) ? 

10. iv. 5. ** Thraciam Rhoemetalces ac liberi Cotyis.*' What 
was the condition of Thrace at the time ? Give an account from 
Tacitus of the events which had recently befallen its princes. 

11. iv. 14.*^ Samii cives Romanos templo ^sculapii induxerant, 
cum jussu Mithridatis apud cunctas Asiae insulas et urbes trucida- 
rentur." What led to the preponderance of Mithridates at this 
particular time ? Give a brief sketch of his previous and subse- 
quent wars with the Romans. 

12. iv. 14. " Csesar dc immodestia histrionum retulit: Oscum 
quondam ludicrum, levissimss apud vulgum oblectationis.*' xiv. 
21. '* A Tuscis acciti histriones.*' Reconcile these two passages, 
by shewing from Livy (vii. 2.) what was the origin of the Roman 
drama, into what kinds it was divided^ how much of it was derived 
from the Tuscans, and how much from the Oscans ? Who were the 
Oscans ? What was the peculiar name of the * Oscum ludicrum ' f 
What else do we know of its seditious character ? How did the 
' febulse togatse' differ from the * palliatse ' ? How many kinds of the 
former were there ? 

13. Translate and explain ^* Sub idem tempus de Flamine Diali 
l^endo disseruit Caesar. Nam patricios confarreatis parentibss 
genitos tres simul nominari, ex quis unus legeretur, vetusto more ; 
neque adesse, ut olim, eam copiam» omissa confarreandi adsuetu- 
dine, aut inter paucos retenta. Pluresque ejus causas adferebat : 
potissimum penes incuriam virorum feminarumque : accedere ipsius 
coeremoniae difficultates, quae consulto vitarentur, et quando exiret 
e jvdre patrio, qui id Flaminium apisceretur, quaeque in manion 


Flaminis conveniret. Lata lex qua Flaminica Dialis sacrorum caussa 
in potestate viri, cetera promiscuo feminarum jure ageret.** (iv. 16.) 
What waa the office of the Flamens ? how many were there ? how 
many and which of them were to be patricians ? What was the 
nature of a confarreatio 7 and whence did it derive its name ? What 
pecuh'arities had it which led to its disuse ? What other forms of 
marriage were practised among the Romans ? in what respects did 
they dif!er from the confarreatio ? What is meant here by exire e 
jure patrio ? what by convemre in manum ? What reason was tliere 
to legislate about the Flaminica ? 

14. iv. 32. '' Agrarise frumentariseque leges." What was the 
nature and object of these laws ? by whom were the leges frumen- 
tarise first brought forward? What were the most memorable 
agrarian laws ? What was the land which it was their aim to divide? 
Shew that their purpose was very different from that of an equal 
division of landed property. 

15. Translate *' Feriarum Latinarum diebus praefectum urbis, 
Drusum, auspicandi gratia tribunal ingressum adiit Salvianus : quod 
a Caesare increpatum." (iv. 36.) What were the ferise LatinseT 
What is meant by auspicandi gratia ? and in what did the fault of 
Salvianus consist ? 

16. Translate and explain ** Votienus majestatis poenis adfectus 
est: Csesar, objectam sibi adversus reos indementiam eo pervica- 
cius amplexusy Aquiliam adulterii delatam, quamquam Lentulus 
lege Julia damnasset, exsilio punivit : Apidiumque, quod in acta D. 
Augusti non juraverat, albo Senatori* erasit." (iv. 42.) What is the 
meaning of the expressions, nu^e$tatist repetundartmij de vi publica ? 
What were the provisions of the leges majestatis ? What reward 
did the accuser receive for convicting a person majestatis ? and what 
name did he bear from thence ? What was the punishment for adul« 
tery lege Julia ? how was it modified in this instance by Tiberius ? 
By whom was that law enacted? What were the provisions of the 
ancient Roman laws against the same crime ? 

17. Translate and explain '* Segestani aedem Veneris montem 
apud Erycum vetustate delapsam restaurari postulavere; nota me- 
morantes de origine ejus et Iseta Tiberio : suscepit curaro libens, ut 
consanguineus." (iv. 43.) What was the nature of this relation ? 
On what former occasions had the affinity of the Ilienses (iv. 55.) 
been acknowledged by the Romans ? 


18. What 18 the furthest point in Germany reached by the Ro- 
mans ? and under what general ? (iv. 44.) How far did Drusus ad- 
vance 7 aiyl what fable was told to account for his stopping 1 How 
comes Tacitus to say (Germ. 41.) " Albis flumen notum olim nunc 
tantum auditur ?** 

19. On what did the Sardians rest their claim to the honour of 
erecting a temple to Tiberius (iv. 55)? What other accounts of 
the same traditions remain to us ? How does Dionysius (i. 27) 
shew the fallacy of one of them ? 

SO. *' Capreas Telebois habitatas fama tradit" (iv. 67.) .What 
is known of this people, and of their other settlements ? 

21. Translate and explain " Haud ftierit absurdum tradere mon- 
tem eum antiquitus Querquetulanum cognomento fuisse, quod talis 
sylvce frequens fecundusque erat : mox Cselium appellitatum a Csele 
Vibenna, qui dux gentis Etruscae, cum auxilium appellatum ducta- 
vissety sedem earn acceperat a Tarquinio Prisco ; seu quis alius 
regura dedit. cetera non ambigua sunt ; magnas eas copias per plana 
etiam ac foro propinqua habitasse, unde Tuscum vicum e vocabulo 
advenarum dictum.** (iv. G5) ? Under what other forms does this 
tradition appear in the early history of Rome ? and how is Caeles 
Vibenna connected with that history ? 

22. Enumerate any instances you may remember in which the 
Latinity of Tacitus differs from that of the Augustan age ; as well 
as any instances of Greecisms, of the hendiadys, or of any other of 
his favourite idioms. What earlier Latin writer does Tacitus appear 
to have most imitated ? 

2d. Explain the expressions : — impraesentiarum, imperpetuum, 
deprsesentiarum, exadversum, haud perinde, — monimenta ingenii 
ejus haud perinde retinentur, — virile ac muliebre secus* 

24. Give the etymology and primary meaning of: — exuo, induo, 
ingens, integer, arbiter, littera, contumelia, Celebris, adulari, pervicax, 
amplecto. perplexus« pernix, tripudium, perimo, demo, sumo, ex- 
emplum, polluo, liberi (children), ingruo, congruo, opportunus, 
anceps, ambiguus, minister, magister, opperior, reperio. periculam, 
peritus, delubrum, privignus, sobrina, ultro. 

25 • Explain the derivation, and distinguish the meanings :— of 
afiatim, satis, abunde, — of salvus, sanus, incolumis, sospes, — of de- 
terior, pejor, nequior, — of culmen, cacumen, fastigium, apex,-— of 
delictum, peccatum, facinus, flagitium, scelus, nefas. 


Second Paper. 

Translate the following passages, and illustrate any thing in them 
that seems to you to require it 

" Cunctas nationes et urbes- 

ex propinquo diversa arguens." iv. 33. 


Nihil seque quam sitis fatigabat,- 

montis Haemi et sseva hiems subvenit." 

iv. 49—51. 
Translate the following passage into Latin : 

In the retreat from Moscow Buonaparie provided only for his 
own security : the famished and the wounded were without protec- 
tion. Those, to the amount of forty thousand, who supplied the 
army with occasional food by distant and desperate excursions, 
were uninformed of its retreat : they perished to a man, and caused 
to perish by their disappearance a far greater number of their former 
comrades. Forty miles of road were excavated in the snow. The 
army seemed a phantasmagoria : no sound of horses' feet was heard, 
no wheel of waggon or artillery, no voice of man* Regiment fol- 
lowed regiment in long and broken lines, between two files of 
soldiers the whole way. Some stood erect, some reclined a little, 
some had laid their arms beside them, some clasped them ; all were 
dead. Several of these had slept in that position, but the greater 
part had been placed so, to leave the more room ; and not a few, 
from every troop and detachment, took their voluntary station 
amongst them. The barbarians, who at other seasons rush into 
battle with loud cries, rarely did so. Skins covered not their bodies 
only but their faces, and, such was the intensity of cold, they reluc- 
tantly gave vent, from amidst the spoils they had taken, to this 
first and most natural expression of their vengeance. Their spears, 
although often of soft wood, as the beech, the birch, the pine, 
remained unbroken, while the sword and sabre of the adversary 
cracked like ice. Feeble from inanition, inert from weariness, and 
somnolent from the iciness that enthralled them, they sank into for- 
getfulness with the Cossacks in pursuit and coming down upon them, 
and even while they could yet discern, for they looked more fre- 
quently to that quarter, the more fortunate of their comrades march- 


iDg home. The gay and lively Frenchman, to whom war had been 
sport and pastime, was now reduced to such apathy, that, in the 
midst of some kind speech which a friend was to communicate to 
those he loved the most tenderly, he paused from rigid drowsiness, 
and bade the messenger adieu. Some, it is reported (and what is 
unnatural is, in such extremity* not incredible), closed their eyes 
and threw down their muskets, while they could use them still, not 
from hope nor from fear, but part from indignation at their general, 
whose retreats had always been followed by the total ruin of his 
army ; and part, remembering with what brave nations they had 
once fought gloriously, from the impossibility of defeating or resist- 
ing so barbarous and obscure an enemy. 



A. 1. What is known of the life of Tacitus from his extant 
works ? 

%. Over what periods of time do his historical works extend t 
S. Quote the passage of Quintilian which is generally supposed 

to refer to Tacitus, with a character of him as an historian by some 

eminent modem writer. 

4. In what reigns did Suetonius and Dio Cassius flourish ? 

B, 1 . State from Tacitus the principal changes in the Roman 
government, with the date (U. C.) of each. 

2. What was the extent of the Empire under Augustus? 

3. When, and by whom were additions afler wards made ? 

4. When, and under what rulers, did the final division of Eastern 
and Western Empires, and the extinction of the Western Empire* 
take place ? 

C 1. " Caeterum Tiberius neptem Agrippinam Germanico 
ortam, c&m coram Cn* Domitio tradidisset, in urbe celebrari nuptias 


jussit; In Domido, super vetustatem generis, propinquum Ceesaribus 
sanguinem delegerat : nam is aviam Octaviam, et per earn Augustum 
avunculum praeferebat." (Ann. iv. 75.) 

" Cum jam viduam se et tanti^m sororem testaretur (Octavia), 
communesque Gerroanicos." (Ann. xiv. 64.) 

Explain these passages, and shew how Nero was descended from 
the Augustan, as well as from the Claudian family. 

2. Date the year (U. C.) of his birth, succession to the Empire, 
and decease. 

d. Give some account of the eminent writers whom he put to 
death, and name their extant works. 

4. By what writers have the deeds of Nero or Agrippina been 
dramatized 7 

5. On what particular transactions are those dramas founded ? 

6. Quote from Tacitus the recital of Nero*s conduct to the Chris- 
dans, with the motive assigned by the historian. 

7. How does Juvenal allude to the cruelties practised upon 

D. 1. " Vetus illi copia erat, cunriculo quadrigarum insistere." 
2. " Notos equites Romanos, operas arense proraittere subegit.** 

§. 14. 
d. *' Postremo ipse scenam incedit, multa cura citharam tentans." 

§. 15. 

4. '' Carminum quoque studium a£fectavit." §• 16. 

Quote passages from Juvenal in support of these assertions, and 
also from the ancient authors who allude to Nero's poetry. 

E. '* Insu1& Pandatari^ Octaviam claudit." §. 63. 

1. Mention from Tacitus another celebrated person exiled thither. 

5. Describe the situations of Pandataria, Puteoli, Antium, Agrip- 
pina Colonia, Gallia Narbonensis, Massilia. 

S. Give tlieir modern names. 

4. Tacitus calls A rtaxata, Caput gentis. (Ann. xiii. 39.) Describe 
its position ; also that of Tigranocerta, regio Taurannitium, and the 
course of the A raxes. 

5. What is probably meant by " litora maris rubri" ? §.25. 

6. " Classi apud Misenum praefectus.'* §. 3. How does Virgil 
account for the origin of this name ? 

7. " Tarentum adscript]. " $. 27. When and by whom was this 
place founded, according to Horace ? 


F, 1. Give a concise account of the progress of the Romans in 
Britain, with a chronological list of the Grovemors here from the 
reign of Claudius to A. D. 85. 

2. What was the most northern boundary of the Roman dominion 
in this island ! 

3. At what period did they finally abandon it ? 

4. What are the modem names of the Iceni, Trinobantes, Ordo- 
vices, Silures^ Brigantes, Camalodunum, Rutupium? 

G, 1 . Point out the different usages of the Pratleritum Imper^ 
fectum, and the Prceteritum Perfectum in the Latin tongue, as exem- 
plified in Tacitus. What advantage has the Greek over the Latin 
language in this respect ? 

5. Exemplify the Grecian origin of the Latin language by the 
derivation of the words in the following lines : 

*' Tityre* tu patulse recubans sub tegmine fagi, 
Sylvestrem tenui Musam meditaris avend : 
Nos patrise fines^ et dulcia linquimus arva, 
Nos patriam fugimus : tu, Tityre, lentus in umbr& 
Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida sylvas." 

ViRG. Buc. i. 
d. Derive : — fomentum, fanaticus, jumentum, prsevaricando, an- 
ceps, mancipium, veniundare, stipendium, cometes. 

4. Distinguish between: — crux and patibulura; simulatio and 
dissimulatio ; potestas and potentia : exilium, relegatio and depor- 

5. Explain the terms : — classiarii, raanipulus, vexillarii, praetori- 
ani, legatus, procurator, donativum, congiarium, repetundae. 

6. Explain the construction of the Roman Calendar, and express 
according to that system June 18, 1815; March 30 ; May 7. 

H, Translate and explain the following passages : 

1. " Cremata est eftdem nocte et lecto conviviali." §. 9. 

2. ** Praebitumque oleum Equiti ac Senatui, Graced facilitate/* 

§. 47. 

8. ** Ut condemnatus a Senatu, intercessione tribunici4 morti 
eximeretur." §. 48. 

4. *' Postquam discessionem consul permiserat, pedibus in senten- 
tiam ejus iere." §. 49. 

/. !• '* Agrorum, quos regis Apionis quondam habitos, et Populo 


Romano cum regno relicto8» &c/' §. 18. Explain this passage, 
and mention any similar legacy. Where were these territories 
respectively situated? and when were they lefl to the Roman 
people ? 

2. *' Quinquennale ludicrum Romse institutum est, ad morem 
Graeci certaminis." §. 20. Of what did this exhibition consist ? 

5. " Quotiens praetores (spectacula) ederent." §. 20. Mention 
the duties of the office of Praetor. 

4. " Inter quae et sidus cometes effulsit ; de quo vulgi opinio est 
tanquam mutationem regnis portendat." §. 22* Establish the pre- 
valence of this opinion by citation from ancient and modern writers. 

5. " Druidae." §. 30. State, from ancient authors, the mode of 
life« opinions, and political influence of the Druids. 

•/. Translate the following passages : 

1. **Amici dehinc adire templa : et caepto exemplo, proxima 
Campaniae municipia victimis et legationibus laetitiam testari. Ipse, 
di versa simulatione, maestus, et quasi incolumitati suae infensus, ac 
morti parentis iUachrymans. Quia tamen non ut hominum vultus, 
ita locorum facies mutantur, obversabaturque maris illius et litorum 
gravis aspectus (et erant qui crederent sonitum tubae collibus circum 
editisy planctusque tumulo matris audiri) Neapolim concessit, literas- 
que ad Senatum misit." §. 10. 

2. ** Dona ob hoc templis decreta. Quod ad eum finem memo- 
ravimus, ut quicumque casus temporum illorum, nobis vel aliis auc- 
toribus, noscent, praesumptum habeant, quotiens fugas et caedes 
jussit Princeps, totiens grates diis actas ; quaeque rerum secundarum 
olim, tmn publicae cladis insignia fuisse. Neque tamen silebimus, 
si quod senatusconsultum adulatione novum, aut patientiil postre- 
mum fuit** §. 64. 





1. 1. G^ve a list of the succession of the Roman Emperors, 
with dates, ft'om Claudius to Adrian, and mention those under yihom 
Tacitus flourished. 

2. What writers were his contemporaries ? What was his pro- 
fession ? And to what eminent person was he related, and how ? 

II. 1. What were his means of information on the subjects on 
which he has written, estimated in comparison with those of other 
writers from whom his accounts differ in any respects ? 

2. How does his account of the early Christians differ from that of 
Pliny ? Which is the more credible ? And why ? 

III. " Germanise Deos in adspectu." c. 17. 1. What gods, and 
by what names, did the Germans worship ? And what was the 
nature of their worship ? 

2. How far is Tacitus's account of this different from that of 
Caesar ? And how can the two be reconciled f 

3. Has Tacitus manifested in any of his writings a disposition to 
disparage Caesar's authority ? 

IV. Draw a map of the countries bordering on the Rhine, mark- 
ing particularly the places and rivers mentioned in this book. 

V. Give a brief account of the different wars between the Romans 
and Germans previous to the reign of Vespasian, particularising the 
dates and scenes of the most remarkable events. 

VI. Of what nation, and what rank, was Civilis ? What circum- 
stances led to his rupture with the Romans ? Where, between 
whom, and with what success, was the ' Trevericum praelium' 
fought ? 

VIL 1. What arguments respecting the origin of the Jews does 
Tacitus derive from the names Jud^i and Hierosolfma f Give the 
true origin of those names. 


a. *' Dum Assyrios penes Medosque et Penaa Oriens fuit, despec- 
tissima pars senrientium (Judflei)". — How far is this statement cor- 
rect? Mention the chief of the transactions between the Jews and 
the above-mentioned nations* 

5. " Rex Antiochus, demere superstitionem et mores Grsecorum 
dare adnixus, quo minus teterrimam gentem in melius mataret, 
Parthorum beHo prohibitus est : nam ea tempestate Arsaces desci- 
▼erat.*' — Shew if there be any historical inaccuracy in this passage. 
Who is the Antiochus spoken of? What means did he use for 
e£fecting his purpose 1 And by whom was he opposed ? 

4. When did Judaea come under the power of the Romans ? 
And how was their power administered there ? 

VIII. 1. «'Crebris jejuniis." What fasts had the Jews of 
Divine institution ? What were added by public authority ? And 
what circumstances gave rise to the frequency of which Tacitus 

2. ** Septimo die otium placuisse". ..." septimum quoque annum 
ignaviae datum.** — Explain the origin and design of these institu- 

5. " Corpora condere, quam cremare, e more £gyptio : eademque 
cura, et de inlemis persuasio." c. 5. — Translate this ; explain the 
latter part, and illustrate it by references. 

4. What was the number of the Israelites when they came out of 
Egypt ? What was the number of the besieged in Jerusalem ? 

IX. 1. Give an account of the divisions of the Roman army into 
Legions, Cohorts, &c. with the numbers of the Legion at different 

2. " Aggeribus vineisque certare statuit" c 1 3. " Civilis baud 
porrecto agmine, sed cuneis, adstitit." c. 16. Explain particularly 
aggety otfie^p, and cvaneut. 

X. " Domitores Britannise." c. 16. — Give a summary account of 
the successive invasions of Britain by the Romans, the extent of 
their success, the walls built by them on different occasions, and 
the divisions into which the country was parcelled out, when it was 
formed into a Roman province. 

XI. Translate the following passages into English : 

1 . '' Inter quae perfuga Batavus adiit Cerialem, ierga hostium 

I I 


promitteiii, ti extreme paludii eques milieretur : solidum ilUtf et Ott" 
gemoSf qmhus cuetodia obvenissetf parum intenioi" c. 18. 

S. ** Non tamen ausus oppida Batavonim armis tueri, raptis, que 
ferri poterant, ceteris injecto igni, in insulam concessit : gnani8» 
deesse naves efBciendo ponti, neque exerdtum Romanum aliter 
transmissunun. Quin et diniit molem, a Druso Gemianico factam, 
Rheniunquey prono alveo in Galliam ruentem, disjectis, quae mora- 
bantur, efiudit. Sic, velut abacto amne» tenuis alveus, insiilam inter 
GermanosquCy continentium terrarum speciem fecerat." c 19* 

S, *' Utque ad faUendum silentio, ita, coepta csede, quo plus ter- 
roris adderent, cuncta clamoribus miscebant." c* 2ft. 

4. ** Romani ad oppugnandum versi, neque enim dignum videba- 
tur famem hostium opperiri : poscebantque pericula, pars virtute, 
multi ferocia et cupidine pranniorum. Ipsi Tito Roma et opes 
Tolnptatesque ante oculos : ac, ni statim Hierosolyina concidere&t* 
morari videbantur. Sed urbenif arduam situ, opera molesque firma- 
▼erant, quis vel plana satis munirentur. Nam duos coUes, immensum 
editos, claudebant muri, per artem obliqui, aut introrsus sinuati; at 
latera oppugnantium ad ictus patescerent. Extrema rupis abrnpta : 
et turres, ubi mons juvisset, in sexaginta pedesj inter devexa, in 
centenos vicenosque adtoliebantur : mira specie, ac procul intuenti- 
bus pares. Alia intus mceniay Regiae circumjecta: coospicDoque 
fastigio turns Antonia, in honorem M. Antonii ab Herode adpel- 
lata." ell. 


TRINITY COLL. Sine anno. 

1. Wbat means had Tacitus of acquiring information concerning 
Germany? Does he manifest any wish to contradict Caesar t 
From what cause is a slight difference in their accounts to be 
expected ? Whose authority is preferable, and Vhy ? 


t. Ancient Europe (excepting perhaps Greece and Italy) seems 
to have heen inhabited by three races of men, differing in person, in 
language, and in manners. What were their names and principal 
difference of manners? What nations of modem Europe are 
descended from each ? To which did the Germans belong, and 
what are the grounds of your opinion ? 

S, When did the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain? To which of 
those three nations did they belong ? And what are the principal 
institutions and customs we have derived from them ? 

4. Point out the similarity between the constitution of Germany, 
and the feudal system of Europe during the middle ages. 

5. Is there any custom mentioned in the treatise of Tacitus, to 
which the system of duelling can be traced 1 

6. Compare Tacitus's account of the manners of the Germans 
with those of the savage tribes of North America : Shew how far 
they may be accounted for, as the natural offspring of such a state 
of society, and give a reason to shew that the latter nations are not 
descended from the former. 

7. What similarity is there between the Germans, Persians, and 
Scythians, abd how is it to be accounted for ? 

8. Give a short account of the invasion of Italy by the Cimbri 
and Teutones ; when did it happen ? What were their numbers, 
and motive, and what the modem name of the country whence they 

9. When did Vespasian reign ? By what means did he become 
Emperor ? And what important events occurred during his reign ? 

10. Mention in order the ancient and modern names of the 
countries through which the Danube flows. 

11. What was the usual rate of interest at Rome in the time of 
Tacitus ? How was it computed ? And why was it higher in 
former times, than in modern commercial states ? 

12. Translate the following passage into English : 

" Ultra' hos Catti initium sedis ab Hercynio saltu inchoant, non 
ita effusis ac palustribus locis, ut ceterse civitates, in quas Germania 
patescit. Durant siquidem colles, paullatimque rarescunt : et Cattos 
suos saltus Hercynius prosequitur simul atque deponit. Duriora 
genti corpora, atricti artus, minax vultus, et major animi vigor* 
Multom (ut inter Germanos) rationis ac solertiss : praeponere electos, 



audire prspotitos, nosse ordines, intelligere occasiones, diflferre 
ixnpetusi disponere diem, vallare noctem, fortunam inter dubiay 
▼irtutem inter certa numerare ; quodque rarissimum, nee niai ratiofie 
discipline concessum, plus reponere in duce quam in exerdtn.* 

Sine CoU. et anno. 

1. Give an account of the life of Tacitus. What was the 
•character of the different emperors under whom he lived ? What 
learned men were his contemporaries, and what was the general 
state of literature at Rome in his time ? 

2. In what year of the city, and in whose consulate was this 
treatise written ? Mention the corresponding years of the Greek 
Olympiads and of the Christian aera. 

3. Give your opinion of the style of Tacitus, and of his general 
character as a historian. What is meant by the philosophy of 
history ? Was this much attended to by the ancient historians ? 

4. Point out the prindpal causes of the dedine of empires. Is 
it probable, that the decline of the Roman empire might, in the 
time of Tacitus, have been effectually checked by the establishment 
of any different form of government ? 

5. The structure of the boats in use among the Suiones appears 
to have nearly resembled that of the proas used in the Ladrone 
Islands as described in Anson's voyage. — What probable explanation 
can be given of this remarkable similarity f 

6. Is there any resemblance betwixt the manners of the Germans, 
as described by Tacitus ; and those of the native tribes of America, 
as described by Robertson and other historians ? Mention instances. 

7. Give a short account of the wars between the Romans and 
Germans, and mention the most celebrated commanders on both sides. 
By which of the German tribes and in what year, 'was the Roman 
empire finally subverted ? 

8. Mention the principal rivers of Germany: also their modem 
names, sources, and directions. What is the situation and modem 
name of Mons Abnoba? And where does the Danube take the 
name of later? 


9. What states of modem Grermany were severally occupied by 
the tribes mentioned by Tacitus ? Give a general account of the 
distinguishing peculiarities of the different tribes, especially noticing 
those of the Catti» Suevi» Cherusci and Hermunduri. Do the 
modem Grermans bear any resemblance to them with respect to 
the " truces et coenilei oculi, rutike comse, magna corpora et 
tantum ad impetum valida" ? 

10. What part of Germany did the Angli inhabit? What evidence 
have we of their migration to Britain ? And about what time is 
this event supposed to have taken place ? 

1 1 . Where was the substance called by the Germans ' Glesum ' 
found? What was it called by the Greeks and Romans, and what 
was its probable origin ? Give an account of its properties and 

12. Give a list of the German words contained in this book 
which resemble in sense and sound the corresponding words in our 

15. Point out the distinction between :'—natio, gens; patruus, 
avunculus ; adfinis, propinquus ; cassis, galea; lucus, nemus, saltus, 
sylva ; nobiles, ingenui, libertini, liberti. 

14. Translate accurately the following section (6) : 

Terra etsi aliquanto specie di£fert, 

a c vilia mercantibus. 

16. Turn the following passage into Latin prose : 

During the intervals of war, they pass their time less in hunting 
than in sluggish repose, divided between sleep and the table. All 
the bravest of the warriors committing the care of the house, the 
fiunily affairs, and the lands, to the women, old men, and weaker part 
of the domestics, stupify themselves in inaction : so wonderful is the 
contrast presented by nature, that the same persons love indolence 
and hate tranquillity ! It b customary for the several states to 
present by voluntary and individual contributions cattle or grain to 
their chiefii ; which are accepted as honorary gif^, while they serve 
as necessary supplies. They are peculiarly pleased -with presents 
from neighbouring nations, offered not only by individuals, but by 
the community at large, such as fine horses, heavy armour, rich 
housings, and gold chains. We have now taught them also to 
accept of money. 


Sine ColL et anno. 

1 . State what is known of the life of Tacitus, particularly what 
he has related of himself. Give a brief account of the works which 
he composed or meditated. And annex the proper dates, in years 
of the Roman Emperors, and Ab Urbe Conditft. 

2. Delineate the character of Tacitus as a writer. Point out, 
and illustrate by examples, the excellencies and defects of his style. 
Mention some of the most eminent of his contemporaries, and quota 
their sentiments of his merit. 

3. Sketch a map of ancient Germany, tracing the courses of the 
Rhine, Danube, and other great rivers ; and marking the situations 
of the principal nations described by Tacitus. Add the modem 
names of places. 

4. What were the characteristic marks which distinguished the 
Germans, from the Gauls, and from the Sarmatians, according to 
Caesar and Tacitus? And what is the received opinion of the 
origin and language of each people, and of their respective share in 
the population of Europe? 

5. " Quia nee terr& olim, sed classibus advehebantur, qui mutare 
sedes quaerebant." Is this assertion of Tacitus well founded? 
Who were the first navigators known to the ancients? Mention 
some of the early migrations by sea, and settlements of foreign 
colonies in Greece, Italy, Gaul, &c. 

6. ''Cseterum et Ulixem longo illo ac fabuloso errore, &€." 
Trace the wanderings of Ulysses, as related in the Odyssey. 

7. "Luitur enim etiam horaicidium certo armentorum ac peoorum 

*' Quemcunque mortalium arcere tecto nefas habetur. No* 

tum ignotumque, quantum ad jus hospitii, nemo discemit.** 

Prove, by references to Homer, that the same ideas in each of theae 
respects prevailed in the heroic age of Greece. And point out any 
other circumstances of resemblance in the manners of the Germans 
and of the early Greeks. 

8. Describe the state of property in land among the ancient 
Germans. Shew whether any traces of vassalage and fiefs, or <^ 
the connection of land with military service, can be found in the 


descriptions of Tacitus. And give a brief sketch of the Feudal 

9. Shew that the rudiments of our political constitution, judicial 
arrangements, and distinctions of rank, are to be found in the 
institutions of the Germans : and point out those of their customs 
which are supposed to have given rise to knighthood, tournaments, 
the judicial combat and duels, blazonry, debts of honour, &c« 

10. "Funerum nulla ambitio, &c." Describe, by quotations from 
Homer, ^Virgil^ &c. the ceremonies observed at the funeral of a 
Greek or Roman warrior of distinction. 

11. Give a summary account, accompanied with dates, of the 
wars which the Romans carried on against each of the nations 
mentioned in the following passage : ** Non Samnis, non Poeni, non 
Hispanise, Gallisevet ne Parthi quidem saepius admonuere : quippe 
regno Arsacis acrior est Germanorum libertas." 

12. Give the exact import of the prepositions used in the 
following expressions : — ob metum, citra speciem, juxta libertatem, 
in hsec munera uxor accipitur, ex magnitudine Deorum arbitrantur, 
pro solit4 Germanorum inertia. Explain the worc|s : — sacramentum, 
impotentia, feralis, auspicium, sincerus, securus, precarius, litare. — 
And state accurately the distinction between the terms:— ager, 
arvum ; gens, natio ; cassis, galea ; seel us, flagitium ; qusestus, 
merces ; inertia, ignavia ; constituo, condico ; tumulus, monumen- 
tum, sepulcrum ; afBnes, cognati, agnati ; libertus, libertinus ; 
nemus, lucus ; vertere, versare. 

13. Give the derivation of such of the above words as are of 
Greek origin, as also that of: — decus, specus, sylva, divus, ver, 
vicus, navis, vulgus, vestis ; and shew the connection between the 
early Greek and Latin languages. 

14. Translate the following passages, and explain their con- 
struction : , 

'* Ad matres ad conjuges vulnera ferunt. Nee illae numerare aut 
exigere plagas pavent. Cibosque et hortamina pugnantibus gestant." 

" Foenus agitare, et in usuras extendere, ignotum : ideoque magis 
servatur, qu^m si vetitum esset." 

** Treveri et Nervii circa affectationem Germanicse originis ultro 
ambitiosi sunt, tanquam per banc gloriam sanguinis a similitudine et 
inertia Gallorum separentur." 


**(jen8 non astuta nee callida aperit adhuc secreta pectorisy 
Iicenti& joci. Ergo detecta et nuda omnium mens, poatert die 
retractatur ; et salva utriusque temporis ratio est. Deliberant, d«m 
fingere nesciunt : constituunt* dum errare non poaauBt** 

'^Fecundiora igitur nemora Incosque, sicut Orientia secretia, ubi 
thura balsamaque sudantur, ita Occidenda insnlis terxiaqiie ineate 
crediderim, quse vicini Solis radiia expreaaa atque liquentia in 
proxiroum nuure labuntur." 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1816. 


1. What are the peculiar merits of Tacitus as an historical 
writer, and what are the objections principally made to his style ? 
On what passages is die opinion* which some have heM, 
Ibunded, that Tacitus fought in Germany ? Shew that it is most 
probable that he never was in Grermany. In the reigns of what 
Emperors did he live ? 

2. When are nations said to be the same or di£ferent ? Siew that 
in all or most of these leading featurea the Gaub and Germans 

3. " Quidam autem, Ficenda vetnstatis, plnres Deo ortos, pJu- 
resque gentis appellationes, affirmant." 

Of whom is Tacitus here speaking, of Romans or of Germana t 
The Deux Fonts editors propose to read * de eo ortos.' What 
change does this make ? 

4. ** Numems argenteorum faeilior usui est, promiscua ac vilis 

Mention the gold and silver coin most in use at Rome about the 
time of Tacitus, their value, and weight ; and hence deduce the ratio 
of the value of gold to that of silver. What are the causes of this 
ratio being less than it is at present ? Can you assign a probaUe 
cause why the value of gold might have been still less in the pro- 
vinces than at Rome ? 

5. *' Occasione discordise nostrse etiam Gallias allbctavere/* 
Give a concise account of this rise of the Batavi, and of 


leader. What modern town is supposed to be near the site of 
Vetera Castra? 

6. What b the modem capital of that district which the Catti in- 
habited ? What the derivation of its name, and by whom was it 

7. " Celebrant Carminibus antiquis (quod unnm apud illos me- 
morise et annalium genus est) &c.** 

Of what authority were these hymns of the bards as historical nar- 
rations ? Does it appear that the historians of the middle ages ever 
consulted them in composing their accounts ? How late were any 
of them certainly extant ? 

8. Does the knowledge of this circumstance, that amber was 
found on their coasts, determine the situation of the Mstnl What 
modern name is derived from this ? Amber was brought into Greece 
from these shores as early as the age of Herodotus: quote his 
words, or their import. 

9* " Nee dierum numerum ut nos, sed noctium computant, — nox 
ducere diem videtur." 

Assign the most probable cause of this remarkable manner of com- 
puting time, which was common to many ancient nations besides the 
Germans.— -Hesiod remarks in his Theogonia the priority of the 
night to the day. Quote his words. 

Mention some English words in common use derived from this 
custom ; do the modem Germans use similar phrases ? 

10. Translate accurately the £6i\omng passages : 
" Vix uni alterive casnt^ aut galeaJ' 

" Gens non aaitOa^ nee cailida — " 

" Quanto plus propkiquorum^ quo major adfrnium numerus — " 

" Colunt ditcreii ac diversi — " 

" Lucas ac ntmora consecrant" 

" Omnes hi populi pauca campestrium, ceterum saltus et vertices 
maiUiwn jugtanque insederunt. i>trtiiit< enim seinditque Sueviam 
continuum montium jugum, ultra quod plurimae gentes agunt." 

11. What is Emest's emendation of the passage '' Liberti non 
multum supra servos sunt," and the reasons for it ? 

12. '* Mox limite acto promotisque praesidiis, sinus Imperii, et 
pars provinciae habentur.** 

Part of what province ? Give an accurate definition of * provincia' 


in the sense in which it is here used. Vespasian increased the num* 
ber of frontier provinces of the empire to ten» — name them ; what 
changes were made in the frontiers during the reign of Trajan 1 
IS. " Nee tributis contemnuntur, nee publicanus adterit." 
What is the origin of the word ' tribucum* ? When did the Romans 
themselves cease to pay * tributa' ? How were they levied in the 
provinces ? 

14. *^ Luitur enim etiam homicidium certo armentorum ac peco- 
rum numeroy recipitque satisfactionem universa domus, utiliter in 
publicum quia periculosiores sunt inimicitiae juxta libertatem." 

Translate the passage. — Did the * universa domus' receive the 
compensation share and share alike, or were all the members of the 
family satisfied if it was paid only to the next of kin to the deceased? 
Again, what degrees of consanguinity do you suppose the ' universa 
domus' included ? 

15. Translate the following passage : 

" Arvaper annos mutant ; et superest ager: nee enim cum ubertate 
et amplitudine soli labore contendunt, ut pomaria conserant, et prata 
separent, et hortos rigent : sola terras seges imperatur. Unde annum 
quoque ipsum non in totidem digerunt species : hyems et ver et lestas 
intellectum ac vocabula habent : autumni perinde nomen ac bona igoo- 
rantur. Funerum nulla ambitio : id solum observatur, ut corpora 
darorum virorum certis lignis crementur. Struem rogi nee vestibus, 
nee odoribus cumulant, sua cuique arma, quorundam igni et equus 
adjicitur. Sepulcrum cespes erigit. Monumentorum arduum et 
operosum honorem, ut gravem defunctis, adspemantur. Lamenta 
ac lacrimas cito, dolorem et tristitiam tarde, ponunt Feminis lugere 
honestum est ; viris meminisse.'* 


ji. 1 . Under what emperors did Tacitus live ? 2. What period 
is embraced by the works he has left ? 3. Shew from internal evi- 
dence about what time they were respectively composed ? 4. To 
what preceding writers does he refer for his authorities ? 5. What 


character does he give of the Greek and Roman historians ahout 
his own time ? 6. From what sources could he derive his informa- 
tion respecting Germany? 7. What authors of celebrity had 
written before him on the same subject? 8. How much of Ger- 
many was known to the Romans before the death of Ai^ustus ? 
9. Mention from this treatise or contemporary writers any objects 
of commerce for use or luxury, the demand for which would pro- 
mote the intercourse between Rome and the German nations. 

B. 1. For what reasohs did Tacitus consider the Germans in- 
digenous ? 2. Are they well founded, or confirmed by history ? 
3. Whence and in what order did those hordes probably migrate 
which peopled the North and West of Europe? 4. What nations 
occupied in the time of Herodotus the countries on the North of the 
Danube ? 5. Who were the Tepfidvioi mentioned by him ? 6. In 
what Roman historian is the name Germant first used, and what is 
its meaning ? 7. Translate : " Cseterum Germanise vocabulum 
recens, et nuper additum ; quoniam qui primi Rhenum transgressi 
Gallos expulerint, ac nunc Tungri, tunc Germani vocati sint. Ita 
nationis nomen, non gentis, evaluisse paulatim, ut omnes primum a 
victore ob metum, mox a seipsis invento nomine Germani vocaren- 

C. 1. What are the boundaries of Germany, and its grand divi- 
sions, in the description of Tacitus ? 2, What countries were in- 
cluded in Germania Superior and Inferior ? 3. Draw a map ex- 
hibiting the course of the Rhine from its source to the sea, with the 
countries through which it flows, its chief tributary rivers, and the 
principal cities on its banks : marking also the modem names. 4. 
Where was the canal of Drusus ? 5. Where the saltus Teutobor- 
giensis, and for what event is it remarkable ? 6. Where does the 
Albis rise, and where does Tacitus place its source ? 7. How is 
the Baltic sea named by Tacitus and by Pliny. 8. " Insularum 
immensa spatia." What are these now called ? 9. Is there reason 
to suppose that what were then islands, are now a continent? 

D* I. What was the known extent and course of the Hercynian 
Forest ? and from what description of it by Caesar can we conclude 
the climate of Germany in his time to have been different from what 
it is now ? 2. Mention any of the facts stated by Virgil, Ovid, 
Juvenal, Pliny, Tacitus in this work, and other writers, which corro- 
borate this conclusion. 3. How is the change accounted for ? 


E, 1 . Translate : " Manet adbuc Boihemi nomen, quamyii nu* 
tatis cultoribus/' ft. Whence did this nation first come? What 
were the changes of territory it underwent ? and to what modem 
district did it probably give its name? Where were the Vandali 
situated in the time of Tacitus ? 4. For what weapon are the 
Vindelid noted by Horace ? 5. Why does he distinguish the ' No^ 
rieut ensis' ? 6. Who occupied the Decumates Agri ? 7. Where 
do you place the 'Insula Oceani' sacred to Hertha? and who 
was Hertha ? 8. Who were the Agrippinenses ? When was their 
city founded, after whom named, and for what reason ? 

F. 1. Of the Saxones, Burgundii, Langobardi, which are omit- 
ted by Tacitus ? and where were their settlements in his time ? 2* 
When are the Saxons first mentioned ? S. When did they settle in 
Britain? 4. Where did the Burgundii afterwards settle ? 5. From 
what custom are the Langobardi supposed to have derived their 
name ? (Strabo mentions an Asiatic nation with a name bearing 
the same import.) 6* To whom in particular drcumstanoes is a 
similar custom attributed in this treatise ? 7. When, under what 
leader, and by what train of events did they establish themselves in 
Italy? How far did they extend their dominion there? and how 
long did it last ? 

G. 1. What peculiarities of person ^r dress are remarked in 
the Germans by Tacitus, and how is his account confirmed by 
Horace and Juvenal ? ft. Translate : — " Non multum venatibos, 
plus per otium, transigunt." Shew how this is consistent with the 
words of Caesar ; '' Vita omnis in venationibus." ^ 8. How do you 
account for gambling and drunkenness having been always the vices 
of savages ? 4. By what laws was gaming forbidden at Rome ? 
Quote the lines in which Horace alludes to them. 5. Translate and 
explain the allusion in: 

Dum b1and4 vagus aleA December 
Incertis sonat bine et hinc fritillis. 
H, 1. Translate : — ** Nemo enim iUic vitia ridet, nee corrumpere 
ac corrumpi sseculum vocatur." ft* What is the object of those 
negative statements of what the Germans did not do, with which this 
treatise abounds ? 3* Explain the allusions in the following passages 
by quotations from the Satirists or Historians : 

(a) " Dotem non uxor marito, sed uxori maritus ofTert.** §. 18. 


ijb) *^ Septs pudicida agunt, nullis spectaculorum illecebris 
corrupts." §.19. 

(c) ** Numerum liberorum finire flagitiiim habetur." §• 1 9. 

(d) " Nee ancillis ac nutricibus delegantur.** §. 20. 

{e) *' Hsredes sui cuique liberi, et nullum testamentiun.'* 

(/) ** Nee ulla orbitads pretia." 

(g) '* Stadm e somno lavantur : (A)cibum capiendbus separa- 
te singulis sedes, et sua cuique inensa. (k) Turn ad 
negodai nee minus ssepe ad convivia, procedunt ar- 
mad. (I) Diem noctemque condnuare potando, 
nulli probrum.*' §. 22. 

(in) '* Fenus agitare, et in usuras extendere, ignotum.*^ §. 26. 

(fi) " Funenun nulla ambido.^ $. 27. 

(o) " Vicos locant non connexiset cobserentibus sedificiis.*' $.16. 

(p) " ^^ tributb contemnuntur, nee publicanus adterit.*' §. 29. 

4. Shew from Homer (or his commentators) and Thucydides, that 
the customs of the early Greeks resembled those in (a), (A), (k), 

5. Translate (d), (e), (m), (n), (o), (p). 6. Who were these Publi- 
cani? To what order in the state did they belong? About what 
period is it probable that their office (alluded to in this passage), 
was first appropriated to that order ? What is the earliest mendon 
of them as belonging exclusively to it ? Who were denoted by 
this name before that time ? Wlio are the Publicani mentioned in 
the Gospels ? 

/. 1 • What was the principle on which the Germans founded a 
distinction of punishments ? 2. What satisfaction was made for 
murder ? Shew that the same ideas of criminal jurisprudence pre- 
vailed in Homer's time, and in England under the Saxons. What 
was the compensation called in English law ? 3. Are there any 
traces to be met with in Tacitus of the Salic law ? (Did this a&- 
sokitely exclude daughterjB from succeeding to their father's land ? 
What was the Salic land ^y-^f judicial combtU ?^^£ family feuds P— of 
privileged hereditary rank ?^ of heraldic distinctions f — of chivalry? 
4. How are the Comites Principum called by Csesar ? Was there 
any similar insdtution under the Roman Republic, or in the age of 
chivalry ? Translate : " electns quem contubemio sesdmaret.*' 
Agric (.5. 

K» 1. Translate: — Twv fiiv aXKwy diHy ovhiva rifiuaty, tva U 


Tiya Itrxyp^ trdfiovaC • . . .a^ffroy hi htf Kai a'etSf aMv vofd(oyr€c bIvhi 
wepiworara dvdfHainav Optf^Kevovtri, Dion. Cass. 3. Wbat was the 
chief characteristic of the religion of the Germans ? Give the words 
of Tacitus : and reconcile with it his description of the procession 
of Hertha, §. 40 : — " Deam templo reddunt : mox vehiculum et ves- 
tes et, si credere velis, numen ipsum secreto lacu ahluitur* S, What 
Asiatic nation entertained the same notion of the Deity ? (Herod. I.) 
— And how is it expressed by the Martyr Stephen, (Acts vii,) ? 
4. What appeared to Caesar to be the objects of the German wor- 
ship? 5. What were the names of the Deities whom Tacitus calls 
Mercury, Mars, Castor and Pollux ? 6. In affixing the names of 
Greek or Roman Gods to the Deities of the Northern nations, what 
points of resemblance in attributes or worship would determine the 
proper objects of comparison? 7. Which of the German Deities 
do you recognise in (He list of Scythian or Thracian Gods given by 
Herodotus ? 8. To what northern nations is the belief of a future 
existence attributed by Herodotus, Caesar, and Lucan (quote the 
lines)? — Is there reason to think it was entertained by the Germans ? 
10. What does tradition record about the actions and worship of 
Odin ? Mention any striking coincidences between these, and the 
account of the Getic Zalmoxis. (Herod, iv.) 

Z. 1. Translate : — *'nec dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium 
computant : sic constituunt, sic condicunt : nox ducere diem vide- 
tur." 2. How is this custom retained in our language ? d. What 
are the natural and the civil day ? and how has the latter been de- 
fined by different nations of antiquity, by the modem Italians, and 
by ourselves ? 4. When was the division of time into weeks 
adopted in the empire ? After what imagined harmonies were 
names assigned to the days of the week ? And how happened the 
Romans and the nations of the North to agree, as they did, in 
ascribing them to corresponding divinities ? 

M. 1. Translate: — '* Aram quin ctiam Ulixi consecratam, ad- 
jecto Laertae patris nomine, in rip& Rheni olim repertam, monumen- 
taque et tumulos quosdam Graecis Uteris inscriptos in confinio Ger- 
manise Rhaetiaeque adhuc exstare.** What is remarkable in the 
syntax? 2. Could the inscription on this altar have been written at 
the period to which it is ascribed ? S. What was the manner of 
signifying on a tomb the name or quality of the person interred 


neath in the heroic times, as described by Homer and imitated by 
Virgil ? 4. Is it probable from Csesar that the Greek letters were 
known to some among the Gallic tribes ? 5, If so, from what 
neighbouring Greek settlement could they have learnt them, and 
how soon ? 6. Can we conclude from any thing in Caesar or Taci- 
tus that the Germans were, as Gibbon asserts, " unacquainted with 
the use of letters" ?— or the contrary ? What are the words of Ta- 
citus which Gibbon thus translated ? And what do you conceive 
to be their real meaning? 7. What were the Runic characters? 
8. What is the account given by Tacitus (Annals) of the origin of 
the Greek and Latin letters, and the additions by Claudius ? 

N. 1. Translate, and reconcile, the following passages : 

'* Nee adlSrmaverim nullam Germanise venam aurum argentumve 
gignere : quis enim scrutatus est ?" Germ. §. 7* 

"Curtius Rufus in agro Mattiaco recluserat specus quaerendis 
venis argenti, unde tenuis fructus." Annal. xi. 20. 

2. What metals are now found in Germany, and in what parts ? 

5. Translate : — " Gothini, guo magis pudeat^ ferrum efFodiunt." 
What was the ground of the reproach ? 4. What other parts were 
famous for iron in the time of Augustus i 5. What substantive 
must be supplied with * Bigatos Serratosque' ? What were they ? 
Why did the Germans prefer them 1 

O, 1. Translate : — " Trans Suionas aliud mare, pigrum ac prope 
immotum : quo cingi cludique terrarum orbem hinc fides, quod ex- 
tremus cadentis jam solis fulgor in ortus edurat, adeo darus ut sidera 
hebetet." 2. What is the phsenomenon to which he alludes, and its 
true cause ? 3-. What was the state of astronomical knowledge at 
Rome about the time of Tacitus> and what seems, from a passage in 
his Agricola, to have been his own fancies on the subject? 4. What 
opinions are alluded to in the words ** in occidentis insulis terrisque 
otctnt solis radiis expressa atque liquentia" ? 5. What was the Ger- 
man, and what the Roman name of Amber ? And whence derived ? 

6. What account is given of its natural history by Pliny, and Tacitus ? 

7. Through what countries was it imported to Rome ? (Pliny). S. 
Whence did the Romans get the 'tura balsamaque*? (Virg. Georg.) 

P. 1 . State the etymology and meaning of tignatus, cognatus, 
latUuSf ancepSf imputare ; of sacramentumt as a militarfff and as a 
cwilf term ; of superstiiio and bellum according to Cicero : and the 


force of the prepoBitions in accisuB ; submiitere crinem ; crinem nodo 
suhitringere ; ingemere agris. ft. Explain by examjde the use of 
" ccrruptus in quandam similitudiDem vini ;" and *' connubiis alianim 
nationum infectoi" 3. Translate : ** terra peconim fcecundat sed 
improeera'* (what number is improcera ?) : '* parva ctvitas, sed 
gloria ingens*' (what case is gUma ?): ** obliquare crinem'* : and 
explain from Quintilian "horrentem capillum retro aequuntur.*' 
4. What is the difference of Merx and Merces? Of Ager, ArYum, 
Solum ? Of Disertus and Eloquens 1 (Which does Cicero praise as 
the most rare ?) Of hebent and torpent ? Of nemus and lucus ? 
Of Gens and Natio ? Of litare and sacrificare ? Of tela and anna ? 
Of vectigalia and tributa ? Of Venire and VSnire ? Of Pr^Mrum 
and ProcCrum ? 5* What Homeric expression is imitated in '* torn 
demum pretia naacendi retulisse*' ? Translate. 

Q. 1. Shew the relationship between the five first Emperors, 
the two Agrippinae, and '* Drusus ac Nero et Germanicus/' 2. Of 
what gens were Drusus and Nero ? and what exploits of theirs are 
celebrated by Horace ? d* From this passage correct in §» 34. ^'nec 
defuit audentia Druso Germanico ; sed obstitit Oceanus in se et in 
Herculem inquiri/' Where are these 'Herculis columns' supposed 
to have been ? 

R, 1. Exhibit (with dates) the leading circumstances of the 
struggle between the Romans and Barbarians till the extinction of 
the Eastern and Western Empires. IS. What were the names, the 
object, and the results of the associations of the German tribes in 
the third century of the Christian sera ? 3. Translate — 

O bone num ignoras ? — ^missa est a Csesare laurus 
Insignem ob cladem Germanse pubis ; et aris 
Frigidus excutitur cinis ; ac jam postibos arma, 
Jam chlamydes regum, jam lutea gausapa capCis» 
Essedaque, ingentesque locat CsBsonia Rhenos. 

Pers. Sat. vi. 
Who is the CsBsar here mentioned : and how is the same circum- 
stance alluded to in the treatise of Tacitus ? 
S, 1. Translate-— 

fugiens civile nefiis, redituraque nunquam 

LiBERTAs ultra Tigrim Rhenumque reoessit, 
Ac toties nobis jugulo qusBsita negatur, 



2. Mention some of the customs recorded by Tacitus, which 
illustrate the remark, that " the system of the English political con- 
stitution was invented in the woods of Germany." 3. When and by 
whom were the laws and customs, derived from our German ances- 
tors, consolidated in England ? and what material alterations were 
introduced by the Norman Conquest ? 4. In what event does Mon- 
tesquieu predict that our state, like that of Rome, Sparta* and Car- 
thage, will '' lose its liberty and perish" ? Omen sit leva ! 


Sine Coll, et anno* 

1 . Give a distinct account of the marches and winter-quarters of 
die Roman array in Britain during each year of Agricola*s command : 
trace the motions of his fleet, as far as can be collected from Tacitus : 
and accompany the whole with a map of the country, containing the 
ancient and modern names of the people, rivers, friths, and harbours. 

2. Give an account of the Roman legion, as it was constituted 
under Romulus, in the time of Scipio Africanus, and of Agricola. 

3. What legions were in Britain at this time, and what was the 
probable amount of Agricola's force, and what proportion did it 
bear to the military establishment of the whole empire ? 

4. Describe the Roman mode of encampment : mention the differ- 
ence betwixt stationary and temporary camps : and assign the dimen- 
sions of one of the latter sufficient to contain Agricola's army. 

5. Give the different opinions concerning the place where the 
battle at the Grampian mountain was fought, and the arguments in 
favour of that which you are inclined to adopt. 

6. The West and North-west of Europe seem to have been occu* 
pied by two great nations. What are their names : in what points 
did they differ from each other : and what vestiges of each are dis« 
eoverable in Britain to this day 7 

K K 


7. Grive an aooount of the religion of the ancient Brilcms, and of 
Its ministers ; and compare it with that of the Ghreeks and Ronoanst 
and of the ancient Danes, with respect to inspiring courage in battle. 

8. Translate and explain the following passage : — " Frumeiiti et 
tributorum auctionem sequalitate mmierum mollire, circumdsiSf qm 
in qusestmn reperta, ipso tributo gravius tolerabantur : namqueper 
ludibrium adsidere clausis horreis, et emere ultro framenta, ac ven- 
dere pretio cogebantur : devortia itinerum et longinquitas r^onum 
indicebatur, ut civitates a proximis hibernis in remota et avia defer- 
rent, donee, quod omnibus in promptu erat, paucis lucrosum fieret" 

9. Mention the excellencies and defects of Tacitus as a writer ; 
and point out the faults of the following translation : — ^The East and 
the West have been rifled^ and the spoiler is still insatiate. The 
Romans, by a strange singularity of nature, are the only people, who 
invade, with equal ardour, the wealth, and the poverty of nations. 
To rob, to ravage, and to murder, in their imposing language, are 
the arts of civil policy. When they have made the world a soytude, 
they call it peace. 

Sine ColL €t <mno. 

1 . Name the Historians who had given some account of Britain, 
before the days of Tacitus. What period elapsed between the first 
and second invasion of this coimtry by Julius Caesar ? What, ac- 
cording to Suetonius, were the motives of these two enterprises ? 

2. " Mox beila civilia, et in Rempublicam versa principum arma 
ac longa oblivio Britannice etiam in pace." What are the civil wars 
here alluded to ? State the number of years intervening from the 
return of Julius Caesar from Britain, to the arrival of Aulus Plaudus, 
in the reign of the Emperor Claudius. 

S. " Consilium id Divus Augustus vocabat, Tiberius praeceptum.** 
Translate the words ' consilium* and ' praeceptum/ and shew how 
the latter applies to Augustus. 

4. ' Divus.* Whence arose the Roman rile of deification ? By 
whom^ and when, was this honour usually conferred ? Which of the 


Emperors accepted it during their lives, and who refused it ? Does 
Lucalh applaud or censure this practice, when he says, "Inque 
DeAm templis jurabit Roma per umbras 1*' 

5. At what time A. D. and A. U. C. ; and in whose reign did 
Tacitus write the Vita Agricobe ? What other works were actually 
composed by him, and what were meditated ? By whose particular 
care, and in what manner were the writings of this historian trans* 
cribed and preserved ? After the destruction of the Roman libraries, 
where, according to Bayle, was the most valuable part of the works 
of Tacitus discovered in a single MS. 

6. (1) '* Cnieus Julius Agricola veteri et illustri". (2) ** Foro- 
juliensium colonic ortus utrumque avum*'. (3) " Procuratorum 
CsBsarum habuit quae". (4) " Equestris nobilitas est pater Julius 
Graecinus**. (5) ** Senatorii ordinis**. 

(1) In these three words, point out the nomen, pnenomen, and 

cognomen. To what circumstance did the subject of 
this memoir probably owe the title of Agricola? 

(2) Give the modem name and site of Forojuliiim. 

(3) Describe the office of the Procurator CaBsaris, as distinct 

from tliat of the Senatorial Procurator. By whom were 
the collections paid into the iErarium ? and by whom 
into the Fiscus ? Translate the words ^rarium and 

(4) What do you understand by the expression ' qus equestris 

nobilitas est' ? 

(5) '' Senatorii ordinis." Explain the particular meaning of 

the following titles : — Patres, Patres Conscripti, Patricii. 

7. Whence, according to Tacitus, was Britain peopled ? What 
was its religion and forms of government? Who were the Silures, 
Brigantes, Iceni, Ordovices ? Give the Latin names of the Isles of 
Wight, Hebrides, Orkneys, Anglesey. Give Sir William Temple's 
etymology of the following words : — Albion, Britannia, Caledonia. 
By what epithets did the Romans distinguish the Northern and 
Southern parts of Britain ? 

8. How many Governors preceded Agricola in the command of 
Britain ? What was the extent of the Roman dominion at the time 
of his arrival, and what at his departure ? By whom, and in what 
directions, were barriers erected, to secure the conquests of the 

K K 2 


Romans in Britain ? Are there any vestiges of these still extant! 
If so, name some of the principal ones. In what respect does the 
form of a Roman camp differ from that of a British one ? How 
many gates were there in the former ? Give their names. 

9. Translate the following passage : 

** Fnunenti et trihutormn (1) auctionem sequiditate munerum 
mollire> circumcisis, quae, in qusestwn reperta, ipso tribttto gravhis 
tolerabantur : namque per ludibrimn assidere dausis horreis, et 
emere ultro (2) fnimenta, ac vendere pretio cogehantur : devortia 
itinerum, et longinquitas regionum indicebatur, ut civitates a proxi- 
mis hibernis in remota et avia referrent, donee, quod omnibus in 
promptu erat paucis lucrosum fieret. 

(1) Why would you prefer reading ' exactionem' for 'auc* 

tionem' ? 
(9) ' Fruroentum*. Of what nature was the tribute usually 
•exacted from the Britons ? Explain the following efM- 
thets, as applicable to ' irumentum,' viz.— decumanmn, 
8tipendiarium,emptum, aestimatum. What Roman ora- 
tor has inveighed against the enormities of the Roman 
collectors, and in what oration ? 

10. Translate the following section : 

*' Sequens hiems saluberrimis consiliis absumta : namque, ut 
homines dispersi ac rudes, eoque in hello faciles, quieti et otio per 
Toluptates assuescerent ; hortari privatim, adjuvare public^, ut tem- 
pla, fora, domus exstruerent, laudando promptos, et castigando 
segnes : ita honoris aemulatio pro necessitate -erat. Jam vero prin- 
cipum filios liberalibus artibus (1) erudire; et ingenia Britannomm 
studiis Gallorum anteferre, ut, qui modo (2) linguam Romanam 
abnuebant, eloquentiam concupiscercnt : inde etiam habitus nostri 
honor, et frequens toga : paulatimque discessum ad delinimenta vitio- 
Tum, porticus, et balnea, et conviviorum elegantiam : idque apud 
imperitos humanitas vocabatur cum pars servitutis esset." 

(1) In what instance had this sort of policy been practised by 
Augustus ? 

(i) 'Linguam*. In the modern annals of Great Britain, dur- 
ing what King's reign was the introduction of a foreign 
language enforced upon the natives ? 

11. State briefly the comparative merits of the speeches of 
Galgacus and Agricola. Does Tacitus lean to the side of the 


Britons ? if so, why ? Where, accordiog to Gordon, was this great 
battle fought ? Give the argnments by which his opinion is mainly 
supported. Translate the following words : — colonia, municipium, 
civitas, cohors, tunna, manipuli, vexilla, sacramentum, liburnicas, 
contubernio, coromeatus. 

12. " Igitur triumphalia omamenta et illustris statuse bonorem, 
et quidquid pro triumpho datur." In what sense did the Romans 
originaUy use the term ' imperator,' and when was it first applied to 
the person at the head of the state ? Was it good or bad policy to 
deny the Roman generals the honour of a real triumph ? By whose 
intrigues were the public triumphs ultimately conferred only on the 

IS. Translate the following passage : 

" Tu vero felix, Agricola, non vitae tantum claritate, sed etiam 
opportunitate mortis, (ut perhibent, qui interfuerunt novissimu ser- 
monibus tuis) constans et libens fatum excepisti ; tanquam pro (1) 
▼irili portione innocentiam Principi donares. Sed mihi filiaeque, 
prseter acerbitatem parentis erepti, auget maestitiam, quod assidere 
▼aletudini, fovere deficientem, satiari vultu, complexu, non contigit : 
excepissemus certe mandata voccsque, quas pemtus animo figeremus. 
Noster hie dolor, nostri^m vulnus : nobis tam longce absentise con- 
ditione ante quadriennium amissus es. Omnia sine dubio, optime 
pareidtum, assidente amantissimA uxore, superfuere honori tuo: 
paucioribus tamen lacrimis compositus es, et novissima in luce desi- 
derav^re aliquid oculi tui. Si quis piorum manibus locus ; si, ut 
(i) sapientibus placet, non cum corpore extinguuntur magnae animsB : 
placide quiescas, nosque, domum tuam, ab infirmo desiderio et mu- 
liebribus lamentis, ad contemplationem virtutum tuarum voces ; quas 
neque lugeri, neque plangi fas est. Admiratione te potius quam 
temporalibus laudibus, et si natura suppeditet, (3) similitudine de- 
coremus. Is verus honos : ea conjunctissimi cujusque pietas. Id 
filise quoque, uxorique prseceperim, sic patris, sic mariti raemoriam 
venerari, ut omnia facta dictaque ejus -secum revolvant, formamque 
ac figuram animi magis quam corporis complectantur : non quia 
intercedendum putem imaginibus, quae marmore aut sere finguntur : 
sed ut vultus hominum, ita simulacra vultus imbecilla ac mortalia 
sunt ; forma mentis aeterna, quam tenere et exprimere, non per 
alienam materiam et artem, sed tuis ipse moribus possis. Quidquid 


ex Agricola amavimus, quidquid mirati sumiis, manet, mansanmuiiie 
est in aniinis hominuray in aeternitate temporon!, fama Fenim : nam 
multos yeterum, velut inglorios et Mobiles, oblivio obroet : Agri- 
cola, posteritati narratua et traditu8» superstes erit.'* 

(1) < Virili'. How do you explain tbis alloaioB to Domitian? 

(2) * Sapientibus'. To what school or schoois of philosophy 

dees this refer ? 
(9) What word originally stood in the place of ' similitudine' ? 
By whom was that reading emended ? Bletterie pro- 
posed * cemulatu' : why would you prefer 'similitudine'? 
14. What are the characteristic merits of Tacitus as a writer I 
What his dements ? What was the opinion entertained of him by 
his cotemporaries ? What is your own ? 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. 1818. 

I. Under what Emperors did Tacitus live ? What Authors of 
note flourished in the same period ? In what public situations does it 
appear from his works, that he was employed ? Upon what occa- 
sion did he particularly distinguish himself in his profession ? What 
is the prevailing character of his style ; and whence do you suppose 
it to have been derived ? 

n. By whom, and for what ostensible reason was Britain first 
invaded ? Under whom was it made a Roman province ? What 
Emperors visited the island in person> to confirm their conquests ? 
How long did it remain in their possession ? When, and upon what 
occasion did they withdraw their forces ; and what events took place 
as an immediate consequence of their retreat t 

ni. ** Britanniae situm populosque, multis scriptoribus memo- 

To what writers does Tacitus here allude ? By whom, and io what 
year A. D. was Britain discovered to be an island ? Sketch a map 
of the country, marking out the sftuationsr and giving the modem 
names of the Dumnonii, Cornavii, Silures, Trinobantes, Brigantes, 
and Iceni. Distinguish between the Thule of Pliny, and that of 

ST. jtohn's coll. 503 

Tacitus. — OUm *regibua* parebani. — Give a concise account of 
those mentioned by Tacitus, and of the actions by which they were 
most distinguished. 

IV. '' Prima castrorum rudimenta in Britannift Suetonio Paulino, 
diligenti ac moderato dud, adprobavit ; electus, quem contubernio 

Translate this passage : explain the terms ' adprobare rudhnenta' ; 
' contubernio aestimare*. 

*'Non san^ ali^s exercitatior, magisque in ambiguo Britannia 
fuit ; trucidati veterani, incensse colonise, intersepti exercitus". 

Point out the particular events here alluded to. What colonies 
were des'troyed, and by whom? Explain the difierence between 
* colonia,' ' munidpium,' and ' praefectura'* 

V. '* Mox inter (1) qusesturam, ac (2) tribunatum plebis, atque 
etiam ipsum tribunatib annum quiete et otio transit, gnarus sub 
Nerone temporum, quibus inertia pro sapienti& fuit. Idem (8) 
prseturse tenor et silentium''. 

1. What was the nature of the office of quaestor? Give the deriva- 
tion of the term. What was the number of these officers in the 
time of Julius Caesar? 2. How many officers were designated by 
the term ' tribunatus' ? Upon what occasion were the Tribunes of the 
people first appointed ? By w&om were they suppressed ? d. How 
many kinds of praetors were there? What was the nature of their 
respective offices ? What was the proper age for entering on each 
gradation of Roman magistracy ? 

Vi. (1) " Classis Othoniana, licenter vaga, Intemelios populatur". 
2. " Agricola nuntio afTectati a Vespasiano imperii deprehensus'*. 

1 . For what purpose was this fleet collected ? 2. When, where, 
and from what acknowledged motives did Vespasian first aspire to 
the empire ? Explain as much of the Roman History at this period, 
as will serve to illustrate the above passages. 

Vll. " Is missum ad (1) delectus agendos Agricolam, integr^- 
que at strenu^ versatum, (2) vicesimae legicmi tard^ ad (3) sacra- 
mentum transgressae praeposuit*'. 

1 . What was the Roman manner of levying soldiers ? What were 
the pleas of exemption from military service ? 2. Of how many 
legions did the Roman army now consist ? Which of these were in 
Britain, and in what parts of the island were they stationed? State 


the princiiMl diTisions of the Roman forces, and the number of men 
of which eadi was composed in the time of Agricola. 3. What was 
the substance of this oath ? What is the distinction between ' sacra* 
roentmn* and 'jusjurandum'? 

VIII. " Fert Britannia (1) aunmi, et argentun, et alia metalla, 
pretium victorisB: gignit et Oceanus (JH) margarita, sed subfusca 
et liTentia." 

1 . How do you reconcile this assertion with that of Galgacus. §.31. 
'* Neque enim arva nobis, aut metaUa, aut portus sunt.*' 2. From 
whence were the finest pearls brought to Rome? In what parts of 
the British coast have they been found ? What other writers agree 
in the description of them given by Tacitus? 

IX. " Revertentem ah legatione legionis divus Vespasianus inter 
patricios adscivit." 

What is meant by the phrase * inter Patricios adscire * 1 Were ail 
the Senators necessarily of the Patrician order? Confirm yowr 
opinion from Tacitus. Give the derivation and original meaning 
of the word * patricius/ ^* Spe consulates cm destindrai." Agricola 
was consul with Domitian, A. D. 77. Why do not their names 
appear in the ' Fasti Consulares ' ? 

X. Give the situations and modem names of Intemelii, Forum 
Julii, fretum Oceani, arx Albana, and Portus Rutupensis. 

XI. "Natus erat Agricola, Idibus Juniis; excessit decimo 
Kalendas Septembres.*' 

To what days of our division of the year do these respectively 
correspond 7 Explain briefly the Roman Calendar, and give a deri- 
vation of the words ' Kalendse', ' Nonse', and * Idns*. 

XII. '' Igitur triumphalia omamenta, et illustris statuse honorem 
— -decemi in Senatu jubet." 

What were the ' triumphalia ornamenta' ? When, and upon what 
occasion did triumphs cease to be granted to individuals ? What is 
the last instance of a triumph recorded in history ? Point out the 
difierence between * triumphus ' and ' ovatio/ and give the derivation 
of each. 

XIII. Translate the following passage : 

" Tu ver6 felix, Agricola, non vits tantiim claritate, sed etiam 
opportunitate mortis ; ut perhibent, qui interfuerunt novissimia ser- 
monibus tuis, constans et libens fatum excepisti, tanquam pro virili 

queen's coll. 505 

portione innocentiam principi donares. Sed mihi filiaeque, praeter 
acerbitatem parentis erepti, auget msestitiam, quod (1) adsidere 
▼aletudiniy fovere deficientem, satiari vultu, complexu, non contigit ; 
(2) excepissemus cert^ mandata vocesque, quas penitus animo fige- 
reiniu. Noster hie dolor, nostrum vulnus ; nobis tam longs absen- 
tisB oonditione ante quadriennium amissus es. Omnia sine dubio, 
optime parentum, adsidente amantissimd. uxore, superfu^re honori 
tuo; paucioribus tamen lacrymis (S) compositus es, et (4) novissi- 
mft in luce desiderav^re aliquid oculi tui. Si quis piorum raanibus 
locus; si, ut (5) sapientibus placet, non cum corpora extinguuntur 
magme animae ; placid^ quiescas, nosque, domum tuam, ab infirmo 
desiderio, et muliebribus lamentis, ad contemp]ationem virtutum 
tuarum voces, quas neque lugeri, neque plangi &s est : admiratione 
te potiiks, temporalibus ]audibus, et, si natura suppeditet, similitu- 
dine decoremus.*' 

1. Quote a parallel passage from an English Poet. 

2. There is an analogous expression in the last book of the Iliad. 
Quote the lines. 

3. Horace has used the word * coroposui ' in the same sense. 
Produce the passage, and illustrate it by a quotation from Pope. 

4. This sentence is beautifully imitated by Campbell. Do you 
recollect the lines ? 

5. State the different opinions of the Philosophers, with r^ard 
to the immortality of the soul. Can you recall to mind an admira- 
ble sentence of Cicero on this subject, in which seems compressed 
the whole force of the argument? 

QUEEN'S COLL. 1820. 

1. Give some account of Tacitus. Also, enumerate the principal 
writers of biography amongst the Romans. 

2. Give a list of the twelve Csesars in order, mentioning the dates 
when they severally assumed the supreme power, and the degree of 
relationship in which each stood to his successor. 

3. Explain the distinction between the following words : — princi- 


patus, libertas ; tranquillitas, otium ; obsequium, modestia ; gens, 
natio ; vir, homo ; luctuosus, tristis ; lugeri, plangi ; simulo, dissi- 

4. Mark the quantity of the penultimate of the following words : 
— margarita, sarcinis, semineces, Batavi, petita, dedita, egenmt 

5. Explain the nature, and give instances, of: — ^neuter, deponent* 
incepdve, frequentative, desiderative, diminutivet and defective 

6. Give a brief narrative of the principal circumstances of Agri- 
cola's life, noticing particularly the time and place of his birth, the 
nature and place of his education, the time when he first visited 
Britain, and the chief acts of his government there ; his age at the 
time of his death, and the supposed cause of the same* 

7. From what countries does Tacitus suppose that Britain was 
probably peopled ? By whom of the Romans was it discovered and 
first circumnavigated ? What is the origin of its name? also that of 
Albion ? and of England ? 

8. Sketch a map of * Britannia Romana*. What parts of it were 
inhabited by the the Brigantes, Iceni, Silures, Ordovices, and Ho- 
resti respectively ? Also, point out the situation of Portus Tru- 
tulensis, Clota, Bodotria, Taus, the Orcades, and Mona. 

9. How long were the Romans masters of Britain ? What causes 
led them finally to relinquish it ? Where therein was their seat of 
supreme power ? 

10. What foreign troops were employed by Agricola to keep the 
Britons in subjection ? Where did the Intemelii, Usipii, Frisii, Ba- 
tavi, and Tungri, respectively dwell ? 

1 1 . Describe a Roman camp, and also the armour and accoutre- 
ments of a Roman soldier. 

12. In what respects did an ovation differ from a triumph? When 
did the latter come into disuse ? 

Id* What days, according to our mode of computing time, are 
the Ides of June, and the 10th of the calends of September ? In 
what year of the city, of our Lord, and of the Greek Olympiads, did 
Agricola die I 

14. Translate the passage §. 45, beginning, ''Tu vero felix Agri- 
cola," &c. to the end of the book. 

ST. John's coll. 507 

15. How are we to explain the operation of that principle which 
Tacitus describes as belonging to human nature — " Proprium hu-> 
mani ingenii est, odisse quern Iseseris" ? 

16. What are the chief advantages of the study of biography, 
and of history in general ? 

ST. JOHN'S COLL, 1821. 

1. Describe very briefly the changes which the Roman govern^ 
ment underwent from the time of its first establishment to that of 
Augustus ; and give the dates B.C. and A. M. of the foundation of 
the city : B. C. and A. U.C. of the abolition of tlie monarchical go- 
vernment, and of the battle of Actium. Who was the last Emperor 
of the Julian family ? To whom did the title Caesar strictly belong ? 
and to what persons was it in later times applied ? What is the 
meaning of the title Augustus, and to whom was it appropriated 1 
Mention the names of Nero before his adoption by Claudius, and 
trace his descent from Augustus. 

2. From what the younger Pliny has related concerning his own 
age^ deduce the probable date of the birth of Tacitus, A. D. and 
A. U. C. Under What Emperor did he first enter upon public life ? 
What offices did he fill in succeeding reigns ? In what year was he 
created Consul, and who was his colleague ? How do you account 
for his name not appearing in the Fasti Consulares? In what 
reign is it most probable that he died 7 Do you suppose the life 
of Agricola to have been written during the life of Nerva, or afler ? 
State the grounds of our opinion. 

3. " Legimus ci^m Aruleno Rustico Pectus Thrasea, Herennio 
Senecioni Priscus Helvidius laudad essent, capitale fuisse." Trans- 
late this passage. Why does Tacitus use the word Megimus'? 
Under what Emperor did Arulenus Rusticus and Herennius Se- 
necio suffer death ? Explain the expression ' Vitelliana cicatrix^ 
which, as we learn from Pliny, was alleged by Regulus the informer 
as a reproach to the memory of Rusticus. Quote the lines of 
Martial on the death of Arria, the wife of Caecina Pcetus, and 


mother-in-law of Thrasea. What connexion existed between the 
families of Thrasea and Helvidius ? Explain what Pliny means* 
when, speaking of Fannia, Thrasea*8 daughter, he says, ' tulitque in 
exilium exilii causam*. What trials were called ' capitalia' ? Men- 
tion the term used in judicial sentences to express * exilium'. c. u, 

4. State the difference between ' Colonise Romanae' and ' Colonise 
Latinee' ; and quote Cicero's authority for that distinction. By 
whom was the custom of planting military colonies first introduced t 
Give the derivation of the word * municipium*. In what respects 
did '* municipia' chiefly difier from ' colonise' ? To what dty was 
the * jus civitatis' first granted without- the * jus suffiragii', and on 
what occasion ? c. iv. 

5. What plan did Augustus follow in his partition of the pro- 
vinces between himself and the senate ; and what was his real object 
in that partition 1 What title had the governors of the Provineise 
Senatoriae? How were they appointed ? Mention the necessary 
qualification of a candidate, and the extent and duration of their 
authority. State the different titles of those who governed the 
Provineise Imperatorise. From what class were they chosen, and 
by whom ? From what body were the Procuratores Csesaris gene- 
rally selected, and what were the duties of their oflSce? Can you 
mention an instance of a Procurator discharging the office of a Go- 
vernor ? What do you understand by the words * equestris nobi- 
Htas', applied to the Procuratores Csesarum ? Distinguish between 
the words * potestas', ' jurisdictio', ' imperium', when used to sig- 
nify the authority of provincial magistrates. 

6. " Prima castrorum rudimenta in BritanniA Suetonio PaollJDO, 
diligenti ac moderato duci, adprobavit (a) : electus, quem contu- 
bernio sestimaret (6). Nee Agricola licenter, more juvenum, qui 
militiam in lasciviam vertunt, neque segniter, ad voluptates et oom- 
meatus, titulum tribunal As (c) et inscitiam retulit." Translate this 
passage, (a) Do you remember a line in Statins, where * adprobo' 
is used in a sense exactly similar ? (6) To what custom does this 
refer ? (c) What number of tribunes were there in each legion ? 
How long did their command last ? What expression does Juvenal 
use to signify * semestris tribunatus', and how do you explain it ? 
From what order of men were the tribunes chiefly chosen under the 
Emperors ? c. v. 

ST. John's coll. 509 

7« ** Hinc ad capessendos magistratuB \a) in urbem digressus, 
Domitiam DecidianuiD^ splendidis natalibus ortam, sibi junxit: 
idque matrimonium ad majora nitenti decus ac robur fuit : vixe- 
runtque mird. eoncordift, per mutuam caritatem, et invtcem se ante- 
ponendo, nisi quod in bon& uxore tant6 major laus, quant6 in malft 
plus culpae est.'* Translate and explain this passage, (a) In what 
order were the civil offices enjoyed ? At what age might each be 
entered upon, according to the * lex Villia' ? On what occasion was 
the office of Tribune of the commons 6rst instituted ? State briefly 
the advantages which Augustus gained by causing the tribunitian 
power to be conferred on himself for life ? State the respective 
duties of the Praetor Urbanus, and Peregrinus. Explain the terms 
' jurisdictio' and ' quaestio', as applied to the authority of the Prae- 
tors. What were the * quaestiones perpetuac', and why were they 
so called ? c. vi. 

8. "Is (Mucianus) missnmad delectus agendos Agricolam, inte- 
gr^ue ac strenu^ versatum, vicessimae (a) legioni, tard^ ad sacra* 
mentum (b) transgressae praeposuit, ubi decessor (c) seditios^ agere 
narrabatur : quippe legatis quoque consularibus (d) nimia ac formi- 
dolosa erat. Nee legatus praetorius ad cohibendum potens.* Trans- 
late this passage, (a) Mention the divisions and subdivisions of a 
Roman legion. Is the term cohors ever applied to eavalry ? What 
number constituted the ' Justus equitatus' belonging to a legion ? 
Mention the divisions and subdivisions of the ' ala*. To what other 
troops was the term applied, besides the horse of the legions? 
(h) What was the substance of the * sacramentum' ? (c) Who is 
here meant? Do the words ' praetorius legatus' signify the same 
person ? (d) Who are here intended ? Tacitus in his history 
relates all the circumstances here alluded to: recapitulate them 
briefly. Give the dates of Julius Caesar's two invasions of Britain ; 
and the number of troops he brought over on each occasion. In 
whose reign, and in what year was the next attempt made upon tlie 
island ? Mention the legions which passed over at this time, and 
the name of their commander. How many of these were in the 
Island at the time of Agricola's taking the command of the twen- 
tieth ? Which of them was afVerwards called Britannica? Siate briefly 
the changes which took place in the military force from this time 
till the island was finally abandoned^ and give the date of this last' 
event, c. vii. 


9. ** Britannia (a), fnsulanim, quas Romana notitia coniplectitiir» 
maxima, spado {b) ac ccelo (c), in Orientem Germanise, in Occiden- 
tem Hispaniae obtenditur." Translate this passage, (a) Draw a 
sketch of the Island, distinguishing the territories of the Silures, die 
Trinobantes, Horesti, Iceni, Ordovices, Dumnonii, Cantii, and Bri- 
gantes. (6) Pomponius Mela has a similar expression ; qaote it. 
(c) Give the derivation of this word : how does it happen that the 
mode of spelling it varies ? c. x. 

10. ** Frumenti et tributorum auctionem (a), aequalitate munerum 
mollire, circumcisis, quae in qusestum reperta, ipso tributo gravii^s 
tolerabantur : namque per ludibrium adsidere clausis horreis, et 
emere ultro frumenta, ac vendere pretio cogebantur : devortia iti- 
nerum et longinquitas regionum indicebatur, ut civitates a proximis 
hibernis in rernota et avia deferrent, donee, quod omnibus in promptu 
erat, paucis lucrosum Reret.** Translate and explain this passage. 
(a) Do you recollect a circumstance mentioned by Suetonius, in 
his life of Vespasian, which elucidates this passage, and tends to 
establish the received reading? Explain the terms :— frumen* 
tum decumanum, stipendarium, emptum, sestimatum, honorarium, 
c. xix. 

11." Nata servitud mancipia (a), semel veneunt (Jb\ atque ultro 
a dominis aluntur." (a) O'lve the derivation of this word. What 
was the appellation of slaves born in the house, and what English 
expression is derived fiom it? Mention the monthly and daHj 
allowance made to slaves for their sustenance ; and explain the 
meaning of the word ' peculium*. (b) Shew by quotations from 
Tacitus, or any other classical author, that the word ' venum', of 
which, together with * eo* and *do* respectively, * veneo' and * ve- 
nundo' are compounded, is really a noun, and admits of oblique 
cases. Prove also that it is not even a verbal noun. Sav in what 
parts ' veneo' is defective, c. xxxi. 

13. '' Pudet dictu.** Strictly speaking, what are the Supines, both 
in ' um' and ' u' ? how are they respectively governed, and what 
government do they themselves possess over other words 7 Explain 
the construction of pudet dictu*, and also of the following passages, 
* nutricem accersitufn iit* Ter. and ' reus damnatum iri videbatur ' 
Quintil. What do you conceive * iri' to be in this last passage ? 
c. xxxu. 

ST. John's coli^. 511 

Id. ** Salariuin(a) tamen^ proconsulari solitum ofiem» — Agricolae 
non dedit." Give the derivation of this word. Mention the amount 
of the ' Salarium' in Roman and English money, c. xlii. 

14. '^Natus erat Agricola, Caio Caesare^ tertii^m consule, 
Idibus Juniis : excessit sexto et quinquagesimo anno, decimo Calen- 
das Septembres, CoUegA Priscoque consulibus.*' Shew that there 
is a mistake of two years in this computation of Agricola's age. 
Into how many months was the year divided by Romulus ? Write 
down the name of each. Mention the alterations which Numa, and 
which Julius Caesar made in the Calendar : and point out the defects 
of each system. Explain accwrattly the alteration made by Pope 
Gregory; and shew whether the year 1900 will be bissextile. — 
Construct a Roman Calendar for the months Feb. June and Aug. 
1S20. Explain the construction of * decimo Calendas.' Why did 
the Romans say 'pridie Calendas* or * Calendarum/ and not *secttndo 
Calendas'? What parts of speech are the names of months ? c. xliv. 

15. "Nam sicut) durare in hac beatissimi sasculi luce, ac 
Principem Trajanum (a) videre» quod augurio votisque apud nostras 
aures ominabatur : ita festinatae mortis grande solatium tulit, evasisse 
postremum illud tempus, quo Domitianus non jam per intervalla ac 
spiramenta temporum, sed continuo, et velut uno ictu, rempublicam 
exhausit." Translate this passage. Of what country was Trajan ? 
In what year did he succeed to. the Empire? Which of the 
Christian fathers was it, who appealed to him in behalf of Christi- 
anity ? What countries did he subdue in his Eastern expedition, 
and how far did he extend the boundary of the Roman Empire ? 
Mention the place and the year of his death. By what Emperor 
were Trajan's Eastern conquests abandoned, and the Euphrates 
again made the Eastern boundary of the Empire? 

16. **UtA adhuc victorid. Carus Metius censebatur, et intra 
Albanam arcem sententia Messalini strepebat, et Massa Bebius 
jam tum reus (a) erat Mox nostras duxere Helvidium in car- 
cerem (6) manus: nos Maurici Rusticique visus, nos innocent! 
sanguine Senecio perfudit." Translate this passage. Give a brief 
account of the persons and circumstances here mentioned and 
alluded to. (a) What is the strict legal signification of the words 
^ reus ' and 'subscribere' ? (6) Can you quote any Authors who use 


* career* in the sing, to sigDify 'a starting place*, or in the plur, to 
signify * a prison ' ? c. xiv. 

17. In compound words, such as 'respubliea ', when are both the 
component words declined, and when not ? Reconcile to the rule, 
' puerpera*, ' Marspiter/ and ' alteruter '. What follows with respect 
to the compound word, if either of the component words are de- 
fective? — How came 'anceps' and 'preeceps' to have for their 
genitives ' ancijutis' and 'prsecipitis'? — DeRne a verb neuter — Can 
you assign any reason for supposing that the accusative plund of 
quis was formerly quo and qua, as well as qu^e ? 

18. Give the situation and modem names of the Usipii, the Frisii, 
the Suevi, the Tungri, and the Batavi, of Forojulium, Massilia, 
Intemelii, Arx Albana, and Mare Rubrum. 

19. State the distinction between : — metus, terror, timor, formido ; 
and support the senses you assign them by quotations from classical 
authors. Distinguish also between: — mos, consiietudo; Ktas, 
tempus ; sapientia, prudentia ; servitus, servitium ; juventa, juventas* 
juventus; subsidium, prsesidium; coma, crinis, capillus; superstitiosi, 
religiosi ; tributum, vectigal ; aerarium, fiscus ; acies, exerdtns, 
agmen ; cruor, sanguis ; liberti, libertini. Give the derivation of: — 
dvitas, aboleor, optimus, ambiguus, miles, manipulus, triumphns, 
insula, Septemtriones, scutula, caster, auspicium, palatium, Calendae, 
Bissextilis, lacluTma. 

St. JOHN'S COLL. 1828. 

1 . What period of history is embraced in the ' Annals*, and what 
in the ' History' of Tacitus ? To what records, and for what rea- 
son was the title ' Annales Maximi' given by the Romans ? How 
does Cicero distinguish Annalists from Historians — what examples 
does he cite in his treatise ' de Oratore* of Greek and Latin An- 
nalists? For what probable reason did Tacitus thus divide his 
history ? Derive the word ' historia'* and distinguish between 
* Annales', ' Fasti*, ' Historia*. The * Annales Maximi' considered 
in respect to the compilers of them may be compared to what early 


productions in our language ? IS. To which of the Roman emperors 
does Tacitus say he was indebted for promotion ? Who was his 
first patron ? which of them were " nee beneficio nee injuria cog- 
niti.*' ^' Livia in famiHam Juliam, nomenque Augustas assumebatur : 
in spem secundam, nepotes pronepotesque :" Shew this by stating 
the relationship between the first successors to the throne of Au- 
gustus. How was the Emperor Nero related to Germanicus ? 

d. Was the Emperor, in whose reign Tacitus wrote the life of 
Agricola, of the Julian family ? In what year of his age did Agri- 
cola die, and in what year of the reign of Domitian ? Does Tacitus 
incline to the suspicion that he was poisoned by the Emperor? 
Does Suetonius make any allusion to the death of Agricola P 

4. '* lisdem consulibus, Ludi sseculares octingentesimo post Ro- 
roam conditam^ quarto et sexagesimo qu^m Augustus ediderat, spec- 
tatisunt. Utriusque principis rationes prsetermitto satis narratas 
libris, quibus res Imp. Domitiani composui. Nam is quoque edidit 
ludos ssecularesy iisque intentius adfui, sacerdotio quindecimvirali 
praeditus, ac tum Praetor.** Annal. lib. xi. ell. 

Translate this passage. In what reign, and in what year of that 
reign did the first exhibition take place, of which Tacitus here 
speaks ? Was Tacitus born at that time ? 

'^ Fecit et ludos saeculares (Domitianus) computat^ ratione tem- 
porum, non quo Claudius proximo, sed quo olim Augustus ediderat.'* 
Translate this passage. ^Describe the 'Ludi Siseculares', and the 
nature of the office called ' sacerdotium quihdecimvirale'. 

* lis intentius adfui Sacerd. Quind.' Quote a line from Horace 
alluding to this part of the duty of the * Quindecimviri', and from 
Virgil referring to the institution of the order. Why was the 
* Carmen Saeculare' of Horace so called ? Did Tacitus write his 
History or Annals first ? Did he contemplate carrying his history 
lower than the reign of Domitian ? 

5. In what year of Rome was the office of Praetor first establish- 
ed ; when was a second added ; how were they distinguished ; was 
their number increased under the Roman Emperors ; what was it, 
at the death of Augustus ? 

lUe nefastus erit per quem tua verba silentur, 

Fastus erity per quem lege licebit agi. Ovid. Fast. 

Explain these lines and derive the word ' Fastus. 

L L 


6. ^ Masailiam." Give the modern name of thb town, and quote 
Horace's allusion to the foundation of the colony. Ex^ain the 
term, ' contuhemium', and the construction 'quem oontubemio 

Translate the following passages : 

*' Neque segniter ad vdnptates et oommeatus titnlmn tribnnatfts 
et inscitiam retnlit." 

** Ubi conventus ac judida poscerent, gravis, intentus, severus* et 
s8epii!Ui miserioors; ubi officio satisfactum, nulla ultra potestatis 

*' Ac velnt pacti, ezerdtus licentiam, dux salutem." 

" Scilicet extrema et plana terrarumi humfli umbrft, non engunt 
tenebras, infiraque caelum etsidera nox cadit." 

** Ne laureatis quidem gesta pxosecutus est" 

*' Transigite cum expeditionibus. 

7. Translate into English verse the following apostrophe : 

^ Tu vero felix, Agrioola, non vitae tantiim daritate, aed etiam 
opportunitate mortis: ut perhibent, qui interfuerunt novissiiiiis 
sermonibus tuis, constans et libens fatum excepisti, tanquam pro 
virili portione innocentiam principi donares. Sed mihi filiseqne 
prffiter acerbitatem parentis erepti, auget msestitiam, quod adsidoe 
valetndini, fovere defidentem, satiari vultu, complexu, non oontigit. 
Omnia, sine dubio, optime parentum, adsidente aipantisaimi muom, 
snperfuere honor! tuo, paudoribus tamen lacrimis compositns es» et 
novisdmain luce desideravere aliquid oculi tui." 




St. JOHN'S COLL, 1824. 

1. To what cautei ^o jrou attrilmte the long toleraHce of the 
system of outrage pursued by Clbdius ? Describe the political 
parties existing at Rome in his time, and the object of eaeh on par- 
ticular occasions in restraining 6t ^couraging his violence. 

2. Give an account of the proceeding^ by which the enetnies of 
Cicero effected his banishment. What motives withheld him frotn 
an appeal to arms 7 What places did he visit, and what reception 
did he experience in his exile ? Mention the individuals who chiefly 
exerted themselves to accomplish his return. 

3. 'Sacra', ' ceremoniae*, 'auspicia.' Explain these terms. 
What opinion does Cicero seem to have held respecting the re- 
ligion established at Rome ? Quote some of his expressions on this 
subject. Into what principal branches was the system divided, and 
by whom were they instituted? 

4. State the circumstances which attended the deaths of the 
Gracchi, and of the elder and younger Drusus. 

5. ** Multas summorum imperatorum clarissimas victorias tttai 
nostra vidit.** Mention the victories here alluded to, with their 
dates, and the names of the commanders. 

6. Distinguish between: — vereor ut, vereor ne; urba, civicas; 
augur, ^aruspex, auspex ; adolescentia, juventus ; municipia, colo- 
niae« Mention the places and periods at which foreign colonies 
were settled in Italy, and the moat remarkable of those that were 
founded by Rome. 

7t State the legal age for being admitted to each order of the 
Roman magistracy. From what orders were the judges appointed 
for the trial of Milo ? What public offices were held by Domitius 
Ahenorbarbus, and what was the character of his political conduct? 



8. In what respect were the new rules adopted in the trial of 
Milo considered unfavourable to him ? Prove* from one of Cicero's 
letters, that he had long meditated the destruction of Clodius. 

9. What is the opinion of Cicero's oratory, expressed by Quin- 
tilian 1 Give Cicero's definition of a perfect orator, and his de- 
scription of the qualificatbns which he thought necessary for the 
attainment of that character. 

10. Explain the following passages : 

" Divisa sententia est, postulante nescio quo : sic reliqua auctori- 
tas senatAs, empta intercessione, sublata est.*' 

''-Convocabat tribus ; se interponebat ; CoUinam novam deleetu 
perditissimorum civium conscribebat." 

" Itaque illud Cassianum, ctit bono /verity in his personis valeau" 

" Tu P. Clodii cadaver spoliatum imaginibus, exsequiis^ pompa, 
iaudatione, infelicissimis lignis semiustulatum, nocturnis canibus 
dilaniandum reliquisti." 

CLARE HALL. 1824. 

1 . Give some account of the rise and progpress of oratory in 
Rome, and the obstacles it had to encounter. Who was the first 
that taught the art in the Latin language 1 

2. When and where was Cicero bom ? Under what master did 
he study ? With what cause and at what age did he commence his 
public career, and what measures did it compel him to adopt ? 

d. Mention the different offices Cicero bore» the age at vHiich be 
was invested with them, and the events by which they were severaUy 

4. Detail the circumstances wliich gave occasion to thisoratioii. . 

5» From what other writer do we principally gain infbrmatioii on 
the subject ? When did he live ? What evidence does he mentaon 
to have been brought against Milo to which Cicero has made no 

ۥ On what day did the trial take place, and how long after die 
death of Clodius 1 Who were the accusers ? 


7. In what did the offices of Qiueflitor and Interrex severally 

8. What were the ' Comitia centuriata' 1 At what time and by 
whom were they divided into classes ? For what purposes were 
they held ? Who presided in them ? 

9. What is the main point Cicero endeavours to substantiate in 
his defence ? What other mode of defence might he have adopted, 
and for what reasons did he decline doing so ? How does he con* 
trive to avail himself of the advantages of such a mode of de- 
fence ? 

10. Give a brief analysis of the Oration, distinguishing it into 
its several parts. 

11. *' Nisi ver6 existimatis dementem P. Africanum fuisse, qui 
cum k C, Carbone tribuno plebis in concione seditios^ interrogare- 
tur, quid de Tiberii Grracchi morte sentiret, respondit, jure cse- 
sum videri. Neque enim posset aut Ahala ille Servilius, aut P« 
Nasica, aut L. Opimius, aut C. Marius^ aut, me Consule, Senatus 
non nefarius haberi, si sceleratos cives interfici nefas esset. Itaque 
hoc, Judices, non sine caus^ ettam fictis fabulb doctissimi honunes 
memorisB prodiderunt, eum, qui patris ulciscendi caus4 matrem ne- 
cavisset, variatis hominum sententiis, non solum divin&, sed etiam 
Dese sapientissimse sententiA liberatunL" 

Translate the passage and explain the historical allusions. 

12. ** Quod si per furiosum iUnm tribunum Senatui, quod sen- 
tiebat, periicere licuisset, novam qusestionem nunc nullam habere<* 
mus ;de cernebat enim^ ut veteribus legibus tantilm mod6 extra or- 
dinem quaereretur; divisa sententia est, postulante nescio quo; 
nihil enim necesse est omnium me flagitia proferre ; sic reliqua auc-^ 
toritas Senates, empt& intercessione, sublata est." 

Who is the tribune here alluded to ? Explain fully the meaning 
of the whole passage, particularly of the expressions : — * tantum 
modo extra ordinem/ ' divisa est sententia,' ' empta intercessione^' 
* postulante nescio quo.* Who is the person to whom Cicero refers^ 
and what was his reason for suppressing the name ? 

13. ''Itaque in eadem ista Appia via, cum. • . .P. Clodius, M« 
Papirium occidisset." 

Detail the circumstances connected with the fate of M, Papirius. 

14. Explain the following passages : 

** Itaque illud Cassianum, cui bono fuerit, in his personis valeat; 


etsi bom nuUo enK^umento impelluntur in fraudem, inprobi asepe 

'^ Et aspexit me quidem ilHa ocuHs, quibus turn solebat, cikm om- 
nibus omnia minabatur ; roovet me quippe lumen curiae.'* 

" Diem mibi dixerat.** 

** Muham irrogarat." 

15. *^Hora fece undecima.'* How did tbe Romans reckon 
tbeir time ? Wbat hour would this be according to our method of 
computation, if we suppose the sun to have risen on this day at 
eight o'clock of our time 1 

16. ''Cur igitur eos manumisit." State the different ways by 
which men became slaves amongst the Romans, and also by which 
they gained their liberty. Were slaves allowed to give evidence in 
a court of justice? 

17. What was the power of the Consuls when they were origi- 
nally created ? When and by whom was it first diminished ? ** In 
quem aniniadvertere ipse (Pompeius) et more majorum et suo jure 
posset." Explain this passage. 

1 B. Translate the folk>wing passage : 

*' Nee ver6 non eadem ira deonrni banc ejus sateDitibus injecit amen- 
tiam, ut sine imaginibus, sine cantu, sine bidis, sine exsequiis, sine 
lamentis, sine laudationibus, sine funere, oblitus cruore et hito, spoUa- 
tus illius supremi diei celebritate, quam ooncedere etiam inimid solent, 
ambureretur abjectus ; non fuisse credo fii8» clarissimomm virorum 
formas illi teterrimo parricidse aliquid decoris a£ferre, neqne uHo in 
loco potiiis mortem ejus lacerari, qvAm in quo vita esset damnata.** 

Explain the customs observed at funerals amon